© 2009 American Psychological AssociationHow Self-Affirmation Reduces Defensive Processing of ThreateningHealth Information: Evidence at the Implicit Level Objective: Self-affirmation reduces defensive responses to threatening health information, but little is known about the cognitive processes instigated by self-affirmation. This study tested whether self- affirmation increases responsive
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Bifantis.comIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder characterized by recurring symptoms treatment is aimed at controlling symptoms. of abdominal pain or discomfort and associated Unfortunately, even symptomatic treatment is with disturbed defecation. It affects as many as hindered by a dearth of truly effective therapies. one in ﬁve American adults and is among the most The serotonergic medications tegaserod (Zelnorm®) common syndromes seen by gastroenterologists and alosetron (Lotronex®)—both of which had and primary care providers. IBS occurs more been shown to improve patients’ overall quality frequently in women than in men; it is diagnosed of life and moderate many of the motor and before the age of 35 years in about half of patients.
sensory abnormalities associated with IBS—were withdrawn from the U.S. market following reports of serious adverse effects. (Alosetron currently is available through a restricted prescribing program only for the treatment of women with severe IBS with diarrhea; tegaserod is available for recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort (an uncomfortable use in emergency situations only.) Lubiprostone sensation not described as pain) at least 3 days per month (Amitiza®), a locally acting chloride channel in the past 3 months, associated with two or more of the activator, was approved in April 2008 for the treatment of IBS with constipation in women aged 18 years and older. It is not approved for use in men n onset associated with a change in frequency of or for the treatment of other IBS subtypes.
n onset associated with a change in form (appearance) probiotics as a promising therapeutic strategy for IBS. Researchers have reported signiﬁcant alterations in the intestinal microbiota of patients the criteria must be fulﬁlled for the last 3 months with with IBS, including a relative decrease in the symptom onset at least 6 months before diagnosis.
number of biﬁdobacteria. Probiotics have the potential to inﬂuence many of the mechanisms Source: Reprinted from Longstreth et al. (see references) with permission from Elsevier. that may underlie the symptoms of IBS, including immune function, intestinal motility, and the IBS is referred to as a “functional disorder,” intraluminal milieu. A growing number of studies meaning that it has no known or detectable show probiotics to be a safe, convenient option for organic causes. The diagnosis is made on the basis improving a wide variety of IBS symptoms.
of symptom-based criteria known as the “Rome criteria” (Table). IBS may be further categorized into one of three subtypes, according to the n IBS with diarrhea (more common in men).
n IBS with alternating symptoms of constipation Pharmacists can ask the following questions Each group accounts for approximately one third of Do you have recurrent abdominal pain emotional distress. In addition to constipation, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, IBS symptoms may include cramping, bloating, fecal urgency, ﬂatulence, a sense of incomplete evacuation, and straining. The symptoms can be unpredictable and disabling; some patients are unable to work, consult with a health care provider.
attend social events, or even travel short distances. Patients report a diminished quality of life similar to that reported by patients with diabetes or chronic Source: Adapted with permission from the American College renal failure. As many as 70% of patients with IBS do not seek or do not receive medical care for their symptoms (see Is IT IrrITable bowel syndrome?).
BifidoBacterium infantis 35624 (BiFaNtiS®) Species of Biﬁdobacterium account for tion about their symptoms and stool char- to those observed in healthy volunteers) acteristics each day. Blood samples were only in patients who received B. infantis trointestinal tract of breastfed infants. obtained at the beginning and end of the The high proportion of biﬁdobacteria may study for measurement of cytokine levels.
