1. Introducción. Los cursos de razonamiento crítico surgieron en los EE.UU. hará cosa de 30 años como reacción a las dificultades prácticas de la enseñanza de la lógica. La denominación razonamiento crítico se refiere a una actividad y no a una disciplina, a diferencia de denominaciones como lógica formal, lógica informal o teoría de la argumentación. En consonancia, el obje
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Item 1. Gynecomastia, hyperkalemia, and menstrual abnormalities are 2. Diuretics which may result in hyperkalemia when used in a patient receiving potassium supplementation include: 3. Metabolic alkalosis may be a complication of the administration of: 4. Beta blockers which are relatively cardioselective include: 5. Reflex tachycardia is not likely to occur during therapy with: 6. Beta blockers which may be less likely to produce CNS-related 7. Guanadrel is pharmacologically similar to: 8. Adverse effects associated with guanethidine include: B. enhanced sensitivity to sympathomimetics 9. Adverse effects associated with hydralazine include: 10. Risk factors associated with increased risk of toxicity during 11. Diazoxide, a drug used for treatment of hypertensive crises, is 12. Which of the following drugs is(are) known to induce occasionally to bring about an acute gouty attack? 13. Undesirable side effects of reserpine include: 14. Propranolol may cause all of the following EXCEPT: 5. prevention of the dilation of vessels caused by circulating 15. Alpha methyldopa has been used successfully in the control of Side effects include all of the following, EXCEPT: 16. A 48-year old salesman with known hypertension complains of a annual income, a loss of "drive", and a depressed outlook on life. His pressure is normal on medication. The antihypertensive drug most likely 17. Side effects of medications are often responsible for a patient with the prescribed drug regimen. An agent which has somnolence as a 18. One of the mechanisms for 'resistance" to an antihypertensive a retention of salt and water and an increase in extracellular fluid Agents which have been shown to cause retention of salt and water 19. Clonidine hydrochloride lowers blood pressure by reducing It is believed to act by inhibiting sympathetic outflow from the center in the medulla. A potentially serious adverse reaction that has 4. withdrawal syndrome resembling hypertensive crisis 20. Propranolol produces most of its important effects by adrenergic effects of catecholamines released by sympathetic nerve or from the adrenal medulla. It therefore results in all of the 1. negative inotropic effect on the heart 5. negative chronotropic effect on the heart 21. The antihypertensive agent most likely to increase cardiac output 22. An agent which produces its antihypertensive effect by blocking ganglia, thus lowering the sympathetic tone of blood vessels, is: 23. The most useful drugs in the long-term treatment of essential 24. Antihypertensive agents that act primarily at arterioles include: 25. Antihypertensive agents have different modes of action. The 26. Antihypertensive agents must be used with caution. The medical which methyldopa is most contraindicated is: 27. Antihypertensive agents must be used with caution. The medical which hydralazine is most contraindicated is: 28. Antihypertensive agents must be used with caution. The medical which reserpine is most contraindicated is: 29. Reduced tissue levels of norepinephrine may result from long-term 30. Propranolol is a potent blocker of beta-adrenergic sympathetic has been found to be detrimental, however, in patients with: 31. It is important to understand the mechanism of action of the used in the treatment of hypertension. The antihypertensive action of propranolol involves all of the following EXCEPT: 32. It is important to understand the side effects of the various agents. Drugs such as guanethidine that block the function of adrenergic neurons may produce all of the following EXCEPT: 33. Propranolol is contraindicated in all of the following EXCEPT: 34. Which of the following diuretics has a greater antihypertensive 4. all are equivalent antihypertensive agents 35. A patient complains of headache and his blood pressure is 120/80.
