Section on Statistical Education – JSM 2009By Stephen T. Ziliak and Deirdre N. McCloskeyRoosevelt University and University of Illinois-Chicago Abstract: We want to persuade you of one claim: that William Sealy Gosset (1876-1937)—aka "Student" of "Student's" t-test—was right, and that his difficult friend, Ronald A. Fisher (1890-1962), though a genius, was wrong. Fit is no
Bardzo tanie apteki z dostawą w całej Polsce kupic levitra i ogromny wybór pigułek.
Microsoft word - biotechnology2012.docxUNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN
B.Sc. Biotechnology (Hons) Syllabus
Each Part : 600 (Theory) + 200 (Practical) (NEW SYLLABUS)
Out of 100 marks in each paper, 20 marks are reserved for internal
assessment in theory papers (for PART-I).
Part I (Each paper carries 80 marks)
101 Chemistry-I (Chemistry of Biomolecules)
104 Cell Biology
106 Communicative English
107 Chemistry-II (Practical Biochemistry)
108 Practical Microbiology
Out of 100 marks in each paper, 10 marks are reserved for internal
Part II (Each paper carries 90 marks)
201 Physical & Organic Chemistry 202 Molecular Biology 203 Recombinant DNA Technology 204 Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering 205 Industrial Microbiology 206 Cell & Tissue Culture 207 Practical Molecular Biology 208 Practical Plant Tissue Culture
Part III (Each paper carries 90 marks)
301 Plant Biotechnology 302 Animal Biotechnology 303 Environmental Biotechnology 304 Immunology 305 Fundamentals of Biostatistics Bioinformatics. 306 Group-A Industrial Chemistry Group-B. Industrial Management 307 Practical Environmental Biotechnology 308 Dissertation. BIOTECHNOLOGY
PART-I (1st YEAR)
BT- 101 Chemistry-I (CHEMISTRY OF BIOMOLECULES)
1.Carbohydrates: Definition;structure of carbohydrates- monosaccharides,
aldohexoses, and ketohexoses;Howarth structure Anomeric structures of D- glucoses, mutarotation, pyranose and furanose rings; examples of different types of monosccharidees. Oligo- and polysaccharides- reducing (maltose) and non-reducing (sucrose) disaccharides; Glycoproteins, proteoglycans. 2. Amino acids, peptides and proteins; Structures and important properties, Classification of amino acids; important physical and chemical properties of amino acids (optical isomerism, UV-absorption region, ionization; reactions due to amino group and carboxyl group). Primary structure of peptides and proteins-peptide bond formation, hydrolysis of peptides and proteins primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures. Classification of proteins (based on solubility and composition).C and N terminal amino acid determination. 3. Lipids: Definition, distinction between fats and oils; structure of lipids
(fatty acids, glycerolipids, sphingolipids)
4. Nucleic acids: Structure of nucleic acids; nucleosides, nucleotides,
primary structure, A, B and Z form of DNA. A preliminary idea of secondary
structures of RNA and DNA melting point and denaturation of DNA. 6L
5. Enzymes: Definition of enzymes, important terms (enzyme unit, specific
activity). Classification of enzymes; physioco-chemical properties, factors
affecting activity; mechanism of enzyme action, coenzymes and cofactors.
6. Synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates: Trapping of solar energy
into chemical energy (PS-I & PS-II) in green plants, utilization of this energy
to synthesize carbohydrate (Calvin cycle, CO2 enrichment for the efficient
operation of the cycle in C-4 and CAM plants); photorespiration (C-2 cycle), outline of Glycolysis, TCA cycle and Pentose phosphate pathway,
gluconeogenesis; oxidative phosphorylation. 8L
7. Plant and animal hormones: Structures, function and mode of action of
IAA, GA3, Zeatin, ethylene and abscisic acid. General understanding of animal hormones, structure and function of insulin and androgen. 8L
8. Biochemical techniques: A preliminary idea about principle and use of
chromatography (paper, thin layer, HPCL), colorimetry and
spectrophotometry, ultracentrifugation. 4L 9. Tutorial classes. BT-102 Zoology-I(GENETICS)
Mendelian inheritance: Physical basis of inheritance, gene
interaction, multiple alleles, complementation, linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping, Sex linked inheritance(w.r.t human, Drosophila) and cytoplasmic inheritance. 15L Genetic changes: Mutation, Ame’s test, structural changes in
chromosomes (deletion, duplication, inversion & translocation)
numerical changes in chromosomes (euploidy and aneuploidy) 15L
Bacterial and viral genetic systems: Genomes of E. Coli, HIV.
