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The Musculoskeletal Effects ofPerioperative Smoking Although the carcinogenic consequences of smoking are wellknown, further research is needed on the effects of smoking on musculoskeletal health and surgical outcomes. Orthopaedic perioperative complications of smoking include impaired healing, increased infection, delayed and/or impaired fracture union andarthrodesis, and inferior arthroplasty outcomes. The incorporationof smoking cessation protocols such as transdermal patches,chewing gum, lozenges, inhalers, sprays, bupropion, andvarenicline in the perioperative period may result in substantialbenefits for patients’ musculoskeletal and general health.
More than 10 million cigarettes increased risk of stroke.3 Smoking- the United States, including medicalcosts and lost productivity attribut- Cellular Effects of
owns stock in a commercialcompany or institution related tantly, because it is critical to the de- ery of lymphocytes to infected areas.
The Musculoskeletal Effects of Perioperative Smoking and 20.3%, respectively; P = 0.005) 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Mul- of the patients were active smokers.
union (P = 0.01), twice as likely to (P = 0.05), and 3.7 times more likely to develop chronic osteomyelitis (P = Clinical Impact of
Smoking Cessation
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Nicotine Replacement Therapies: Advantages and Disadvantages
of nicotine addiction.33 The five NRTagents—transdermal patch, chewing Advantages
and is left in place for 16 to 24 hoursper day. It should not be applied tothe same anatomic area more thanonce per week. Nicotine gum is of- appears to elicit greater success than do equivalent to that of one cigarette.
Orthopaedic Benefits of
Smoking Cessation
The Musculoskeletal Effects of Perioperative Smoking and 20%, respectively; P = 0.048).
Evidence-based Medicine: Levels of smokers (P = 0.0003). The difference contents. In this article, reference 43 is References printed in bold type are
those published within the past 5 years.
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Hoodia Hoodoo Teacher Handout: Correlation to National Standards National Social Studies Standards VI. Power, Authority, and Governance Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of how people create and change structures of power, authority, and governance, so that the learner can: • b. explain the purpose of government and analyze h

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