medications include hydrochlorothiazide and hydralazine. Which of the 1. The headaches are secondary to thiazide-induced hypokalemia 2. The headaches are secondary to hydralazine therapy 3. The headaches are probably unrelated to drug therapy 4. The headaches are related to hydralazine-induced agranulocytosis 36. A patient is admitted to the hospital for surgery and has been of clonidine plus 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide daily for several months surgery. You would expect in this patient: 1. A low likelihood of problems if the clonidine is continued 2. A possibility of markedly increased blood pressure if the clonidine 3. Severe postural hypotension if clonidine is discontinued abruptly 37. Drugs which may have their effectiveness diminished if the patient concomitantly receives a tricyclic antidepressant include: 38. Tachycardia is a prominent side effect of: 39. All of the following statements concerning the use of sodium 2. it must be given by rapid IV push injection 3. it dilates both arterial and venous vessels 40. Chronic administration of ethacrynic acid without proper 4. excessive inhibition of carbonic anhydrase 41. A diuretic agent which has been associated with hearing loss when 42. A diuretic agent which has a steroid-like nucleus is: 43. The diuretic agent which acts by inhibiting aldosterone at the 44. A diuretic agent which is potassium-sparing and does not depend 45. Which of the following diuretic agents may produce hypokalemic is a very useful drug in the treatment of volume-dependent hypertension? 46. Hypercalcemia following thiazide administration is characterized 47. The diuretic agent, furosemide, is known to produce: 1. decreased renin production and aldosterone release 2. increased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate 3. redistribution of blood from the renal cortex to the medulla 48. Complications of treatment of edema with thiazides include all of 49. Possible consequences of chlorothiazide administration include 2. jaundice, skin eruptions, and photosensitivities 50. Which of the following diuretics may cause hyperkalemia: 51. The dominant action of the thiazide diuretics (e.g.
increase the renal excretion of sodium and chloride and an accompanying 3. inhibition of the tubular mechanisms of electrolyte transport 52. The oral diuretics are an effective group of drugs in the hypertension. The mechanism of action mainly responsible for the blood pressure after 2 months of treatment is: 4. reduction in serum potassium concentration 5. effects on the neurotransmission at adrenergic ganglions 53. About 20 percent of adults in north America have arterial blood above the normal range. The aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, has used to treat hypertension with some success. Side effects of 54. The effectiveness of which of the following diuretics is 55. The inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in proximal renal tubular 56. Complications common to ethacrynic acid and thiazides include: 57. Hypokalemia may result from all of the following EXCEPT: 58. Hypochloremic alkalosis may result from prolonged use of: 3. is classified as a sodium-sparing diuretic 5. interferes with the diuretic activity of spironolactone 60. Antihypertensive agents must be used with caution. The medical which spironolactone is most contraindicated is: 61. With which of the following side effects is spironolactone most 62. A diuretic which acts by inhibition of the sodium-hydrogen 63. To achieve smooth reduction of blood pressure, all of the oral must be administered at least once daily. Maximum effectiveness is 64. Diuretics may reduce blood pressure through several mechanisms.
1. reduction of vascular smooth muscle reactivity 2. effect on autonomic control of vascular tone 3. reduction of total body sodium content 4. effect on electrolyte content of arterial tissues 65. Gynecomastia, hyperkalemia, and menstrual abnormalities are 66. Diuretics which should not be used in a patient also receiving 67. Metabolic alkalosis is a complication of the administration of: 68. Which of the following drugs may be hazardous if give to a 69. A side effect of spironolactone, when utilized to treat 70. The principle site of action of furosemide is the: 72. A diuretic which is contraindicated in a patient with 1. 42. 23. 14. 25. 26. 37. 48. 19. 210. 211. 412. 213. 414. 315. 516. 317. 118. 419. 420. 421. 322. 123. 124. 525. 126. 427. 228. 329. 530. 131. 432. 433. 434. 435. 236. 437. 538. 439. 240. 241. 342. 143. 144. 245. 4 46. 247. 248. 249. 350. 451. 352. 353. 454. 355. 356. 457. 558. 559. 260. 161. 162. 363. 264. 365. 466. 267. 168. 369. 170. 171. 372. 5
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