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Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2013; Vol. 3: Issue 1, Pg 34-36 [AJPTech.]

ISSN- 2231–5705 (Print)
ISSN- 2231–5713 (Online)

Dyeing of silk with discarded tetracycline hydrochloride drug
Prashant Gangawane1, Dr. (Mrs.) Usha Sayed2
1Research Scholar, Department of Fibers and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology,
Nathalal Parekh Marg, Matunga, Mumbai-400019 Maharashtra (India).
2Associate Professor, Department of Fibers and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical
Technology, Nathalal Parekh Marg, Matunga, Mumbai-400019 Maharashtra (India).
*Corresponding Author E-mail:


Drugs lose their potency beyond their expiration date. Therefore their effectiveness and their ability to function is lost.
Expired Tetracycline (an antibiotic) was known to be responsible for kidney impairment. Hence the possibility of
using tetracycline hydrochloride other than for medication is a good research problem.
The present study reveals that Tetracycline hydrochloride drug can be use to dye Silk fabric by the exhaust process. The
performance properties are medium to good. Tetracycline Hydrochloride drug being a non-toxic in nature can be worn
next to skin. The End-use can be in various sectors in apparels, kid’s garments, technical textile, medical textile etc.
KEY WORDS: Tetracycline hydrochloride, Expired drugs, apparels, kid’s garments, technical textile, medical textile, silk


Most drugs lose potency and are nontoxic after the Material:
expiration date. Human toxicity related to taking expired Commercially available ready for dye (RFD) Silk fabric
drugs has only been linked to degraded tetracycline. There was used for the study.
have been rare reports of renal tubular dysfunction or
Fanconi-like syndrome associated with ingestion of Drug used:
outdated tetracycline.1-6 The majority of the cases were Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TCH) by Piramal Healthcare
reported in the 1960s. Degradation products of tetracycline Limited, Gujrat, (Batch No. 1558, Mfd. Jun 2010, Exp.-
(i.e., anhydrotetracycline and epi-anhydrotetracycline) May 2012)
accumulate within mitochondria of renal cells and interfere with oxidative phosphorylation and can potentially cause nausea, vomiting, lethargy, polydipsia, polyuria, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, proteinuria, acidosis, and hypokalemia.6 Therefore, our study was focused on the usage of expired drugs or unused drugs because of patient’s non-compliance that contain in their composition active substances with inhibitory properties. This method of unused medicines valorization can solve two major environmental and economical problems: limitation of Chemicals:
environmental pollution with pharmaceutically active Hydrochloric compounds and reduction of the disposal costs of expired (CH3COONH4), L Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, Sodium Chloride, Disodium hydrogen phosphate. All chemicals are supplied by S.D. Fine Chem. Ltd.and are of Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 3(1): Jan.-Mar. 2013; Page 34-36 Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2013; Vol. 3: Issue 1, Pg 34-36 [AJPTech.]
Dyeing of Silk
Drugs lose their potency beyond their expiration date, and 1% stock solution of Tetracycline Hydrochloride was therefore their effectiveness and their ability to dissolve can prepared for dyeing. Silk was dyed with Tetracycline be affected. For patients who rely on medications to stay hydrochloride keeping liquor ratio of 20:1, at 1000C for 60 alive, like heart medications, expired drugs can be min. Then rinsed and dried. dangerous because they may not be getting the full effectiveness of the drug. It depends on the medication. Colour Measurement.
Expired Tetracycline (an antibiotic) was known to be Dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of the colour by responsible for kidney impairment. determining K/S values using a Spectraflash SF 300, Computer Colour Matching System supplied by Data color In this work an approach which was an innovative method International, U.S.A. An average of four readings taken at was experimented where Tetracycline Hydrochloride were four different sample areas, was used to calculate the used to apply on the protein fiber namely Silk. reflectance values, and Kubelka Munk K/S function which is given by: The dyeing of Silk was carried out at 100oC for 60 min and the concentration was varied between 0.5% to 3% and the results are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, 2 and 3and 4. Where, "R" is the reflectance at complete opacity. "K" is the absorption coefficient. "S" is the scattering coefficient. Tone of the Colour is also measured on the same machine Tone of the Colour in terms of CIE L*a* and b* values. Washing Fastness was carried out by ISO 105-CO1. 0.5%TCH 1%TCH 2%TCH 3% TCH
Light Fastness was carried out by ISO 105-B02. Figure 1 : Shade Card of Dyeing of Silk with Tetracycline
Rubbing Fastness was carried out by ISO 105-X12. Hydrochloride at various Concentration
Perspiration Fastness was carried out by ISO 105 – E04.

