RECOMMENDED USAGE RESTRICTIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS ON SOUTHERN AFRICAN EXPORT CITRUS Vaughan Hattingh, Citrus Research International, tel 021-8828553, fax 021-8828557, [email protected] and Paul Hardman, Citrus Growers Association of southern Africa, tel 031-7652514, fax 031-7658029, [email protected] The purpose of these restrictions is to ensure compliance with residue tolerances i
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Jd 51 rectal prolapse nr. 4Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci. No. 4. 2004. Vol. 31 Case Report and Short Communication:
Rectal prolapse associated with an unusual combination of pin-
worms and citrobacter species infection in FVB mice colony
by MJ Mahesh Kumar, P Nagarajan, R Venkatesan & Ramesh C Juyal
Small Animal facility, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi – 110067, India Summary
Spontaneous cases of rectal prolapse in a breeding colony of FVB mice were found to be due to infection
with Syphacia obvelata and Citrobacter freundii. Microbiology, biochemical and parasitological examina-
tion revealed Citrobacter freundii and eggs of Syphacia obvelata. After treatment with antibiotics, anti-
helminthic drugs and manual reduction prevented further occurrence.
Colitis in mice is associated with a high incidence of
guideline for care and use of animals in scientific rectal prolapse due to heavy infestation by research (Indian National Science Academy, New Citrobacter freundii (Ediger et al., 1974). Rectal Delhi, India) in a CPCSEA (Committee for the prolapse due to a natural outbreak of Syphacia Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experimental infection (Hoag, 1961; Harwell & Boyd, 1968) and Animals) registered animal facility. The animals were due to Citrobacter freundii were reported by Barhold maintained under the standard environmental condi- (1980). Other causes for rectal prolapse involved tion (Temp. 22 C) relative humidity 45-55%) with pelvic floor disorder in male transgenic mouse 12: 12 hrs dark / light photopheriod and fed commer- strain deficient in urokinase – plasminogen activator cial autoclaved pellet feed and water ad libitum. For (UPA -/-) (Yiou et al., 2001) and in large bowel parasitological examination we used the cellophanedisease caused by Helicobacter hepaticus in tape method in which cellophane adhesive impres- immunodeficient mice (Ncr-nu/nu, Balb/ c an Ncr sions of the anus were applied over the glass slides nu/ nu, C57 BL / 6 Ncr – nu / nu) (Ward et al, 1996).
and examined under a microscope. In addition, a Rectal prolapse with colonic mucosal hyperplasia swab from a rectal prolapse was taken, dissolved in a was recorded due to citrobacter infection by Barhold 0.1% NaCl solution, centrifuged at 2500 rpm for five et al. (1977). In this paper we present a case report minutes, the supernatant solution discarded, and a describing the rectal prolapse associated with both drop taken for light microscopic examination.
pinworm and Citrobacter freundii infection in a Aseptically collected faecal swabs from the pro- FVB mice colony and its curative measures.
lapsed animals were subjected to culture in blood agar plates at 37 C for 48 hours under anaerobic conditions as described (Ediger et al., 1974; Hansen, In the breeding colony of our small-animal facility, 2000). The pure colonies were subjected to colony spontaneous rectal prolapses were observed in a morphology; gram staining reaction (Gram staining group of the FVB strain. The animals remained kit, Hi Media, India) and biochemical tests were car-housed in individual cages in accordance with the ried out by a commercial kit for Enterobacteriaceae(HIMVIC Biochemical test Kit KB 003, Hi Media,India). After confirmation the animals were treated * Correspondance: Small Animal facility, National with Tetracycline VET water soluble (Intervet, India) Institute of Immunology, New Delhi – 110067, India.
at a dose rate of 1g / liter of water for three days and Phone # 91-11-26717128. Fax 91-11-26162125 four consecutive doses of Ivermectin and the pro- Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci. No. 4. 2004. Vol. 31 Results
On physical examination, the animals had ruffled The case describes rectal prolapse associated with fur and pasty diarrheic faeces around the prolapsed both pinworm and Citrobacter species infection and mass, base of the tail and perineum. The mass their treatment. Heavy infestation of pinworms has appeared edematous, enlarged with hemorrhagic previously been reported to cause rectal prolapse, constipation, intersucception or faecal impactionbut usually without diagnostic procedures beingused to exclude other diseases as primary or con-tributing causes (Wescott et al., 1982). Clinicalsigns associated with pinworms are poor condition,rough hair coats, reduced growth rate and rectalprolapse (Hoag 1961; Harwell & Boyd, 1968).
