by the Auditors On the extracts from the CNP Assurances statutory financial statements for the years ended 31 December 2002, 2001 and 2000 (free translation of a French language original)The financial and accounting information on pages 135 to 138 has been extracted from the annual financialstatements of CNP Assurances for the years ended 31 December 2002, 2001 and 2000. These financials
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Microsoft word - osteoporosis.docOsteoporosis: The Periodontal Connection Researchers may soon be able to harness the information gathered in dental exams for use as an early warning of osteoporosis. Every dental professional occasionally wonders about the link between osteoporosis and oral health. Does the Fosamax your female patients take give them protection from periodontal disease? If an elderly man has bone loss between his maxillary molars, is he at risk for a hip fracture? Literally millions of people suffer from periodontitis, osteoporosis, or both. Statistics confirm that three-quarters of the population of the United States have some degree of periodontal disease and that 20 million U.S. citizens – mostly women – suffer from osteoporosis. That figure includes on-third of women over age 65. Risk factors for developing osteoporosis parallel those for periodontitis: smoking, daily alcohol consumption, family history, lifelong low calcium intake and advancing age. Elizabeth Krall, Ph.D. an epidemiologist and associate professor of Boston University’s Goldman School of Dental Medicine, has been conducting research into a possible osteoporosis-periodontitis link for some time. “I first noticed a study of postmenopausal women that looked at the connection between bone density and tooth loss. I started thinking about the reasons people lose teeth, and that led to the next step of trying to demonstrate an association between osteoporosis and periodontitis.” As her study continues, Krall has also begun to look at the osteoporosis-periodontitis relationship in men. “There’s a long term dental longitudinal study at the Boston Veterans Association. It’s an observational study of oral health changes with age, the different risk factors we can identify, tooth loss, caries, and major oral problems in men.” The osteoporosis/periodontitis link is the subject of much research in the last few years. “Most of the papers published,” says Krall, “suggest there is a link, but we don’t know exactly why. No one knows whether both things just happen to occur in older people, or if osteoporosis actually makes someone more susceptible to periodontitis.” Krall, in her research, has been working to tighten the suspected connection. “I’m trying to demonstrate that osteoporosis may somehow affect the course of periodontitis.” One thing that has come out of current research is the idea that a routine dental x-ray may someday be a recognized screening tool for osteoporosis risk. That would require more cooperation between dental health professionals and physicians, an idea applauded by researchers. Both dentists and family physicians are recognizing that the oral cavity is not independent of systematic health. Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham are conducting a six-year study on bone density that will conclude this year. For the study, bone density seen in dental x-rays is being compared to DXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) scans of hipbone density in postmenopausal women. It may be possible, say the researchers, to harness the info gathered in dental exams for use as an early warning of osteoporosis. Adequate calcium and estrogen levels, long recognized as important components in the prevention of osteoporosis, are also being studied as they related to periodontal disease. Research ahs found that people with inadequate calcium intake – fewer than 500 mg daily – suffer from periodontal disease nearly twice as often as those who get enough calcium. One study investigated the influence of estrogen on clinical measurements of periodontal disease. Study subjects with sufficient estrogen levels showed more supragingival plaque but less gingival inflammation. Those who had insufficient estrogen levels showed more bleeding on probing and more attachment loss. The American Dental Association states that estrogen replacement therapy appears to reduce the risk of tooth loss in post-menopausal women. One surprising discovery is that sodium fluoride, long recognized for building strong teeth, can be a powerful weapon in the fight against osteoporosis. Researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center recently completed a 42 month study of osteoporosis.
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS FOR THROMBOPHILIA • Age : Prior to the age of 40 the risk is approximately 1 in 10,000, while after the age of 75, the risk is 1 in 100. This disparity reflects the increased risk of venous thrombosis from acquired conditions and environmental factors that occur with age. • Surgery: Incidence of DVTs in surgical patients varies based on type of surgery fro