Graham & Whiteside Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Major Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies of the World 2009 Africa (South of the Sahara) Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Mongolia . .
Advantag of ingestion administration way is its easiness even when applied at home. But with their help necessary treatment concentration in blood cannot be always quickly achieve amoxil online transaction is carried out on anonymity and mutual profit principles, and in addition customers will be positively surprised with quality and speed of service.
2011day1biomedho.ppt• Biomedical treatments are based on a theory about what the underlying causes of autism are.
– Focus on pathology, biochemistry and physiology of a – Disorders are caused by an underlying biological • Biomedical view of autism: Autism is a
disease resulting from underlying,biological abnormalities (pathologies).
• Behavior analytic view of autism: Autism
is a neurological disorder resulting inbehavioral excesses and deficits (Lovaas,2003).
• Question: Is there consensus about what the – There currently are numerous theories about the underlying biological basis of autism, but no – This is demonstrated by the number of biomedical treatments for autism, each based on a different theory about the underlying cause Vitamin/Mineral
• Decreased “good” bacteria and increased “bad” bacteria in • Excess Yeast in the intestinal tract.
– Low good bacteria allows yeast to proliferate– Antibiotics may stimulate yeast – Yeast colonies attach to the intestinal walls and digest portions of – Undigested food molecules can then “leak” through the intestinal – Result: Increased susceptibility to allergies resulting in behavioral • Elevated peptides in urine resulting from incomplete breakdown of gluten (in wheat) and Casein (in dairy).
• Theory: Incomplete breakdown of gluten and casein in the gut results in excess caseomorphines, gluteomorphines and gliadinmorphines which are opioid like peptides.
– These opioids have abnormal leakage from the gut.
• These cross the blood-brain barrier and affect the CNS and inhibit – These opioid peptides modulate monoamine transmitter systems.
• Unusual effects on transmitter systems may explain a variety of the behavioral traits in autism (E.g. attention and social indifference).
• What is a Gluten-free, Casein-free (GFCF) – Elimination of all gluten containing foods – Elimination of all casein containing foods.
– 3 children who received secretin for gastrointestinal problems showed significant behavioral improvementsin social and language skills.
– Non-blind, did not use standardized measures; did not – Widely cited in newspapers, the internet, television– Lead to clinicians prescribing secretin for autism treatment and the development and marketing of asynthetic form of Secretin for autism treatment – A small protein produced by the cells of the small – Function: to cause the pancreas to release bicarbonate • Bicarbonate neutralizes stomach acid so that enzymes can – An infusion containing either human or porcine secretin • Children with autism do not produce enough secretin thus impairing their digestive processes.
– Reduced secretin production may be related to gluten • Children with autism produce a defective type of secretin that is not capable of stimulating the pancreas.
• Secretin has some direct beneficial effect on brain functioning • The autoantibodies against the pancreas, induced by Candida, may be preventing the pancreas from responding to the normal amount of secretin produced by the child’s own body.
• Abdominal cramps, bloating, diarrhea,• GI tract bleeding• Fatigue, fever, flushing• Decreased blood pressure• Bradycardia (Slow heart rate)• Excessive sweating• Nausea, hot sensation, headaches• Vomiting• Numbness• Possible seizures• Transient respiratory disease.
– The regressive form of autism represents a form of mercury poisoning.
– Symptoms of autism are similar to the symptoms of mercury poisoning. It is believed that the cause of this may be exposure to mercury in thimerosol, the • (a) symptom onset shortly after immunization• (b) ASD prevalence increases corresponding to vaccination increases• (c) similar sex ratios of affected individuals• (d) a high heritability rate for autism paralleling a genetic predisposition to Hg sensitivity • (e) parental reports of autistic children with elevated Hg.
• http://www.autism.com/triggers/vaccine/mercury.htm – Note: Recent publication showing a lack of association between vaccines and • Courtney will discuss this issue in detail next week.
• We will focus on Chelation as a treatment for heavy metal toxicity.
– Testing: Hair analysis- heavy metals such as mercury may be 250 times higher in the hair than in the blood.
