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International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011 ISSN:2228-6322 International Academic Journals Epizootiology the control of gill parasite infestations in Egyptian fish

* 1 A.A.,Yadem2 S.M., Sovjak1 R.
1Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Institute of Tropics and Subtropics, Dept. of Animal production and
Food processing.
* Author for correspondence (email: [email protected])
2Alexandria University, Egypt, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Animal Husbandry

Received April 2011; accepted in revised form July 2011 ABSTRACT
The seasonal prevalence and mean intensity of gill parasites (Monogenean, Digenean,
, Trichodina and Myxosporeans) in Oreochromis niloticus and Cyprinus carpio fry
and fingerlings was recorded at El-Khairy Fish Hatcheries, Egypt.
The fish (Dactylogyrus species), naturally infested with Monogenean gill parasites were treated
with Albendazole (1.0 mg/l for 24 h) and Copper sulphate (0.5 mg/l for 24 h). After treatment,
the prevalence and mean intensity of parasitic evidence on the gills was recorded as efficacy
percentage of the anti-parasitic drugs. Clinical observations of Dactylogyrus naturally infested
with the parasites; Gyrodactylus, Trichodina and Myxobolus were recorded. Fish naturally
infested with Heterophid encysted Metacercariae showed nervous and gill damage. The highest
seasonal prevalence and mean intensity of infestations of Dactylogyrus species, was recorded
during the summer season. The highest seasonal prevalence and mean intensity of Trichodina
and Myxobolus parasites was recorded during the winter season. Prevalence and mean intensity
of naturally occurring gill infestations on Dactylogyrus species, after treatment with Albendazole
was lower than that obtained after treatment with copper sulphate.

Albendazole, Copper sulphate, Cyprinus carpio, Fry, Fingerlings, Intensity
Oreochromis niloticus, Prevalence
The search for inexpensive alternative sources
available on infestations occurring on fry and fingerlings in fresh water fish hatcheries and substantially on aquaculture. Today more than the treatment thereof, (Noor ElDeen 2007). In half of the world's population depends on fish this investigation, the fish species Oreochromis as a principal source of animal protein. An niloticus (O. niloticus) and Cyprinus carpio increase in the density of farmed fish would (C. carpio) were used for carrying out this work for they are widely cultured fish in the population density predisposes many bacterial, world. They are of great importance in the fish viral, fungal and parasitic diseases. It is the production industry and afford potential as a parasitic infestations that cause the highest mortality of fish (El-Gohary 2000) and reduces commonly known and are favourable to the their growth rate. Moreover, such diseases lead consumer's palate. The main objectives of this to skin and gill abrasions, which facilitate the study were to evaluate the effect of seasonal invasion of opportunistic microorganisms variations on the prevalence and mean intensity (Eissa 2002). Although, there is abundant of gill parasites in the fry and fingerlings of global literature on parasitic infestations O. niloticus and C. carpio, and to evaluate the affecting fish, there is only sparse information International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011 (Albendazole and Copper sulphate) on the Digenean metacercariae. Noor El Deen (2007) control of parasitic infestations of gills. recorded that the clinical signs of infestation of Heterophid metacercariae on O. niloticus were LITERATURE REVIEW
severe congestion of the gills with excessive Clinical signs of gill parasites
secretions of mucus and rapid respiration infestations in fish:
