Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology Department 10th-12th March 2003 Parametric and nonparametric population PK and PD modelling. Aplications in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 12:00 Continous response modelling. Dra. A. Aldaz. Faculty 12:30 The behaviour of Efavirenz. Dr. NV Jimenez Torres. Azucena Aldaz Pastor , Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad 10 de Marzo d
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Alejandrolucia.com.arParasitol Res (2010) 106:409–414DOI 10.1007/s00436-009-1676-6 Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistantPediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Ariel C. Toloza & Alejandro Lucía & Eduardo Zerba &Hector Masuh & María Inés Picollo Received: 6 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published online: 10 November 2009 Abstract During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has beenbased in the application of products containing permethrin.
The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that development of high levels of resistance to one or more of causes pediculosis capitis. The infestation of the human hair these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from and scalp is an ancient medical problem whose main aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alter- symptoms are itching and social embarrassment (Burgess natives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy ). Recently, experimental evidence mentioned that biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the head lice can be able to act as vectors of Rickettsia chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus prowazekii and Bartonella quintana, the causative agents gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential of typhus and trench fever, respectively (Robinson et al.
oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant ; Sasaki et al. Transmission of head louse head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils occurs mainly by direct host-to-host contact and by were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp inanimate objects called fomites (Takano-Lee et al. globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with In addition, the occurrence of head lice follows a seasonal knockdown time 50% (KT50) values of 24.75, 27.73, and pattern (Bauer et al. The infestation with head lice is 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage widespread throughout the world (Falagas et al. ) and of 1,8-Cineole and KT50 values of the essential oils showed has been increasing since the beginning of the 1990s due to a significant correlation at a p<0.01. Since Eucalyptus the lack of effectiveness of pediculicides (Burgess essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and This lack of efficacy is mainly due to a variety of reason are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed such as the sale of ineffective products, the incorrect use of pediculicides and that lice develop resistance to insecticidessuch as DDT, lindane, malathion, carbaryl, permethrin, andδ-phenotrin in several countries (Hunter and Barker ;Burgess ; Mumcuoglu et al. ). In Argentina,pediculosis is a serious sanitary problem affecting more A. C. Toloza (*) A. Lucía E. Zerba H. Masuh M. I. Picollo than 30% of the school children (Toloza et al. Thus, the overuse of products containing permethrin has led to the development of high levels of resistance (Picollo et al.
Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, , Vassena et al. ; Mougabure Cueto et al.
Buenos Aires, Argentinae-mail: [email protected] ). Thus, there is a trend for the finding anddevelopment of new alternative insecticides, especially those containing plant-derivative active ingredients, Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, claimed as "natural" products. Essential oils (EOs) are a Universidad Nacional de General San Martín,Buenos Aires, Argentina mixture of monoterpenes and phenols which are obtained
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