Based on the microscopic examination of faecalsamples, we identified Syphacia species but theclinical signs persisted even after treating with anti-helminthic drugs. Cultural examination followed bya biochemical test for the characterization of thebacteria in the fecal sample revealed the typical Figure 1: FVB Male mice with Rectal prolapse colony morphology and biochemical character ofCitrobacter species (Hansen et al., 2000). Hence we Microscopic examination of faecal samples showed concluded that the colony was infected with numerous eggs of Syphacia species. The eggs Citrobacter bacteria. Based on that, we decided to appeared asymmetrical, thin shelled, transparent, treat with an antibiotic and continued with anti- and slightly flattened on one side and resembled a helminthics. While antihelminthics are effective in eliminating a high percentage of adult pinworm, Culture examination revealed typical large round these are inefficient in clearing immature worms colonies with a smooth edge surface. Gram staining (Wescot et al., 1982). The affected animals returned reaction of pure colonies showed multiple numbers to normal after five days of treatment.
of gram-negative bacteria that were pale in colorwith pleomorphic rod-shaped organisms.
Biochemical examination of pure colonies using a We are thankful to the Director NII for giving nec- commercial kit showed positive for sucrose, H S essary support to carry out the study.
and negative for lysine, ornithine decarboxylaseand the VP test. Based on these results we decided References:
to treat the animal with tetracycline hydrochloride 1 Barthold SW, OL Osbaldistob & AM Jonas: Dietary gm / liter of water for 3 days and Ivermectin 4 mg/ bacterial and host genetic interaction in the kg body weight (Klement et al., 1996) for four con- pathogensis of transmissible murine colonic secutive days. After treatment, all clinical signs dis- hyperplasia. Laboratory animal science. 1977, appeared except the prolapsed mass. The prolapsed mass was cleaned with normal saline and reduced Barthold SW: The microbiology of transmissible manually; following reduction there was no recur- murine colonic hyperplasia. Laboratory animal Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci. No. 4. 2004. Vol. 31 Ediger RD, RM Kovatch & MM Rabstain: Colitis in tory rats and mice. Laboratory Animal Science.
mice with a high incidence of rectal prolapse.
Laboratory animal science. 1974, 24, 488- 494.
Ward JM, MR Anver, DC Haines, JM Melhorn, P Hansen AK.: Handbook of laboratory animal bacte- Gorelick, P & JG Yanl: Inflammatory large riology. CRC Press, Washington, D.C. (2000), bowel disease in immuno deficient mice natu- rally infected with helicobacter hepaticus.
Harwell JF & DD Boyd: Naturally occurring Laboratory Animal Science. 1996, 46 (1) 15-20.
oxyuris in mice. Journal of the American veteri- Wescott RB: Helminths. In: The mouse in biomed- nary medical association. 1968, 153, 950 – 953.
ical research, New York: Academic Press, 1982, Hoag WG: Oxyuriasis in laboratory mouse Yiou R, U Delmas & P Carmeliet: The pathophysi- Research. 1961, 22, 150 –153.
ology of pelvic floor disorders. Evidence from Klement P, JM Augustine, KH Delaney, G Klement histomorphologic study of the perineum and a & JL Weitz: An oral ivermectin regimen that mouse model of rectal prolapse. Journal of eradicates pinworms (Syphacia spp.) in labora- Anatomy. 2001, 199, 599 – 607.
A Precautionary Approach Many of those who submitted evidence to the Expert Group, either orally or in writing, urged theapplication of a precautionary approach to the new technology of mobile phones, and especiallyto the siting of base stations. Before considering the case for this and the ways in which it mightoperate, it is helpful to review the general principles of risk assessment and risk