Concept of natural plasmids. Transformation, conjugation and transduction. 15L Human genetics: Molecular basis of genetic diseases (Huntington’s
disease, Thalassemia Haemophilia) and genetic counseling. Chromosomal abnormalities: Down’s syndrome, cat’s-cry Syndrome,
Philadelphia chromosome, Turner and Klinefelter syndrome. 12L
Population genetics: Hardy Weinberg Law. Factors affecting genetic
1. Microbial world: Discovery and developments in microbiology,
Discovery of the role of microbes in the pathogenesis and transformation of organic matter. Microbial cell ultrastructure, Whittaker system, 3- kingdom classification, Carl Woese theory. 10L 2. Microbial growth, basic metabolism and nutrition- an overview. ED
3. Microbial metabolic diversity: Photosynthesis in microbes,
chemolithotropy, nitrate and sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and acetogenesis. 4. Soil microorganism and nutrient cycling: carbon, nitrogen and sulfur
5. Plant microbe interactions: Mycorrhizac, cyanobacterial and nitrogen
fixing bacteria (including nitrogen fixation).
6. Microbial infections and disease: Water-borne
diseases(Cholera,Giardiasis), microbial food poisoning(Botulism, Staphylococcus) and food-borne infections: RTI (Mycobacterial tuberculosis), gastrointestinal infection (GI I) – hepatitis, STDI (AIDS), CNSI
7. Chemotherapy and antibiotics: History of antibiotic discovery
(chemicals inhibiting/ affecting) bacterial cell wall synthesis / function. Antibacterial agents(Penicillin, Methicillin, Streptomycin) antifungal agents(Griseofulvin,Amphotericin B,Nystatin) and antiviral agents(AZT,Acyclovir,Interferon) and their modes of action. BT-104 CELL BIOLOGY
1. Cellular basis of life: Cell doctrine, cells in general, diversity of cell size
and shape, cell theory; structure of eukaryotes and prokaryotic cells (including
2. Cellular information: The nucleus (ultra-structure), the organization of
chromosomes (euchromatin and heterochromatin), nucleosome concept and chromosome packaging. 10L
3. The cell surface: Plasma membrane, membrane fluidity, movement
across plasma membrane, Modification of plasma membrane (Plasmodesmata and desmosome), extra membrane component of cells. Plants and baterial cell walls, an outline of extracellular substances of animal cells. 12L
