Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98 (2005) 367–370Alkaloids from Boophane disticha with affinity to theMikkel Sandager , Nicolaj D. Nielsen , Gary I. Stafford ,a Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Botany and Zoology, University of KwaNatal Pietermaritzburg, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa b Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The Danish University of
Bardzo tanie apteki z dostawą w całej Polsce kupic levitra i ogromny wybór pigułek.
AspergillusIs it wrong if I use the word race?
Under freedom of speech, anybody is free to use any words. Even if they Antonis Rokas
do not correspond to scientifically identifiable entities, races are a component of our psychological What is Aspergil us? Aspergil us is a
asexual spore-forming structure to the aspergil um, an instrument for sprinkling holy water, although some modern Where can I find out more?
Two asexual fruiting bodies of the filamentous Ahn, S.M., Kim, T.H., Lee, S., Kim, D., Ghang, fungus Aspergillus oryzae after 3 days of H., Kim, D.S., Kim, B.C., Kim, S.Y., Kim, growth on potato dextrose agar stained with W.Y., Kim, C., et al. (2009). The first Korean Vybrant-DiO and Lysotracker Red dyes. The genome sequence and analysis: full genome round cells at the tips are the asexual spores sequencing for a socio-ethnic group. Genome Aspergil us species are morphological y of the fungus (courtesy of Jonas King and Barbujani, G., and Colonna, V. (2010). Human questions. Trends Genet. 26, 285–295.
Harpending, H., and Rogers, A. (2000). Genetic differentiation. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Hunley, K.L., Healy, M.E., and Long, J.C. (2009). How does Aspergil us reproduce?
The global pattern of gene identity variation It’s complicated! The Aspergil us life sexual spore-forming structure, in which reveals a history of long-range migrations, the two nuclei in each cel fuse to form a implications for biological race. Am. J. Phys. Jakobsson, M., Scholz, S.W., Scheet, P., Gibbs, J.R., VanLiere, J.M., Fung, H.C., Szpiech, most Aspergil us species lack a known Z.A., Degnan, J.H., Wang, K., Guerreiro, R., et al. (2008). Genotype, haplotype and copy-number variation in worldwide human populations. Nature 451, 998–1003.
Johansson, I., Yue, Q.Y., Dahl, M.L., Heim, M., genes in several additional ones, suggest Säwe, J., Bertilsson, L., Meyer, U.A., Sjöqvist, F. and Ingelman-Sundberg, M. (1991). Genetic analysis of the interethnic difference between Chinese and Caucasians in the polymorphic metabolism of debrisoquine and codeine. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 40, 553–556.
What have we discovered from
Jorde, L.B. (2008). Human genetic diversity. studying Aspergillus in the lab?
In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS). (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons). DOI: Research on Aspergil us has greatly 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005079.pub2.
Kaessmann, H., Wiebe, V., Weiss, G., and Pääbo, S. (2001). Great ape DNA sequences reveal same cel , continuing to divide mitotical y eukaryotic primary and secondary humans. Nat. Genet. 27, 155–156.
Krimsky, S. and Sloan, K., editors (2011). Race Livingstone, F. B. (1962). On the nonexistence of human races. Curr. Anthropol. 3, 279–281.
development. The birth of Aspergil us Mayr, E. (1947). Systematics and the Origin Aspergil us hyphae can enter the sexual of Species, 3rd edn. (New York: Columbia Pigliucci, M. and Kaplan, J. (2003). On the concept of biological race and its applicability two mating types, differ between species of the gene, whose experiments laid to humans. Philosophy Sci. 70, 1161–1172.
Tishkoff S.A. and Kidd, K.K. (2004). Implications that are obligate outcrossers (also known the foundation of the concept of the for ‘race’ and medicine. Nat. Genet. 36(11 opposite type) and species that also are capable of self-fertilization (homothal ic; value of Aspergil us concerns the Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Via Borsari 46, 44121 Ferrara, Italy. 2Philosophy Program, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, of Garrod’s classic “inborn errors of Current Biology Vol 23 No 5
genetic errors in tyrosine/phenylalanine Aspergil us’ ability to grow using any Hibernation
bil ions of dol ars in crop yield losses. In addition to A. flavus, several other Aspergil us species are opportunistic Aspergil us research, and in the last diversity of hosts. For example, A. decade, smal international meetings that fumigatus is the leading cause of are affectionately known as ‘Asperfests’, spores in individuals with compromised multiday torpor predominately Can you tel me something good about
Aspergil us? Because a great deal of
the food eaten by Aspergil us, and more opportunistic pathogens. A. fumigatus as we will see in this primer, it is used competitors. For example, Aspergil us caused by Aspergil us sydowi on sea niger is the near exclusive producer of citric acid, a preservative widely used in several different industries as wel as a flavor enhancer of a variety of foods and beverages. The ability of A. niger, as well As biotic (e.g., the emergence of as of certain other Aspergil us species, fungal infections) and abiotic (e.g., the nickname ‘cel factories’. Another diseases) factors continue to shape the be challenged by anthropogenic Aspergil us product is lovastatin, the cholesterol-reducing smal molecule that potential hosts, Aspergil us’ proclivity isolated from Aspergil us terreus. But the most iconic and tasty Aspergil us Where can I find out more?
products are courtesy of Aspergil us Gibbons, J.G., and Rokas, A. (2013). The function and evolution of the Aspergil us genome. Trends oryzae, Japan’s ‘national fungus’ — the capacity of this organism to turn starch- Latge, J.-P., and Steinbach, W.J. (2008). Aspergil us rich grains, like rice and soy beans, into fumigatus and Aspergil osis (ASM Press, Osmani, A., and Goldman, G.H. (2008). The Aspergil i: Genomics, Medical Aspects, Biotechnology, and Research Methods (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL).
Eastern drinks and sauces, like the rice Penalva, M.A. (2001). A fungal perspective on human inborn errors of metabolism: alkaptonuria and beyond. Fungal Genet. Biol. 34, 1–10.
Samson, R.A., and Varga, J. (2007). Aspergil us How about something bad?
Systematics in the Genomics Era. Stud. Mycol., Aspergil us’ penchant for making Scazzocchio, C. (2009). Aspergil us: a multifaceted genus. In Encyclopedia of Microbiology (3rd edition), M. Schaechter, (Boston, MA: Academic Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B# 35-1634, Nashvil e, A cool advantage
Abstracts of poster presentations at the DDT World Congress 1) Toxicogenomics in Flutamide-treated Rats and Chimeric PXB-mice with highly humanized liver Chimeric PXB-mouse with highly humanized liver is a unique animal model to mimic human-type drug metabolism. This animal model has the potential to explain the difference of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents and humans. Flutamid