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Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method PRO= Patient Reported Outcome, NS= Not Statistically Significant
Duration
Purpose of Message
Intervention
Outcome Measures
Actual Results (Only P values ≤ 0.05 Reported)
(months)
A mobile phone text message service consisting of daily reminders to use an inhaler, health education tips, and safety messages. The messages were mixed into a supply of lifestyle 1) Generally they reacted positively to the messages related text messages about sport, celebrity gossip, and horoscopes; they were all written in contemporary text jargon and sent by a "virtual friend with asthma" called Max.
messages asked questions about medication 3) 58% indicated perfect adherence, 36% indicated one or more missed doses, adherence, sleeping habits, mood, stressful while 79% felt they had improved adherence events, medication side effects, food intake, drug use, and messaging system use. 4) 86% of those who completed an exit interview expressed a desire to continue using the service The participants received 4 SMS messages each day, including a medication reminder, a request 1)The median response rate per patient was 0.69 (range: 0.03 – 0.98), ie, half to enter peak flow, data on sleep loss, and the participants reported more than about two thirds of the requested diary medication dosage. Participants were asked to reply to a minimum of 3 of the messages per day. 1.) 6 of the 23 participants completed the survey with the following results. Questions were rated 1-5, with 5 the highest: Patients used SMS to transmit data such as a. Are automatic messages of interest? 4.2 blood glucose levels and body weight to a server. The server automatically answered with c. Is your diabetes better controlled with SMS? 3.0 d. Do you like the SMS diabetes system? 4.2 e. Is your glycosylated haemoglobin level of interest for you? 4.2 f. Do you prefer to manage diabetes yourself? 4.2 g. Do you prefer your doctor to manage your diabetes? 3.7 h. What is your level of satisfaction with the SMS system? 4.3 1. HbA1c(%)–total before= 7.5±1.5 after= 7.0±1.1 pvalue= 0.003 Participants sent their self-measured blood glucose levels, medication and its dosages, amount of meal, and degree of exercise to their health providers in this specialized web-based 5. Triglyceride (mg/dl) before=149.6±115.5 after= 125.2±89.5 pvalue= 0.007 diabetes management system for 3 months. The health providers consisting The health 6. HDL–cholesterol (mg/dl) before=47.8±12.1 after= 53.5±30.1 pvalue=0.032 specialists, dietitians, and nurses sent 7. Survey of participant satisfaction with the program, with 5 being the highest recommendations for individualized diabetes management according to the data on the web Technical aspects 3.39±0.73 Convenience and ease of access 3.68±0.84 Individualized management 3.70±0.83 Quality of provided healthcare 3.89±0.75 Satisfaction with provided healthcare 3.72±0.79 Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method 1.) Out of 24 people contacted, 8 reported to quit smoking, 16 reported to still be smoking, 4 admitted to trying to quit, 10 were planning to quit by the end of Participants completed a 7-day reconstruction the program, and 2 had no intention of quitting of their smoking habits. After that, they were given instructions to register on the study Web site to personalize and initialize their smoking intervention program text messaging. After 3 1.) Out of 31 people contacted, 20 reported an attempt to quit, with 12 of those weeks of being on the program, another 7-day 20 reporting a relapse. 8 people verified they quit by saliva samples.
reconstruction would be taken, followed by a 2.) The 29 people who signed up for text messaging rated the following items questionnaire administered at posttreatment. on a scale of 1 through 5, with 5 being the highest: reconstruction would be taken followed by saliva samples by mail from participants who reported they had stopped smoking along with Program satisfaction: 4.3Recommendation of program: 4.3Motivated to quit or remain a nonsmoker: 4.6Confident will quit and remain nonsmoker: 4.4 a. Out of 25% that received mail reminders, 91% showed up on time, 4% didn’t show up and 4% cancelled or rescheduled All booked patients were divided over 4 groups. b. Out of the 21% that received phone call reminders, 90% showed up, 3% 3 groups received a reminder a day before the didn’t show up and 7% cancelled or rescheduled appointment, either by telephone, mail or text c. Out of the 15% that received text messages, 82% showed up, 2% didn’t messaging. Patients in the 4th (control) group d. Out of the 27% that didn’t receive a reminder, 84% showed up 7% didn’t nonattendance, rescheduling and cancellations were all noted. 30 random subjects in each 5.12% of the participants were thrown out due to wrong phone number or group were interviewed by telephone about the reminders and what form they liked most.