4. Energy transduction: Mitochondria and chlorplast, structure and
5. Endo-membrane system: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,
lysosomal system, plant cell vacuoles, microbodies structure and function. 8L
6. The cytoskeleton: Microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate
7. Cell reproduction: An outline of cell cycle, mitosis and metosis. 8L
8. Microscopic techniques in cell biology light, transmission and Scanning
9. Tutorial for each topic. 15L
1. Differential Calculus: Functions, Limit, Continuity (Graphical Method).
Differentiation: second order (Algebraic, Logarithm, Exponential functions), Successive differentiation, Expansion of function optimum, Partial differentiation, Application of Euler’s theorem, L’Hospital Theorem. 2. Integral Calculus: Definite & Indefinite integral (algebraic, Logarithm and Exponential functions) Area, Differential equation(First order exact differential equation and second order linear, homogenous equation with constant 3. Statistics and Probability: Primary and secondary data, Frequency distribution, Diagrammatic representation, Population and sample, Law of statistical regularity, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard deviation and their simple problems. Methods of sampling, Basic concepts of probability, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Chi-square distribution, student’s distribution. Test of Significance, Baye’s theorem. BT-106 COMMUNICATIVE
Objective [To develop the learners’ language skills in English Listening, Speaking, reading and writing (LSRW) and to develop the learners’ specific skills for communication in the field of Science, Technology and Computer Application.] 1. Communication and communicative activities the notions of encoder and decoder and the message and the medium. 10L 2. Concise grammatical structures and key vocabulary for general as well as specific purpose accuracy and appropriateness in the use of English. 3. English speech sounds and sound combinations. 5L 5. Topic of discourse, mode of discourse and style of discourse with special reference to scientific discourse. 6. Writing notes, reports, proceedings etc. Practicum on all language activities and communicative tasks-group discussion seminar. PRACTICAL (BIOCHEMISTRY)
Qualitative tests for sugars, amino acids, proteins & lipids; Separation of amino acids by PC/TLC. Quantitative estimation of sugars (DNS method, Anthrone reagent) and proteins (Folin-phenol and Bradford reagent),
Isolation and quantification of DNA (Diphenylamine method); RNA (orcinol).
Analysis of oils-iodine number, saponification value & acid number.
Assay of enzymes from plant & animal sources (protease and catalase).
Sterilization; media preparation; isolation, culture and maintenance of microorganisms including storage methods; isolation of pure cultures from soil and water, microbial growth curves, effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources on growth. Microscopic examination of bacteria (curd, nodules) and yeast, Gram staining(E.coli, B.subtilis) and staining methods for spores, Antibiotic assay, Agar cup and tube dilution method. Fungal staining (Penicillin,Aspergillus sp.) BIOTECHNOLOGY
PART-II (2ND YEAR)
PHYSICAL AND ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
1. First and second law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics principle’s in biology. Concept of internal energy, entropy, enthalpy, chemical potential, gradient of chemical potential as driving force in transport; equilibrium and transport across membranes, diffusion, osmosis, osmotic pressure Donnan equilibrium, Diffusion potential, membrane potential. 2. Spectroscopy: Idea of electromagnetic radiation orbital theory. Concept of orbital. Passage of Electromagnetic radiation through a matter. Beer’s law and it’s importance. Application of UV and IR radiation. Fundamentals of NMR, infrared spectrophotometer, Magnetic resonance applied to the study of biological system, Idea of Technology, Holography. 3. Radioactivity: Alpha, beta, gamma radiation, Law of radioactive decay, unit of radioactivity. Idea of artificial radioactivity and application of radioactivity. 4. Electrochemistry: Electrolytic dissociation and conduction. Ionic equilibrium, pH, indicator, acid base neutralization curve, buffer action Bronsted acid; Henderson-Haselbatch equation. Preparation of buffer, buffer capacity, solubility product-principle and application; electromotive force. 5. Properties of molecules: Structure of the atom, Electronic theory of valency, Dipole moments. Electron displacements in a molecule; Hydrogen bonds, Atomic and molecular orbital, Shapes of molecules. General nature of organic reactions. Transition state theory reactions, Reaction kinetics, Preliminary ideas about zero, 1st and 2nd order reactions with examples. Thermodynamic properties acids-and bases, the different energy parameters of biochemical reactions eg. AG, All values should be emphasized. 6. Alkenes Structural formulac, Nomenclature. Homologis series. Alkene, Conformational analysis. Alkenes and alkynes, orbital picture Geometrical isomerism, E-Z nomenclature. 7. Monohydric, polyhydric alcohols, unstructured alcohols ether, 8. Optical isomerism. Symmetry elements, Fischer and Newman 9. Ahphatic compounds of sulphur, phosphorus, silicon and boton, 10. Nomenclature of aromatic compound, aromaticity orbital picture.
BT-202 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1. DNA- the master molecule of life.