• Removal of any source of heavy metal poisoning• Use of agents to remove toxic metals• Chelation agents bind to toxic metals in the blood or tissues and the metal-chelation agent complexes are eliminated in theurine or the stool.
• Prescription drugs: BAL, DMPS, EDTA, DMSA. DSMA is • Chelation can take 1-2 years to complete.
– Gastrointestinal side effects: nausea, vomiting, stomach – Blood side effects: neutropenia (a disorder involving low white blood cells), eosinophilia and increased – Temporary regression of autistic symptoms as the – Elevated liver enzymes and other side effects including drowsiness, dizziness, sleepiness, rash, decreased urination, cardiac arrhythmia, leg and knee pain and • No clinical trials of the efficacy of mercury • The National Institute for Mental Health – Press • September, 2008: NIMH panel reversed it’s approval of this study. They concluded there was no clear evidence for direct benefit for the participants, and the study presented more than • Theory: Children with autism have a metabolic disorder.
– The breakdown and metabolism of food into acids and sugars is disrupted by abnormal chemical reactions.
– This results in too much or too little of certain vitamins and – These deficiencies or excesses of certain vitamins and minerals effects body and brain functioning, resulting in the symptoms ofautism.
– If these deficiencies or excesses are remedied, or if the metabolic disorder is addressed, the symptoms of autism will decrease or beeliminated.
– http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/metabolicdisorders.html • B6 and Magnesium – High dose pyioxine (B6) is administered often in combinationwith magnesium.
• Folic Acid – Administered as a supplement.
• Calcium – Administered as a supplement.
• Inclusion criteria: Random assignment and controlled (placebo – Two studies met criteria for inclusion.
– One study (Tolbert, 1993) could not be evaluated due to lack of information and inability of the author to provide thatinformation when contacted.
– The other study (Findling, 1997) showed no significant differences between the control group and treatment group insocial interaction, hyperactivity, impulsivity, communication orcompulsivity.
– B-Cells: Produce antibodies (immunoglobins).
– T-Cells: Kill foreign or infected tissues and produce large proteins that regulate the immune system and enhance immune response.
• Theory: Children with autism have abnomalities or deficiencies in T-cells, B-cells or related phagocytic cellsand proteins.
– Due to these abnormalities or deficiencies, their immune response – They may be more susceptible to allergies, gut issues, and excess • Types of immunotherapy treatments (most common): – Transfer Factor: low molecular weight dialyzable molecule– Pentoxifyline: phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to have immunomodulatory, hemorrheologic and serotonergic effects.
– Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG): prepared from plasma from • Has been used in the treatment of a number of autoimmune disorders.
– To date no controlled, double blind studies evaluated the effects of – Results of the non controlled studies that have been carried out show mixed results (3 found support, 4 found negative results).
• Antipsychotic• The only drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of “irritability” in autism.
– Irritability: aggression, deliberate self-injury • FDA approval based on two, 8-week placebo – Significantly more improvement in irritability scores from baseline compared to the placebo group.
– Reductions in scores on the parent-rated Aberrant – Significantly greater improvement in stereotypic behavior, lethargy, social withdrawal, hyperactivityand/or noncompliance subscales for the treatmentgroup.
• “Irritability” : aggression, self-injury, – Communication development– Social development– Restricted patterns of behavior • What parts of the core deficits in autism are – Drowsiness
– Weight gain
– Upper respiratory tract infections
– Increased salivation
controlled study showed noeffects. Most research • Oxytocin infusion• Brain surgery• Melatonin• Tryptophan and tyrosine supplementation• Craniosacral manipulations• Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment• Medications • None of the Biomedical interventions aside from Risperdal have any evidence tosupport them • And some (chelation) have evidence of
Cartilla de Cobertura -------------------- PLAN CORAL ------------------- PRESTACIONES MÉDICAS Todas las prestaciones serán reconocidas sólo en los prestadores incluidos en la Cartilla de PREME. La atención se brinda mediante la sola presentación de la credencial de afiliado en la nómina de prestadores del presente plan. I ) ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA La atención se bri