accompanied with sluggish movement. Marin Clinical signs of Monogenean gill parasites in et al. (2008) examined gills of juvenile Atlantic fish were confirmed by Montero et al. (2004). blue fin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) for lesions of The study found that Zeuxapta seriolae Digeneans. They detected eleven Digenea (monogenea) infection was associated with didymozoidae on the gills. Most of these were important mortalities of amberjacks (Seriola dumerili) reared in tanks. The parasite attached Clinical signs of Trichodina gill parasites in to the host gasping one or two lamellae with fish were confirmed by Eissa (2002) the study each clamp of the haptor, which led to lamellar showed how fish infested with Trichodina synechiae; lamellar clubbing and disruption of species showed signs of oxygen deficiency and epithelial and vascular structures. Combined ragged appearance in the gills. El-Khatib effects of gill damage and parasites feeding on (2003) described that the naturally infested blood could cause anaemia and finally death. O. niloticus with ectoparasites of Trichodina Noor ElDeen (2007) reported that the clinical signs of O. niloticus infested with monogenean Gyrodactylus sp. showed signs of asphyxia gill parasites were asphyxia: fish aggregated on and the fish swim near the surface of the the surface and accumulated at the water inlet of the pond and air pump of aquaria. Fish Nowak et al. (2004) found that infestations showed rapid respiration accompanied with on red cod (Pseudophycis Bacchus) and jack mackerel (Treacherous declivous) with Arafa et al. (2009) studied the pathological Trichodina sp. did not cause a host reaction effects of Macrogyrodactylus clarii infestation and no host response was found. Clinical on the gills of cat fish (clairas gariepinus). signs of Myxosporean gill parasites in fish were confirmed by Imam et al. (1987) isolated Myxobolus sp. from Tilapia zillii at Giza vacuolation of the host cells inside and out, province. The cysts were found in the eye fusion of the gill lamellae, and rupture of blood causing unilateral eye opacity. Koura et al. capillaries, infiltration of erythrocytes and (1997) reported that the heavily infested degeneration and fibrosis of the inter-lamellar revealed, whitish in colour and observed at the mucoid secretions and hyperplasia at the site of base of the gill arch and the internal surface of operculum. Andrew et al. (2010) studied the Clinical signs of Digenean gill parasites in fish were confirmed by Eissa (2002) and described (chondracanthus goldsmidi) on the gills of that the fish heavily infested with digenesis striped Trumpeter (latris lineate). They found showed black spots on the skin and other extensive epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis. Pathological changes were most pronounced undersides of the fish), nervous manifestations, papilloma-like growths surrounding the entire vitality. Nowak et al. (2004) proved that no parasite resulting in deformation of the filament significant pathology of red cod (Pseudophycis with increased mucous secretion on the gills. bachus) gills associated with the presence of International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011 Prevalence
Sinai, Egypt. The isolated Myxosporeans were; infestations in fish:
Myxobolus rivulati from Siganus rivulatus, M. The study Marin et al. (2008) examined the aegytica from Rhabdosargus haffara, M. gills of juvenile Atlantic blue fin tuna zschokkella mahseni from Lethirinus mahsena (thunnus thymus) for evidence of monogenean and M. ceratomyxa stridence from Pamadasys gill parasites. They found that the most strides, with infestation rates of 33.3 %, prevalent monogenean was Hexostoma Thynni with an annual prevalence ranging Mean intensity of gill parasitic
(2008) collected epidemiological data of infestations in fish:
monogenean, Hexostoma Thynni on the gills Montero et al. (2004) examined the gills of of blue fin tuna (thunnus maccoyii). They dead and live amberjacks, Seriola dumerili for the presence of monogenean parasites. 32.7 % during 12 months, being relatively higher in summer, at 55.0 %, than in other Zeuxapta seriolae parasites and the mean intensity ranged from 5 to 731 parasites per The presence of digenean gill parasites in fish, as determined by Nowak et al. (2004) found that the prevalence of digenean metacercariae was 27.3 % in red cod (Pseudophycis bachus). (Thunnus maccoyii). They found that the Taghreed B. El-Den (2005) reported that the main intensity was 2.61 parasites/fish, with prevalence rate of encysted metacercariae in no significant seasonal differences Mean O. niloticus collected from river Nile at Al- intensity of Digenean gill parasites in fish as it Monib area, Egypt was 83.9 % while it was was determined by McDonald et al. (2006) 100 % and 61.3 % at Al-Zomor Channel and studied size susceptibility to Trematode- induced mortality in the endangered fountain