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Microsoft word - dsdsintroDEMENTIA SCALE FOR DOWN SYNDROME (DSDS)
This scale is an informant-based instrument for assessing the presence or absence of dementia in adults with
Down syndrome and DD adults without Down syndrome. It was developed in British Columbia and
standardized on 70 adults with DS mostly in the severe or profound range who were followed up to 8 years. The
longitudinal sample also had 37 adults with other causes of intellectual disability. Further standardization was
done in Ontario with the Rideau Regional Centre psychiatrist Dr. Bruce McCreary, psychometrist Ms. Margie
Thake, staff, and older DS adults in the severe or profound range. The interrater reliability kappa coefficient =
.91, concurrent validity coefficient = .81. In an independent study, Deb & Braganza (1999) used DS adults in
the mild or moderate range and found a specificity .89 and sensitivity .85; the DSDS correlated .87 with the
“Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Mental Retardation” (Evenhuis, 1992). To date the DSDS is used in
about 40 US states, most Canadian provinces, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, England, France, Germany,
Holland, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Norway, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, and Wales.
Publications using the DSDS:
Acquilano JP, Davidson PW, Janicki MP. Psychological services for older adults with intellectual
disabilities.(2006) In: Jacobsen JW, Malick JA, Rojohn J, editors. Handbook of Intellectual and
Developmental Disabilities. New York: Springer; p. 189-207.
Aylward, EH, Burt DB, (1997) Thorpe LU, et al. Diagnosis of dementia in individuals with
intellectual disability. J Intell Disab Res. 41(2): 152-164.
Aylward EH, Li Q, Honeycutt NA, Warren AC et al. (1999) MRI volumes of the hippocampus and
amygdala in adults with Down’s syndrome with and without dementia. Am J Psychiat. 156:
Burt D, Aylward E. Test battery for the diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual
disability. (2000) J Intell Disab Res. 44(2): 175-180.
Burt DB, Loveland KA & Lewis KR. (1992) Depression and the onset of dementia in adults with mental
retardation. Am J Ment Retard. 96: 502-511.
Burt DB, Primeaux-Hart S, Loveland KA, et al. (2005) Aging in adults with intellectual disabilities. Am
Ment Retard. 110: 268-284.
Bush A, Nigel B. (2004) Risk factors for dementia in people with Down syndrome: Issues in assessment
and diagnosis. Am J Ment Retard. 109(2): 83-97.
Deb S, Braganza J. (1999) Comparison of rating scales for the diagnosis of dementia in adults with
Down's syndrome. J Intell Disab Res. 43(5): 400-407.
Devenny DA, Krinsky-McHale SJ, Sersen G et al. (2000). Sequence of cognitive decline in dementia
in adults with Down’s syndrome. J Intell Disab Res. 44(6): 654-665.
Devenny DA, Zimmerli EJ, Kittler P et al. (2002). Cued recall in early-stage dementia in adults with
Down’s syndrome. J Intell Disab Res. 46(6): 472-483. Hoekman J, Maaskant M. (2002) Comparison of instruments for the diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability. J Intell Develop Disab. 27(4): 296-309. Huxley A, Prasher V, Haque M. (2000) The Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome [Letter to the editor]. J Intell Disab Res. 44(6): 697-698. Huxley A, Van-Schaik P, Witts P. (2005) A comparison of challenging behavior in an adult group with Down’s syndrome and dementia compared with an adult Down’s syndrome group without dementia. Brit J Learn Disab. 33: 188-193. Jozsvai E. (1999) Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. In I Brown, M Percy, editors. Developmental Disabilities in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Front Porch Publishing; p. 401-408. Jozsvai, E. (2005) Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in individuals with Down syndrome. J Develop Disab. 12(1): 31-40. Jozsvai E, Kartakis P, Collings A.(2002) Neuropsychological test battery to detect dementia in Down
syndrome. J Develop Disab. 9(1): 27-34.
NEW *** Jozsvai E, Kartakis P, Gedye A. Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome (a chapter). (2009) In V
Prasher, editor. Neuropsychological Assessments of Dementia in Down Syndrome and Intellectual
Disabilities. London: Springer-Verlag; p. 53-66.
Kojima M, Ikeda Y, Kanno A, et al. (2000). Prevalence of dementia in institutionalized individuals with
Down syndrome in Japan. J Intell Disab Res. 44: 351.
Krinsky-McHale SJ, Devenny DA, Silverman WP. (2002) Changes in explicit memory associated with
early dementia in adults with Down’s syndrome. J Intell Disab Res. 46(3): 198-208.
Lott IT, Head E. (2001) Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease: A link between development and
aging. Ment Retard Develop Disab Res Rev. 7: 172-178.
Lott IT, Osann K, Doran E, et al. (2002) Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease: Response to donepezil.
Arch Neurol. 59: 1133-1136.
Nelson L, Orme D, Osann K, et al. (2001) Neurological changes and emotional functioning in adults with
Down syndrome. J Intell Disab Res. 45(5): 450-456. Shoumitro D, Braganza J, Norton N, et al. (2000) APOE e4 influences the manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down’s syndrome. Brit J Psychiat. 176: 468-472. Shultz J, Aman M, Kelbley T, et al. (2004) Evaluation of screening tools for dementia in older adults with mental retardation. Am J Ment Retard. 109(2): 98-110. Stanton L, Coetzee R. (2004) Down's syndrome and dementia. Advan Psychiat Treat. 19: 50-58. Strydom A, Hassiotis A. (2003) Diagnostic instruments for dementia in older people with intellectual disability in clinical practice. Aging Ment Health. 7(6): 431-437. Temple V, Jozsvai E, Konstantareas M, et al. (2001) Alzheimer dementia in Down's syndrome: The relevance of cognitive ability. J Intell Disab Res. 45(1): 47-55. Related publications: - Gedye A. (1998) Neuroleptic-induced dementia documented in four adults with mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 36, 182-186. - Gedye A, Russell J. (1995) Common concerns in Down syndrome: initial signs and steps to take. Habilitative Mental Healthcare Newsletter, 14, 31-33. - Gedye A. (1991) Serotonergic treatment for aggression in a Down's syndrome adult showing signs of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 35, 247-258. - Gedye A, Beattie BL, Tuokko H, Horton A, Kosarek E. (1989) Severe head injury hastens age of onset of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 37, 970-973.
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