2.) Results of Follow-Up Study:a. 80% of subjects were very positive or positive about receiving a reminderb. Of those that wanted a reminder, 56% preferred a mail response, 26% a telephone call and 18% a text message A single-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken with recruitment targeted to 1.) Maori in the intervention group were more likely to report quitting (no maximize the participation of young Maori. The smoking in the past week) at 6 weeks (26.1%) than those in the control group intervention included regular, personalized text messages providing smoking cessation advice, support, and distraction.
1.) Message Responsiveness:Of the 2151 patients with a scheduled No SMS reminder (Aug 2004) Dermatology Total= 219 FTA= 44 (20%) Gastroenterology Total= 245 FTA= 96 (39%) General medicine Total= 669 FTA= 141 (21%) Patients were scheduled to attend a clinic in Paediatric dentistry Total= 185 FTA= 35 (19%) getting text messages were split into five general medicine,Paediatric dentistry and plastic surgery.The 2276 patients not receiving Dermatology Total= 213 FTA= 32 (15%) FTA Rate Reduction= 5% text messages (control group) were scheduled Gastroenterology Total= 257 FTA= 31 (12%) FTA Rate Reduction= 27% for appointments in August. Attendance figures General Medicine Total= 579 FTA= 88 (15%) FTA Rate Reduction= 6% Paediatric dentistry Total= 197 FTA= 23 (12%) FTA Rate Reduction= 7%Plastic Surgery Total= 136 FTA= 22 (16%) FTA Rate Reduction= 3%Total= 1382 FTA= 196 (14.2%) FTA Rate Reduction= 9%*Only patients who had a mobile telephone contact number were included in the study. SMS= short message service. FTA=failure to attend.
Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method 1.) System use was easily integrated into everyday life, and parents valued the sense of reassurance offered by the system. Parents’ ongoing struggle to balance control of their children with allowing independence was evident. For During four months, a self-selected sample of children who measured regularly, use appeared to reduce parental intrusions. 15 children (aged 9 to 15 years) with type 1 For those who measured irregularly, however, parental reminders (eg, diabetes and their parents (n = 30) used the “nagging”) appeared to increase. Although increased reminders could be prototype approximately three times daily. considered a positive outcome, they can potentially increase parent-child Parent and child experiences were collected conflict and thus also undermine proper metabolic control. Parents felt that through questionnaires and through interviews system appropriateness tapered off with the onset of adolescence, partly due to a potential sense of surveillance from the child’s perspective that could fuel oppositional behavior. Parental suggestions for further developments included similar alerts of irregular insulin dosages and automatically generated dietary and insulin dosage advice.
2.) Study Group= 1.42 ± 0.28Control Group= 1.85 ± 0.43 Asthma patients were studied while using short- message service (SMS) as a novel means of telemedicine in PEF monitoring. All subjects received asthma ducation, self-management plan, and standard treatment. All measured PEF three times daily and kept a symptom diary. In the study group, therapy was adjusted weekly 6.) Daily consumption of inhaled medication by an asthma specialist according to PEF values received daily from the patients. Control group 5.) PEF variability (%): Study Group= 16.12 ± 6.93 PEF variability (%): Control Group= 27.24 ± 10.01Pvalue = 0.049 1705 smokers from throughout New Zealand who wanted to quit, were aged over 15 years, a.) After one month, more participants reported quitting in the active group and owned a mobile phone were randomised to compared to the control group: 239 (28%) vs. 109 (13%), relative risk 2.20, an intervention group that received regular, 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.70; p < 0.0001 personalised text messages providing smoking b.) After three months, the differences in smokers quitting between the groups cessation advice, support, and distraction, or to shrank: 247 (29%) in the active group vs. 160 (19%) in the control group, a control group. All participants received a free relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.84; p < 0.0001 month of text messaging; starting for the c.) After six months, the group differences in smokers quitting were less clear: intervention group on their quit day to assist 216 (25%) in the active group vs. 202 (24%) in the control group, relative risk with quitting, and starting for the control group 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.26; p=0.4 at six months to encourage follow up.