Prevalence of Trichodina gill parasites in fish darter (Etheostoma fonticola). They found that as found by Amany Kenawy (2005) was that the number of Metacercariae of digenetic the infestation in carp fish with Trichodina sp. Trematode, Centrocestus formosanus to cause death varied according to age group. Mean (2007) reported that prevalence of Trichodina number of Metacercariae (±SE) per fish Fulton in O. niloticus, hybrids of O. niloticus causing death was 60 ± 18.6 for larval darters and monosex O. niloticus was 6.2 %, 8.4 % and (9 – 12 mm in total length), 353 ± 28.8 for 3.2 %, respectively. He added that the highest juveniles (16 – 20 mm) and 1131 ± 101 for prevalence of Trichodina in O. niloticus was adults (36 – 41 mm) darters. Alvarez-Pellitero 5 % in winter, followed by summer (3.7 %) et al. (1995) found that mean intensity of and spring (3 %) and the lowest (1.7 %) in infestation of Trichodina sp. on the gills of autumn season. Prevalence of myxosporean gill gilthead seabream, (Sparus aurata) ranged parasites in fish as found by Nowak et al. from 11 – 25 parasites per microscope field at (2004) found that the prevalence of cysts on the 125 ×. Nowak et al. (2004) found that mean gills of red cod (Pseudophycis Bacchus) and intensity of Trichodina sp. on the gills of red jack mackerel (Treacherous declivous) was cod, Pseudophycis bachus was 8 parasites on each interlamellar urite. However, it was 10 Menem et al. (2005) isolated four new species parasites in one section of gill arch on sand of Myxosporean parasites from four species of Fish in the Red Sea, at Belayim area, South International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011 Negm-Eldin et al. (1999) recorded seven new gills of O. Niloticus was studied. They found species of Myxosporeans from gills of seven that using Ambrosia maritime and piper freshwater fish species from Egypt. They found nigrum at the concentrations of 500 ppm and that the annual cycle of infestation included a 50 ppm, respectively, caused a little damage to reduction of mean intensity in spring, an the body tegument of the parasite. Martins et al. absence of cyst infestation in summer, followed (2001) evaluated the efficacy of Mebendazole by reappearance of cysts in autumn and winter. treatment against infestation Penilabiatus, which affected the gills of young pacu, piaractus mesopotamicus. A long-term bath using 1, 10 Nowak et al. (2004) found that mean intensity and 100 mg/l of water for 24 h showed efficacy 58.7 %, 81.4 % and 77.9 %, respectively. of cysts on the gills of red cod, Pseudophycis Survival rates of fish during treatment for bachus ranged from 1 – 4 cysts in one section monogenean gill parasites was tested by El- Gohary (2000), in a study that researched (0.024 and 0.048 g/l water) on the survival Effects of anti-parasitic drugs on
rate of O. niloticus fingerlings infested with infestations:
Monogenean. It was found that fish exposed Ling et al. (1993) studied the effect of to Copper sulphate for 24 and 48 h showed 100 % survival rate. Martins et al. (2001) prevalence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis studied the effect of Mebendazole treatment on infestation in gold fish, Carassius aurata. They found that prevalence of infestation cultivated pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. They was 11.1 % in the fish exposed to Copper sulphate for 2 h when compared to 94.4 % number, leukocyte and haemoglobin rates when the fish were submitted to the long-term bath for Martins et al. (2001) studied the effect of 24 h at a concentration of 1 mg/l and/or 10 mg/l. Mebendazole treatment on the mean intensity Monogenean helminth, Anacanthorus amberjacks (Seriola dumerili), naturally penilabiatus, which infested the gills of young cultivated pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. anthemontic treatments, which are usually They found that mean intensity was 21.7, 9.8, used to exterminate Monogeneans in 11.6 and 52.7 parasite/fish when the fish were aquaculture; solutions of formalin – 300 ppm for 30 min – and/or Mebendazole – 0.4 Mebendazole for 24 h. respectively. Duston and ppm for 24 h. They found that the mortality Cusack (2002) used Emamectin benzoate 0.2 % in non-treated fish was 47.2 %, while in the premix coated onto pellets and fed to brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis at the dose