DNA as genetic material. Replication: an overview in prokaryotes [enzymes, semi conservative mature, bi-directional]. Comparison with eukaryotic replication. Replication errors Telomerase truncation and 2. Types of Recombination: Homologous recombination and site specific recombination transposition, recombination in germinal cells Damage and repair UV induced lestony formation of thymine dimmer and repair by Enzymatic Photo reactivation and Exercise repair mismatch repair & SOS. 3. Transcription and gene regulation: Prokaryotic: structural genes, controlling sites, opetons. The lac operon. Enkaryotes the three RNA polymerases controlling transcription nitration clongation and termination. 4. RNA processing: spacer DNA, introns, exons. Primary transcript to the formation of marase mRNA. Exon-shuffling. 5. Genetic code: the nature and the feature of genetic code; RNA classes 6. Protein synthesis: aspects and mechanism of translation, codon- anticodon interaction polypeptide chain initiation, clongation and termination; prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic system. 7. Cellular communication; basic concepts of cell signaling. Preliminary ideas about second messengers, G protein, Calcium ion, IP3 & 8. Molecular biology of cancer; Benign vs malignant tumors: invasion and metastasts of tumor angiogenenesis. Multistep-multigene process, example of colorectal carcinoma, involvement of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, p53 –the guardian of the genome. RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
1. Various tools and methodologies; Hybridization, Southern & Northern. West blotting, autoradiography; PCR; fundamentals of the molecular manipulation of DNA; Molecular cloning of DNA: Enzymes involved; Vectors; Plasmids (pBR322, pUC vectors,) Bacteriophages; (M13, λ) Cosmids and YAC; Expression vectors; shuttle vector; Colony & plaque hybridization, site directed mutagenesis. 2. DNA libraries: Construction of cDNA and genomic DNA libraries. 3. Practical Applications of Recombinant DNA technology: a) Engineering of bacteria genetically engineered biopharmaceuticals b) Ti plasmid in plant biotechnology c) Vaccine production (e.g., Hepatitis B) d) Cloning disease genes (e.g., DMD gene) Transgenic plants (viz., herbicide resistance, insect resistance & virus resistance, protein production) Transgenic animals: Fish, mouse and sheep with Factor VIII for haemophilia A) Animals as bioreactors: Production of pharmaceutically important protein in milk. 5. Basic concepts: molecular probs, RFLP, VNTR, SINE, LINI. 6. Molecular detection of disease: AIDS, sickle cell anaemia, cystic 7. An overview of expanding areas: Gene therapy (SCID, cystic fibrosis), antisense nucleus acids, genetically modified food. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
1. Introduction: What is biochemical engineering, gene products and their processing, modification and application: utilization of gene products in basic and applied metabolism. 2. Enzyme engineering: Isolation and purification of enzymes; immobilization of enzymes: enzyme engineering; synzymes; Uses of enzymes in food & beverage, textile, paper, leather industries. 3. Metabolic engineering: Cloning and expression of heterologous genes for a variety of purpose redirecting metabolic flow; overproduction of metabolities; limitations of metabolic engineering. 4. Production engineering: Biochemicals from cultured plant cells and microbes; improvement of biochemical production; biotransformation; production of hirudin (a polypeptide), phytasers enzyme), polyhydroxybutyrate (a biodegradable plastic) and cytodextrins from statch, edili vaccines, production of single cell protein (SCP); Commercial production of biotuers biopesticids, biofertilisers, biomineralization & phytomining. 5. Bioreactors: Fermenter: solid state fermentation; acrobic and anaerobe fermentation, immobilized cell bioreactors; enzyme reactors; biosensors. INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY
1. Importance of industrial microbiology, Historical background, perspective and prospects of industrial microbiology. 2. Industrial Fermentor & its operation, sterilization, Pastcurization and mixing, acration: Methods of determining acration capacity, bubble hold-up in an acrated mixing vessel, turbine impeller hydrodynamics, and flow pattern in a mixing vessel during acration. Control of temperature, surfactants. Pilot plant fermentor. 3. Substrates of microbial processes, different sources of carbon, 4. Kinetics of microbial processes, growth and multiplication of microorganisms, batch culture, continuous culture, steady state and non-steady state. 5. Isolation of microbial products: mechanical separation & downstream 6. Industrial production: Organic acids (acetic & citric acids), amino acids (glycine, phenylalnme, glutamine), antibiotics (Penicillin & streptomycin), Beverages from molasses & malt. 7. Production of fermented foods- cheese, Yoghurt, Sauerkaut. CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE
1. Introduction and history of plant and animal tissue culture. 2. Outline of the methods of tissue culture; Preparation of culture media, preparation of different explants suitable for specific organogenesis; cell, protoplast, haploid culture and their objective. 3. Micropropagation: Selection of suitable of explants (in vitro & ex vitro), standardization of techniques hardending methods and transfer to field. 4. Somatic embryogenesis and production of synthetic seeds, 5. Somaclonal variation & gametoclonal variation. 6. Tissue culture and its economic prospects 7. Cryopreservation and its implications in conservation of genetic 8. Out lines of animal cell culture, permanent cell line; invitro 9. Transfection of gene targeting & replacement, stem cells and its 10. Transgenesis methods, for the production of transgenic animals. BT-207 PRACTICAL
1. Preparation of chromosomes from : grasshopper (Meiotic). Rhoced (melotic), and Drosophilla/Chironomus (polytene to demonstrate many strandness of chromosome) 2. Staining of Barr body from: buccal-epithelium and Drumstick from 3. Observation of blood cells, TC/DC & determination of blood groups. 4. Study of chromosomal aberrations induced by BHC & pesticide 5. Artificial induction of poly/aneuploidy in onion root by exposure to 6. Gel electrophoresis for DNA and proteins and visualization by staining 7. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from bacteria & plant tissue. 8. Bacterial transformation by plasmid DNA. PRACTICAL (PLANT TISSUE CULTURE)
1. Preparation of different culture media. 2. Callus culture: media preparation, sub-culturing techniques, growth 3. Study of somatic embryogenesis and preparation of synthetic seeds. 4. Organ culture: shoot tip, nodal segment and leaf; study of percentage and differentiation with hormonal manipulation. 5. Standardization of Micropropagation techniques: shoot regeneration, root regeneration, hardening and transfer to pots (any two test materials). 6. Suspensior culture and preparation of growth curve. 7. Protoplast culture. 8. Study of differentiation in cultures: Histological detection of xylem, 9. Identification of variable & non-viable plant tissue employing TTC test. B.SC BIOTECHNOLOGY
PART-III (3RD YEAR)
1. Introduction to plant breeding: Incompatibility pure line selection, mass selection, back cross breeding, heterosis, inbreeding depression, male sterility, preliminary idea about breeder’s, foundation and certified seeds, hybrid seed production. CMS lines, restorer line. 2. Crop improvement through embryo rescue technique: embryo and 3. Plant cells as production facility: Role of differentiated cultures in secondary metabolic production through suspension culture and hairy root culture. Commercial production of shikonine. 4. Genetic engineering of plant – gene transfer systems, PEG mediated DNA uptake, gene-gun or Biolistic method. Agrobacterium mediated transformation, electroporation of protoplasts, selection of transformants, vectors used in plant transformation, promoters, terminators, and selectable markers in plant transformation, antibiotic and herbicide resistance markers, luciferase and GUS genes as reporters. 5. Introduction of agronomically important genes in plants: Examples of genetically transformed plants which are commercialized. Eco-friendly pesticides and herbicide resistant genes in plants expressed in crop 6. Biofertilizers as alternatives to chemicals fertilizers: Production and application of nitrogen fixing, free living and nodulating bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, non-symbiotic blue green algae. Symbiotic Azolla Anabena system VAM, organic manure: vermicompost, FYM. BT-302 ANIMAL