All patients, with the exception of those under 14 years old or those at high risk of HIV disease were asked if they would like to receive 1.) Of the 150 surveyed out of 13,825, 100% of them were pleased with text their results by text. Patients were informed messaging, finding it quick, safe and a confidential way of sharing information that their results would be available in 7-10 days. 1.) HbA1c did not change in patients on conventional therapy without or with Sweet Talk (10.3 ± 1.7 vs. 10.1±1.7%), but improved in patients randomized to intensive therapy and Sweet Talk (9.2± 2.2%, 95% CI − 1.9, − 0.5, P < conventional therapy and Sweet Talk (n = 33) or intensive insulin therapy 2.) Sweet Talk was associated with improvement in diabetes self-efficacy and Sweet Talk ( n = 31). Goal-setting at clinic (conventional therapy 56.0 ± 13.7, conventional therapy plus Sweet Talk 62.1 visits was reinforced by daily text-messages ± 6.6, 95% CI +2.6, +7.5, P = 0.003) and self-reported adherence (conventional therapy 70.4 ± 20.0, conventional therapy plus Sweet Talk 77.2 containing personalized goal-specific prompts ± 16.1, 95% CI +0.4, +17.4, P = 0.042). and messages tailored to patients’ age, sex and insulin regimen 3.)When surveyed, 82% of patients felt that Sweet Talk had improved their diabetes self-management and 90% wanted to continue receiving messages. Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method One hundred and ten consecutive young patients aged 16–24 years were recruited in four general practices (one inner urban, one 1.) 91% had a useable mobile phone (91% of the University population, 92% of outer urban, one rural and one university the Rural population, 85% of the inner urban population and 95% of the Outter practice) in Victoria and interviewed before the consultation. If the patients had a mobile phone, they were asked to provide their mobile 2.) 98% agreed to provide a phone number (100% of the University population, phone number so that following the medical 95% of the Rural population, 100% of the inner urban population and 95% of consultation they could receive a single question, via text message, about their satisfaction with the consultation. 1.) 97% reported that it reduced their waiting anxiety.
Subjects were split up into three groups. One group received text reminders before their 1.) Attendance rates of control, text messaging and mobile phone reminder appointment, one group received phone calls groups were 48.1, 59.0% and 59.6%, respectively. The attendance rate of the before their appointment, while control group text messaging reminder group was significantly higher compared with that of did not receive any text messaging reminders. the control group (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.17, P = Reminders were sent 24-48 hours before the 1.) 33.9% of all clinic results were provided by text, resulting in a saving of 46 Demographic data, diagnoses, and time to hours of staff time per month. 49 messages requested that the patient return diagnosis and treatment were collected over a 6 for treatment, 28 of these patients had untreated genital Chlamydia month period for patients receiving text trachomatis (CT) infection. The mean number of days (SD) to diagnosis was messages and a matched standard recall group. significantly shorter in the text message group (TG) v the standard recall group Data on messages sent, staff time, and cost in (SG) (7.9 (3.6) v 11.2 (4.7), p ,0.001). The median time to treatment was 8.5 relation to result provision were collected.
days (range 4–27 days) for the TG group v 15.0 (range 7–35) for SG, p = 0.005.
Patients were grouped by appointment (to differentiate the results for new and follow-up 1.) With new appointments, the observed reduction in DNA (did not attend) appointments), by booking procedure (because rates is 3.1 percent points, with SMS reminders reducing DNA rates somewhere we believe this had an important impact of its between 0.2 and 6.0 percent. With follow-up appointments, the observed own), by SMS (the hypothesis to be tested), by reduction in DNA rates is 3.8 percent points, with SMS reminders reducing DNA specialty (to allow the impact to vary by rates somewhere between 0.1 and 7.6 percent.
specialty), and by attendance status (the outcome measure).
Subjects did a 6 month trial (3 months with TM 1.) Glycemic control improved during the TM phase, while it deteriorated during (text messaging), 3 months with conventional the PD phase: TM-PD group HbA1c (%, median (range)): 9.05 (8–11.3) (at 0 support and paper diary (PD)) of tracking their months), 8.9 (6.9–11.3) (at 3 months),and 9.2 (7.4–12.6) (at 6 months), and data and sending it to the Doctor for advice.
PD-TM group: 8.9 (8.3–11.6), 9.9 (8.1–11), and 8.85 (7.3–11.7) (p<0.05).
A total of 21 patients with BN participated in the 6-month SMS-based intervention as a step- 1.) Patients rated the quality of the program as “good” (2 out of 4). However, down treatment AFTER outpatient therapy. The 50% said they would “probably not” participate again while 36% would program included questions and evaluation of 1.) The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages.
Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method Thirty poorly controlled patients (HbA1c 7.5–10%) were enrolled in a bicenter, open-label, randomized, 12-month, two-period, crossover study. After a 1-month run-in period, 1.) A non-significant trend to reduction in HbA1c (–0.25 ± 0.94%, P < 0.10) 15 patients were randomly assigned to receive and mean glucose values (–9.2 ± 25 mg/dl, P = 0.06) during the 6-month SMS weekly medical support through SMS based sequence was observed as compared with the no-SMS period. No safety issue upon weekly review of glucose values, while 15 (hypoglycemia, glucose variability) was reported. Adherence to SMBG was not patients continued to download self-monitored affected by the trial. Quality of life analysis suggests a significant improvement blood glucose (SMBG) values on a weekly basis in DQOL global score, as well as the DQOL satisfaction with life subscale, during without receiving SMS. After 6 months, patients crossed over to the alternate sequence for 6 additional months. Visits at the clinic were maintained every 3 months.
The treatment group received the internet- and cell-phone-based Happy Ending intervention. The intervention programme lasted 54 weeks 1.) Participants in the treatment group reported clinically and statistically and consisted of more than 400 contacts by e- significantly higher repeated point abstinence rates than control participants mail, web-pages, interactive voice response [22.3% versus 13.1%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–3.26, P = 0.02; intent-to-treat). Improved adherence to NRT and a higher technology. The control group received a self- level of post-cessation self-efficacy were observed in the treatment group help booklet. Additionally, both groups were offered free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).
A total of 927 participants were recruited and 1.) There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass visited a public health centre for initial index of 1.6 kg (Po0.001), 4.3 cm (Po0.001) and 0.6 kg/m2 (Po0.001), respectively. Over two-thirds of the subjects had a reduction in waist deliver short messages about diet, exercise and circumference of 5–7.5 cm. A post-intervention survey showed that the behaviour modification once a week. After a 12- majority of participants were satisfied with the weekly SMS messages and week anti-obesity programme they visited the information brochures delivered by post.
Twenty-five patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group and 26 to a control group. The intervention was applied for six months. The goal of the intervention was to 1.) Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased 1Æ15% points at three months keep blood glucose concentrations close to the and 1Æ05% points at six months compared with baseline in the intervention normal range. Participants were requested to group. Patients in the intervention group had a decrease of two hours post meal input their blood glucose level, diet and glucose (2HPMG) of 85Æ1 mg/dl at three months and 63Æ1 mg/dl at six exercise diary everyday in the website by cellular phone or wire Internet. The researcher sends optimal recommendations to each patient using SMS by cellular phone and wire Internet weekly. 1.) 122 hypos were found over 705 recorded days. All were graded mild or moderate and none severe. Calculated frequency was 5.2 hypos per month: 13.6% subjects had no recorded episode, 36.4% had 1–4, 31.8% 5–9 and 18.2% .10.
Open comparison of three systems to collect 2.) Mean blood glucose level at the onset of hypoglycemia was 3.0 mmol/L the data on frequency of hypos (all severity): 3.) Response rate of occurrence of hypoglycemic 3.) Response rate of occurrence of hypoglycemic episode recorded by three interview (CBI), with qualitative analysis of systems is as follows – diary: 24 (65%) of the 37 subjects reported episodes, mobile: 18 (95%) of 19 subjects and CBI: 16 (89%) of 18 subjects.
4.) 65% of subjects preferred the mobile and 54% of subjects preferred CBI compared with the diary. 55% and 30.8% of subjects found the mobile and the CBI, respectively, easiest to fit into their everyday life. 1.) 52% had a good experience, 8% had a negative experience, with 40% had both2.) 39% had a good experience, 16% had a negative experience, with 45% psychologists about the use of e-therapy in 3.) 31% believed it could work, 64% believe it would only work as a supplement to face-to-face consultations, 40% said they would use it themselves, 48% said they would not use it themselves, and 11% found it unacceptable Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method 1.) Attendance rates of control, SMS and telephone groups were 80.5%, A total of 1859 participants who had scheduled 87.5%and 88.3%, respectively. The aRendance rates were significantly higher appointments in the health promotion center of in SMS and telephone groups than that in the control group with odds ratio our hospital from April 2007 to May 2007 were %confidence intervall 1.224 to 2.316, P=0.001 in the SMS group, and enrolled in the study and randomly assigned %confidence interval 1.333 to 2.509, P<0.001 in the into 3 groups:control(no reminder)group, SMS telephone group. However, there was no difference between the SMS group and text messaging reminder group and telephone reminder group. Attendance rates and costs of 2.) The cost effectiveness analysis showed that the cost per aRendance for the SMS group (0.31 Yuan)was significantly lower than that for the telephone group (0.48 Yuan).