of 50 Behaviour of the fish during treatment for µg/kg/day for 7 days to treat an infestation of the Monogenean gill parasites was confirmed by gill parasite, Salmincola edwardsii. They found that the mean intensity in the treated group found that rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, decreased, compared to an increase in the control group from 109 to 125 worm/fish. exposed to copper sulphate bath treatment at Efficacy of anti-parasitic drugs for treatment of monogenean gill parasites was evaluated by Abu- the rate of 0.5 ppm for one hour. El-Gohary Samak and Khidr (2000). The effect of two plant (2000) found that behaviour of O. niloticus extracts on the tegument of the Monogenean was normal when the fish were exposed to gill parasite, Cichlidogyrus halli typicus on the copper sulphate bath treatment at the rate of 0.048 g/50 litre water for 24 h. 0.5% for 12 h. International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011 REFERENCES
Eissa IAM (2002) Parasitic fish diseases in Egypt Dar El- Nahda El-Arabia publishing, 23 (2005) Description of five new Myxosporean parasites infecting some sea fishes in Egypt. monogenetic trematodes in fresh water fish with special reference to their control. M.Sc effect of two plant-extracts on the tegument of the monogenean gill of Cichlidogyrus halli typicus and the gill of its host fish Oreochromis niloticus, using scanning electron microscopy. J ectoparasitic infestation in freshwater fishes. Alvarez-Pellitero P, Sitja-Bobadilla A, Franco- Epizootics of metazoan gill parasites did not threaten feasibility of farming southern blue fin parasites of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in a trial extending L., from different culture systems in Spain. over summer months. Veterinary parasitology Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24: Imam EAE, Ramadan EI, Derahlli FS (1987) Amany Kenawy M (2005) Affections of grass Studies on some internal protozoa infecting carp in different localities with special some Nile fishes in Egypt. J Egypt Vet Med reference to pollution. Dissertation, Cairo Andrew M, Battaglene S, Cobcroft J, Adams Deep NI (1997) Incidence and prevalence of some protozoan parasites infecting the Nile fish Orecochromis niloticus in Egypt. Egypt J Condracanthus goldsmidi, a gill parasite of the Striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster), in Tasmania Jornal of fish Diseases 33:211-220 Ling K. H, Sin YM, Lam TJ (1993) Effect of Copper sulphate on Ichthyophthiriasis (white spot disease) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). histopathological effects of Macrogyrodactylus clarii, a monogenean gill parasite of the catfish Marin ER, Barreiro S, Montero FE, Carbonell clarias gariepinus, with a report on host E (2008) Looking for skin and gill parasites as response. Acta parasitological 54(2):103-112 biological tags for atlantic blue fin tuna (thunnus thynnus). Aquat Living Rosour 21: benzoate: An effective in-feed treatment against the gill parasite Salmin cola edwardsii on brook trout. Aquaculture 207:1-9 International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011 Martins ML, Onaka EM, Moraes FR, Fujimoto studies on the prevailing parasitic diseases in monosex tilapia and natural male tilapias in Dactylogyridae) gill parasite of cultivated Dissertation, Kafr El Sheikh Univiversity Characidae) in Brazil. Aquat Living Rosour 11: Nowak BF, Dawson D, Basson L, Deveney M, Powell MD (2004) Gill histopathology of wild Trevino GH (2006) Size susceptibility to marine fish in Tasmania: potential interactions trematode-induced mortality in the endangered with gill health of cultured Atlantic Salmon, fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola) Journal Salmo salar L. Journal of fish diseases 27:709- Montero FE, Crespo S, Padros F, Gandara FD, Taghreed B, El-Deen I (2005) Further studies Garcia A, Raga JA (2004) Effect of the gill on metacercarial parasitic infestation in Heteraxinidae) on the amberjack Seriola Williams HA, Wooten R (1981) Some effects of therapeutic levels of formalin and Copper (1999) Gill myxosporeans on some Egyptian sulphate on blood parameters in rainbow trout. freshwater fish. Dtsch tieraztl Wschr 106:457- International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 1(3): 164-169, August 2011


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