1. Basic Techniques involved in Biotechnology: Gel Electrophoresis: pulse field, 2D gel. Polymerse Chain Reaction: Types and modification. DNA Sequencing Methods: Sanger, Maxam-Gilbert. Autosequencing. Reporter genes: TK and HGPRT genes, antibiotic resistance genes. 3. Transferring genes into animal oocytes, zygotes, embryos and specific animal tissues with reference to Xenopus, Drosophila and mice. Transgenic animal, Stem cell research. 4. Animal tissue culture techniques. Primary cell line and permanent cell 5. Animal Cloning, Animal pharming, Gene therapy. 6. In vitro fertilization, Sperm bank, Ovum bank, Cryopreservation in 7. Application of Biotechnology for human welfare: Production of hormones, vaccines, DNA fingerprinting. Basic information about human and other genome sequencing. BT-303 ENVIRONMENTAL
1. Introduction to environment Preliminary idea about ecology, ecosystem, ecological balance and the role of biosphere in maintaining ecological balance. Global environmental problems – a brief introduction. Introduction to environmental biotechnology. 2. Environmental pollution – waste and pollutants: sources of wastes and pollutants, manufacturing, industrial, energy production, agriculture and dairy, transport, house-building and domestic activities. 3. Hazards from wastes and pollutants: biological agents present in waste: hazards from chemicals in wastes: hazards from physical pollutants: hazards from biomedical wastes: hazards from xenobiotic compounds. 4. Pollution Control – waste treatments (liquid and solid); reducing environmental pollution of industrial wastes and effluents: removal of spilled oil and grease deposits; reducing environmental pollution of chemical herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers; environmental monitoring and biomonitoring: biosensors to detect environmental pollutants; biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds. 5. Environment and energy – renewable sources of energy (waste materials, biogas, energy crops, cellulose): energy and fuel using microoraganisms (hydrogen production using hydrogenase and nitrogenase enzymes: hydrocarbon production): conservation of energy. 6. Restoration of degraded lands- reclamation of toxic sites; reforestation through micropropatation; plants used for reforestation of adverse sites; development of environmental stress tolerant plants and crops; use of microrrhizae in reforestation; use of microbes for improving soil fertility; bioremediation – reclamation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and reforestation. 7. Concept of biodiversity and its conservation – present status and types of biodiversity; extinct and endangered species; red data book, steps to preserve biodiversity: concept of in situ and ex situ conservation of species; concept of gene or germplasm banks in conservation of endangered species. 8. Water quality – water quality parameters; index of water quality; determination of physical (inorganic) parameters; determination of organic compounds; eater treatments for improving quality. IMMUNOLOGY
Cellular and soluble mediators of immunity. 2. Antibodies, Immunoglobulins: Basic structure and classes. 3. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC): Organization of MHC class I and class II genes, HLA Complex in human, Structure of MHC-I and MHC-II molecules; Cellular distribution and Regulation of MHC expression. 4. Complement system: Nomenclature, activation pathways and 5. Immunoglobulin genes: Chromosomal organization; Rearrangement of Ig genes and generation of germline antibody diversity; non-germline diversity, Class switching (elementary idea). 6. T cell antigen receptor (TCR): Structure and generation of diversity. 7. Lymphocyte maturation: General features; Maturation of B and T 8. Immune Responses: T cell activation, differentiation and effector mechanism; B cell and humoral response – B cell activation, differentiation. 9. Antigen – Antibody interactions: Molecular basis of antigen – anti body reaction; Anti body affinity and activity. Principal methods used to measure antigens and antibodies – precipitation, agglutination, Radio immunoassays (RIAs): Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Western blotting. 10. Immunization: Passive and active immunizations – vaccines. 11. Hybridoma Technology: Steps in hybridoma production Application 12. Bioengineered antibodies: Chimaeric antibodies; reshaped BT-305 FUNDAMENTAL OF BIOSTATISTICS AND BIOINFORMATICS
1. Statistical Data: A brief description and tabulation of biological data
