Corpus based materials for teaching critical voice References
Alexander, O. Argent, S. and Spencer, J. 2008. EAP Essentials: A teacher’s guide to principles Benson, C., Gollin, J. and Trappes-Lomax H. 2007. Reporting Strategies in Academic Writing: From Corpus to Materials. In Alexander, O, (Ed.) New Approaches to Materials Development for Language Learning. Oxford: Peter Lang. Pages 223-238. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. and Finegan, E. 1999. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman. Bloch, J. 2003. Creating materials for teaching evaluation in academic writing: using letters to the editor in L2 Composition Courses. English for Specific Purposes, 22, pages 347 – 364. de Chazal, E. 2008 April 9. “So What?” Evaluation in academic writing: what, where, why, how? Paper presented at 2008 IATEFL Annual Conference, Exeter. Crompton, P. 1997. Hedging in Academic Writing: Some Theoretical Problems. English for Specific Purposes, 16/4, pages 271 – 287. Glendinning, E.H. and Holmstrom, B. (2004) Study reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Griffin, L.D. and Lillholm M. 2006. Hypotheses for Image Features, Icons and Textons. International Journal of Computer Vision, 70/3, pages: 213 - 230 Hyland, K. 2005. Stance and engagement: a model of interaction in academic discourse. Discourse Studies, 2/7, pages 173 – 192. Hyland, K. and Milton, J. 1997. Qualification and Certainty in Students’ Writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6/2, pages 183 – 205. Hyland, K. and Tse, P. 2004. Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal. Applied Linguistics, 25/2 pages 156 – 177. Hyland, K. and Tse, P. 2005. Hooking the reader: a corpus study of evaluative that in abstracts. English for Specific Purposes, 24, pages 123 – 139. Hyland, K. and Tse, P. 2007. Is There an “Academic Vocabulary”? TESOL Quarterly, 41/2, Lewin, B.A. 2005. Hedging: an exploratory study of authors’ and readers’ identification of ‘toning down’ in scientific texts. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4, pages 163 – 178.

HWUSE Heriot-Watt University Science and Engineering Corpus (1.6 million words from undergraduate and
postgraduate / conversion course distance learning materials)
BAWE Some of the data in this study come from the British Academic BAWE corpus Manual 17 Written English
(BAWE) corpus, which was developed at the Universities of Warwick, Reading and Oxford Brookes under the
directorship of Hilary Nesi and Sheena Gardner (formerly of the Centre for Applied Linguistics [previously called
CELTE], Warwick), Paul Thompson (Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading) and Paul Wickens (Westminster
Institute of Education, Oxford Brookes), with funding from the ESRC (RES-000- 23-0800).
Thanks to all the students who gave permission for their texts to be used in this presentation.
Corpus based materials for teaching critical voice Scaffolded exercises using HWUSE corpus
A. Try to decide whether the words in bold are maximisers or minimisers and write max. or min. in the
space. KEY: see brackets
1. A small increase of just 1 or 2 degrees Celsius for several days during the summer is enough to cause
bleaching. ____ (min.)
2. Antagonists for the H2 sites include ranitidine, marketed as Zantac, which has few side effects and
cures about 75% of gastric ulcers. ____ (min.)
3. Muscle tissue uses up much more energy than fat (adipose) tissue. ____ (max.)
4. The one material which is significantly better (CFRP) also happens to the most expensive and difficult
to fabricate. ____ (max.)
5. This is an extremely small force, one which is not going to be noticeable in everyday life. ____
6. Low-intensity radiation beams will cause little damage to the tissue they pass through. (min.)
7. You should try these programs and fiddle about with them so that you really do understand them.
____ (max.)
8. The key ingredient in a truly general purpose computer is the ability to change the course of a series of
calculations depending on the data being processed. ____ (max.)
B. Use a maximiser or minimiser from the box as appropriate to complete each gap in these statements.
very, only, completely, truly, only, fully KEY: In the corpus these were used in order from L to R 1. Specialisation allows ______ complicated work to be broken down into simpler tasks with different people concentrating on different aspects of the work. 2. Notice that whereas hydrogen has ______ a single covalent bond (called a bonding pair), oxygen has a 3. If people perceived losses and gains in a ______ rational way, the line would be straight and at 45 4. Monochromats are______colour blind due to having ______ one type of receptor. 5. Students should ensure they work through the steps involved in the activity and understand the method ______. C i) add a maximiser KEY (as corpus): very, significantly, completely, fully, highly3 1. Cash can be a convenient way of making payments. 2. Without an expansion in nuclear energy production, it is difficult to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 3. A scientist’s claim to have achieved cold fusion in his laboratory was said to be false. 4. It would be dangerous to build a new generation of nuclear power plants without analysing the risks 5. In all living things, cell structure is complex, organised and efficient. C ii) add a minimiser (warning: you have to think more carefully about these because they may not be logical without their minimisers) KEY: little, only, few 6. When Mendel’s famous experiments in genetics first became known, scientists ignored his work because they knew about the mechanisms underlying inheritance 7. It has become clear that aspirin is of benefit not as an analgesic and antipyretic but also in the reduction 8. Excellent organisations have very layers of management between customer and chief executive. Corpus based materials for teaching critical voice


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