be responsible for, or at least contribute to, the health beneﬁts associated with tients who received B. infantis 35624 had colleagues investigated the efﬁcacy of an breastfeeding. Although the percentage of signiﬁcantly lower scores most weeks for encapsulated formulation of B. infantis biﬁdobacteria declines with age, they still account for up to 25% of the bacteria in of three daily doses of B. infantis 35624 B. infantis 35624 is a probiotic strain (1 x 106, 1 x 108, or 1 x 1010 CFU/mL) or tients who received L. salivarius UCC4331 their symptoms daily using an interactive reconstructive surgery. (Until that time, parison between the groups receiving B. —was associated with a signiﬁcant im- primarily from feces, rather than from the infantis 35624 and L. salivarius UCC4331 patients receiving B. infantis 35624. ated with signiﬁcant improvements in the conﬁrmed the ability of B. infantis 35624 tion, passage of gas, straining, and bowel the beneﬁts of B. infantis 35624 treatment could not be attributed to either a laxa- tive effect or an antidiarrheal effect.
was signiﬁcant among patients with the leagues administered B. infantis 35624 or Lactobacillus salivarius UCC4331 in a malted (IL)-10 and high levels of IL-12, compared alone as a placebo—to 75 adults with IBS. with those of a group of age-matched and to a global assessment of relief from both Both bacteria were administered at a dose of 1 x 1010 live cells. The study subjects inﬂammatory state. Cytokine levels were more than 20% greater for B. infantis 35624 normalized (i.e., returned to levels similar American College of Gastroenterology. Understanding Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Kassinen A, Krogius-Kurikka L, Mäkivuokko H, et al. The fecal microbiota A Consumer Education Brochure. Available at: http://www.gi.org/patients/ of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs signiﬁcantly from that of ibsrelief/IBS.pdf. Accessed September 9, 2008.
healthy subjects. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:24–33.
Camilleri M. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome: rationale, puta- Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, et al. Functional bowel tive mechanisms, and evidence of clinical efﬁcacy. J Clin Gastroenterol. disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1480–91.
Madden JA, Hunter JO. A review of the role of the gut microﬂora Collins MD, Gibson GR. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches in irritable bowel syndrome and the effects of probiotics. Br J Nutr. for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Am J Clin Nutr. Malinen E, Rinttila T, Kajander K, et al. Analysis of the fecal microbiota Drossman DA, Camilleri M, Mayer EA, et al. AGA technical review on of irritable bowel patients and healthy controls with real-time PCR. Am J irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:2108–31.
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irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2650–61.
Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Amitiza for IBS-C [press National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Irritable bowel release]. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration; April 29, 2008. syndrome. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/ Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2008/NEW01828.
O’Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and Biﬁdobacterium in Food and Drug Administration Web site. Lotronex (alosetron hydro- irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine chloride) information. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/ proﬁles. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:541–51.
infopage/lotronex/lotronex.htm. Accessed September 12, 2008.
Parkes GC, Brostoff J, Whelan K, et al. Gastrointestinal microbiota in Food and Drug Administration Web site. Zelnorm (tegaserod maleate) irritable bowel syndrome: their role in its pathogenesis and treatment. information. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/ Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1557–67.
zelnorm/default.htm. Accessed September 12, 2008.
Quigley EM. Probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: an immunomodula- Gralnek IM, Hays RD, Kilbourne A, et al. The impact of irritable bowel tory strategy? J Am Coll Nutr. 2007; 26:684S–690S.
syndrome on health-related quality of life. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:654–60.
Whorwell PJ, Altringer L, Morel J, et al. Efﬁcacy of an encapsulated probi- Hammerle CW, Surawicz CM. Updates on treatment of irritable bowel otic Biﬁdobacterium infantis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2639–49.
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Huffnagle GB. The Probiotics Revolution. New York, NY: Bantam Zuccotti GV, Meneghin F, Raimondi C, et al. Probiotics in clinical practice: an overview. J Int Med Res. 2008;36(suppl 1):1A–53A.
PRESS RELEASE Wanbury enters Urinary infection antibiotic market with NDDS Nitrofur SR October 13, Mumbai: Wanbury Ltd, one of the fastest growing pharma companies in the domestic market, has launched its New Drug Delivery System (NDDS) product Nitrofur SR (Nitrofurantoin-100mg, sustained release) targeted at Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), for the first time in India. The m