2. Condensation of Data: Measures of central tendency and dispersion: mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation. Variance, quartile deviation. 3. Bivariate Data: Concept of dependence, method of least squares, 4. Qualitative Data: Categorical data, association of attributes, rank 5. Multivariate Data: Multiple regressions, partial and multiple 6. Elementary Probability: Sum and product law, conditional probability and Bayes’ theorem, application of Bayes’ theorem in biological problems. 7. Standard probability Models: Binomial, Poisson and Gaussian. 8. Population and sample: Sampling methods, standard error. 9. Elements of Statistical Inference: Types of error, standard parametric tests (z,t,chi-squre, F), tests for goodness of fit, analysis of variance. 10. Bioinformatics: It’s definition and it’s application in the different 11. Sequence alignment: Pairwise sequence alignment; Gap penalty and it’s importance in sequence alignment. 12. Different methods of pairwise sequence alignment: Dot Matrix, Dynamic programming Algorithm & k-tuple method; Definition and significance of multiple sequence alignment. 13. Definition of Position Specific Scoring Matrix, PSI-BLAST. 14. Phylogenetic analysis: Definition of the parts of phylogenetic tree; parsimony analysis: Definition of informative and uninformative sites, Principle and method of parsimony analysis. BT-306 INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
Group – A (Industrial Chemistry)
1. Chemical Process Industries: Manufacture of Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid, common Salt, Soda ash, Hydrochloric acid, Caustic soda, Chlorine. 2. Synthetic Nitrogen Products: Fixation of atmospheric Nitrogen, Direct synthesis of ammonia, Cyanamide, Nitric acid from ammonia. 3. Phosphates, Phosphoric acid, Super phosphate of lime. 4. Fertilizers, mixed fertilizers, synthetic urea. 5. Water for Municipalities, and for Industrial purposes, Sewage Disposal 6. The Distillation of Coal for gas, coke, tar ammonia. 7. Fuel gases, water gas, producer gas and natural gas. 8. Synthetic textile fibre. 9. Manufacture of cane sugar, beet sugar, cornstarch, and glucose. 10. Petroleum and its products, Saccharine, naphthalene. 11. Synthetic Drugs – paracetamol & aspirin. 12. Synthesis plastics and resins. 13. Tutorial classes.
Group – B (Industrial Management)
1. Managing people in Technology-Based Organizations. Managing three levels of behavior in organizations: individual employee behavior, group behavior and organizational behavior. Nature and functions of HRM and HRD, employees’ selection and training, performance management, Thrust on Organizational dynamics – Organizational behavior and significance of individual, group and organizational dimensions. Emotional intelligence. 2. Economic Aspects of Biotechnology industry, competitive forces and impact on strategy, regulation of genetic products, planning under uncertainty, the economic environment, research and development. Marketing of biotechnological products and services. Develop a marketing plan, the relationship between the marketing SMEs functions, the difference between marketing a scientific product and a scientific customer service, market differentiation and a new product launch. Assessment of innovative technology, Intellectual Property Rights, patents and licensing, corporate law, preparing a business plan, raising money, government grants, strategic alliances and regulatory affairs. Quality control and Quality Assurance.
BT-307 (Practical) Group A – Environmental Microbiology
Analysis of water for
d) Coliform test e) Acid Production f) Gas Production g) IMViC Test Group B – Biostatistics & Bioinformatics
a) Exposure to spreadsheet package (EXCEL) and statistical b) Summarization and graphical representation of biological data. c) Scatter plot and dependence analysis d) Fitting of statistical models. e) Test of significance problems with z, chi square, t and F. f) Analysis of variance problems for way and two way data. Bioinformatics:
1. Retrieving amino acid sequences of a particular protein (Site- 2. Retrieving DNA sequences relevant to a particular protein (Site- 3. BLAST for Comparing protein / DNA sequences (Site – 4. Doing multiple protein sequence alignment with CLUSTALW (Site – 5. Finding genes with coding SNPs in the Human Genome (Site –
In each case the output page should be printed out and attached with the
BT-308 Dissertation consists of 3 parts.
Review on the experimental work – 25 marks
Experiment – 50 marks Seminar – 25 marks Total – 100 marks.
gain: The ratio of output current, gap-loss attenuator: An optical attenuator that exploits the principle of gap loss to reduce theoptical power level when inserted in-line in the fiberpath; e.g. , to prevent saturation of the receiver. Note: Gap-loss attenuators should be used in-linenear the optical transmitter. [After FAA]expressed in dB, will be negative, in which casethere is