Bordetella in squirrels-10

Bordetella in Squirrels
In the last decade, rehabilitators have reported an increase required 21 days). Doxycycline is the antibiotic of choice for in the number of squirrels in rehabilitation dying dogs and cats and may be used in rabbits, squirrels, and unexpectedly and suddenly with few symptoms and no other rodents. Nebulizers were also used for some cases. obvious causes such as trauma or aspiration. Bordetel a has Since antibiotic treatment often disrupts gut flora, concurrent been confirmed by lab tests in some cases and administration of probiotics may be needed. rehabilitators believed it was responsible for more fatalities. Quickly identifying and treating this serious and contagious A few rehabilitators and veterinarians have treated respiratory condition improves the animal’s chance of Bordetel a infections in rodents with Nuflor, a next recovery and decreases spread of the infection. generation Chloramphenicol (antibiotic) approved for use with livestock. Nuflor is an off-label use for non-livestock Bordetel a bronchiseptica is a gram-negative bacterium, patients and could cause unforeseen side effects. Since it commonly found in the respiratory system. It is part of the may cause injection site reactions, oral administration has normal respiratory flora in its non-pathogenic form. The been preferred. Some veterinarians have prescribed it for virulent or disease causing form can be activated in animals wildlife since it is only used for 2 doses (loading dose and with compromised health, or by the presence of stressors second after 48 to 72 hrs). Nuflor needs to be handled with such as overcrowding, transportation, poor ventilation and extreme care and highly diluted due to potential risks. other factors. Secondary infections may develop. Some rehabilitators also have used classical homeopathy Bordetel a is a highly contagious bacterium, whose victims and reported positive results, especial y when giving the include dogs (‘kennel cough’), cats, rabbits, and pet rodents. homeopathic remedy Phosphorus 200c to treat the active Transmission may be airborne or by direct contact. This symptoms (e.g., TID for 4-5 days) or Phos 30c SID for 7 includes accidental transfer of bacteria on a caregiver, cage, days on a prophylatic basis to help prevent animals that had feeding instruments, etc. Incubation is believed to be 2 to 14 been exposed from developing the infection. Some days. Although Bordetel a infection is not commonly rehabilitators have used an antibiotic and homeopathic described as zoonotic, some wildlife rehabilitators caring for squirrels with Bordetel a developed respiratory symptoms, several of which were confirmed as cases of Bordetel a. Supportive care is essential, such as limiting activity by keeping in a smal cage, providing supplemental heat, Symptoms of Bordetel a infection in squirrels include: ensuring good nutrition, and minimizing stressors such as noise. Use effective hydration protocols with isotonic fluids - Refusal to eat and/or fight attempts to feed, likely due to As always, consult promptly and closely with a veterinarian - Profuse, frequent urination, sometimes involuntary. While profuse urination often is mentioned in squirrel cases, it has not been mentioned as a common symptom in Resources
other species. The profuse urination could be a DeCubel is, Julie and Karen Shenoy. Bordetel a in young secondary condition to this infection or another disease rabbits and squirrels. 2006. NWRA Bul etin. Volume 24, Harkness, John and Joseph Wagner. 2010. Biology of - Rapid and significant dehydration and weight loss, likely Rabbits and Rodents. Blackwel Publishing. Ames, IA. due to profuse urination, fever and difficulty eating. Kent, J. T. 1900. Lectures on Homeopathic Philosophy. - A variety of respiratory conditions, which can include sneezing, audible breathing, difficult or oppressed Phatak, S.R. 2002. Materia Medica of Homoeopathic respiration, gagging or coughing. Although respiratory Medicines. B. Jain Publishers. New Delhi. difficulties are not uncommon with squirrels that have Schroyens, F. 2004. Synthesis: the Source Repertory. aspirated, the profuse urination that has often preceded the visible respiratory symptoms has been very Due to Bordetel a’s highly contagious nature, rehabilitators Shirley Casey, WildAgain Wildlife Rehabilitation, Inc. in are urged to fol ow strict quarantine and sanitation protocols. Evergreen, CO is co-author of the Squirrel Rehabilitation Rehabilitators have reported that an orphan squirrel Handbook. She has published and presented widely on admitted to rehabilitation appeared reasonably healthy on wildlife rehab topics. admission but quickly became dehydrated, refused to eat, Mackenzie Goldthwait, DVM of Denver, Colorado, possibly sneezed, and then died with 24 to 48 hours. Unless graduated from Tufts University School of Veterinary strict quarantine was observed for 14 days, exposure may Medicine in 1989, with special interest in wildlife medicine. have occurred before the new animal showed symptoms. She has extensive experience with wildlife, exotics and smal animals. She has been involved in writing for and Antibiotics, particularly Bactrim (e.g., TMP, SMZ) and Baytril™, have been effective in treating Bordetel a infections in rodents when used for 14-21 days (many cases 2010 Shirley J. Casey and Mackenzie Goldthwait



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Abstract: My essay is engaging with the discussion about the Father's fault, if any, in the Fall of mankind. After exploring some other works in the research library as well as the Bible itself, I compiled this work. It is obvious that the Father is not complicit in the fall of man. No excuse of man can absolve him of his guilt. “I made him just and right, / Sufficient to have stood,

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