Table 1 : Colorant strength calculation values of Silk substrate dyed with TCH dissolved in dilute Hydrochloric acid at varies
concentration .

TCH Conc.%
Colour Strength (%)

Table 2: Fastness properties of Silk substrate dyed with TCH drug dissolve in carious dilute Acids

Rubbing Fastness
Fastness to perspiration
Figure 2: Colour Strength (%) Vs Concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in %
Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2013; Vol. 3: Issue 1, Pg 34-36 [AJPTech.]
Figure 3 : K/S Vs Concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in %
The drug is yellow in color with the brown cast powder, again indicate the above mechanism. The successful dyeing
acidic in nature and freely soluble in dilute Hydrochloric of Silk by using a drug which has expired potency for
acids. It has been found that Silk fabric dyed with human consumption can be recycled to dye the Silk fabric
Tetracycline Hydrochloride and exhibits a wide gamut of instead of polluting the effluent and the whole process is
colour shade. Also shows uniformity and levelness. Table 1 environmental friendly and a very good alternative for the
indicates that the L value increases from 0.5% to 1% and use of the expired tetracycline hydrochloride drug.
fabric become slightly lighter but then after L value found
to be decreasing from 1% to 3% hence as the concentration CONCLUSION:
of Tetracycline Hydrochloride increases the darkness The above experimentation has exhibited the uniform level increases. The value of a*found to be decreasing as the dyeing of Silk possessing antimicrobial properties can be concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride increases achieved by using expired TCH as an acid dye for dyeing of from 0.5% to 1% therefore the fabric shade shows slightly Silk with a wide gamut of colours with increasing increase in greenness but then after the value of a increasing concentration. Such an innovative experimentation on and become maximum at 3%. Hence it can be observe from expired drug has been studied for the first time in the figure 1 that as the concentration increases the Redness Textile processing. characteristics increases from 1% to 3% . The fabric shows maximum redness at 3%. The value of b* increased from ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
0.5% to 1% and become maximum 1% which indicate that The authors are thankful to the Department of Fibers and yellowness increases and become maximum at 1% but then Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical after value of b* slightly decrease as increase in %shade Technology, Matunga, Mumbai for providing hence blueness characteristic increases in shade. At 3% infrastructural facilities and University Grant Commission shade Silk fabric become maximum Redder as compare to (UGC) for providing financial support for this research all other shades. From the table 1 it has been observed that work. the Colour Strength increases and maximum at 3%. The K/S values also increases with the increase in concentration.
Thus Tetracycline Hydrochloride drug can be used to dye REFERENCES:
Silk fabric by the exhaust process. TCH ionizes into 1.
Gross JM. Fanconi Syndrome (adult type)developing secondary to the ingestion of outdated tetracycline. Ann Intern Med chloride groups and hence can easily form ionic bonds with the cationic amino groups of Silk. And therefore as seen in 2. Frimpter GW, Timpanelli AE, Eisenmenger WJ, etal. Reversible table 1 and figure 1 with increase in concentration of “Fanconi Syndrome” caused by degraded tetracycline. JAMA tetracycline hydrochloride, the colour strength increases and K/S values was also increases. Since in the acidic pH the 3. Montoliu J, Carrera M, Darnell A, Revert L. Lactic acidosis and Fanconi’s syndrome due to degraded tetracycline. Br Med J (Clin protonation of Silk increases and hence the increase ionic concentration of the drug is able to capture more sites and 4. Fulop M, Drakin A. Potassium-depletion syndrome secondary to form bonds resulting in higher uptake. The mechanism is nephropathy apparently caused by “outdated tetracycline.” New very similar to that of an acid dye used for dyeing of Silk. The wash fastness , the light fastness, the rubbing fastness 5. Wegienka LC, Weller JM. Renal tubular acidosis caused by as well as the perspiration fastness as seen in table 2 are degraded tetracycline. Arch Intern Med 1964;114:232-5. Hemstreet BA. Antimicrobial-associated renal tubular acidosis. good , indicating ionic bond linkage which are faster to light, wash and perspiration with increase in % shade there is increase in fastness properties. The figure 1,2,3 and 4


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