Questionnaires were distributed to 350 consecutive GU medicine attendees at the John Hunter Clinic, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital. Approval was obtained from our directorate research committee. The questionnaires assessed the acceptability of appointment reminders and sought preferences for different 1.) Acceptability of appointment reminders and types of formats: email, phone, text or letter and 1.) 88% liked the reminders, with 67% preferring the text messaging format timing: time of day, weekday or weekend. It also proposed an automated phone reminder service, confirming patient identity by name and date of birth to improve confidentiality. We asked patients whether it would be acceptable to send this voicemail to their home, mobile or work phone.
Non-attendance at our institution’s ENT out-patient clinics was audited, following 1.) Before the introduction of the text message reminder system, the mean rate introduction of a text message reminder system of non-attendance was 33.6 per cent. Following the introduction of the system, in August 2003. Rates of non-attendance were the mean rate of non-attendance reduced to 22 per cent.
compared for the text message reminder group and a historical control group.
People who reported smoking daily and using text messaging at least weekly were invited to 1.) The average participant answered 8 of the 12 weekly SMS questions. The SMS-based questions and -feedbacks were evaluated as self- intervention. Individualized SMS-feedbacks explanatory by the participants. At post-assessment, five participants (15% ) were sent to the participants weekly, based on reported occasional instead of daily smoking. None of the participants reported data from the baseline assessment and the abstinence after the intervention. Pre-post comparisons revealed a reduction in weekly SMS assessment of the intention to quit the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as in the heaviness of smoking smoking. Additionally, the participants could and an increase in risk perception. No significant differences were found for request SMS support whenever they suffered situational urge to smoke and intention to change. 18 patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group and 16 to a control group. 1.) Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1 c) decreased 1.22 percentage points at 3 The goal of the intervention was to decrease months, 1.09 percentage points at 6 months, 1.47 percentage points at 9 months, and 1.49 percentage points at 12 months compared with baseline in concentrations close to the normal range. the intervention group (all time points, p < 0.05). The percentage change in the control group was, however, not significant.
record their blood glucose level in a weekly diary on the website by personal cellular 2.) Patients in the intervention group had a decrease of 2-h post-prandial test phones or computer internet. The researcher (2HPPT) of 120.1 mg/dl at 3 months, 58.9 mg/dl at 6 months, 62.0 mg/dl at 9 sent optimal recommendations to each patient, months, and 102.9 mg/dl at 12 months compared with baseline (all time points, p < 0.05). The mean change in the control group was, however, not significant.
both the cellular phone and the Internet weekly. The intervention was applied for 1 year.
Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method 1.) HbA1c did not differ significantly between the two groups (intervention group vs. control group; P = .377), but it did differ over time (baseline vs. 6 months; P = .047), and there was an interaction between group and time ( P = .043). There was a significant percentage change in HbA1c for the intervention group ( P < .05), with a mean percentage change of -1.22 (from 8.16% at baseline to 6.94% at 3 months) and -1.09 (from 8.16% at baseline to 7.07% at Eighteen patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group and 16 were assigned to a control group (N = 34). Patients in the 2.) FPG did not differ significantly between the two groups (intervention group intervention group were asked to access a web 2.) Change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) vs. control group; P = .508) and over time (baseline vs. 6 months; P = .621), site by using personal cellular phones or but there was an interaction between group and time ( P = .032). There was a computer Internet services to input their blood significant mean change in FPG for the intervention group ( P < .05), with a glucose levels daily. Participants were then sent mean change of 10.8 (from 156.2 mg/dl at baseline to 145.4 mg/dl at 3 optimal recommendations via cellular phone months) and 4.6 (from 156.2 mg/dl at baseline to 151.6 mg/dl at 6 months). 3.) 2HPMG did not differ significantly between the two groups (intervention group vs. control group; P = .228), but it did differ over time (baseline vs. 6 months; P = .014), and there was an interaction between group and time ( P = .001). There was a significant mean change in 2HPMG for the intervention group ( P < .05), with a mean change of -120.1 (from 272.6 mg/dl at baseline to 152.5 mg/dl at 3 months).
An SMS text message was sent to patients with scheduled appointments between April and September 2006 in a hospital ophthalmology 1.) 11.2% (50/447) of patients who received an SMS appointment reminder department in London, reminding them of their were non-attenders, compared to 18.1% (1720/9512) who did not receive an SMS reminder. Non-attendance rates were 38% lower in patients who received intervention group. Controls were patients with an SMS reminder than in patients who did not receive a reminder (RR of non- scheduled ophthalmology appointments who attendance = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.48 – 0.80).
did not receive an SMS or any alternative reminder.
1.) It was technically feasible to open up access to mainstream NHS general The purpose of the study was to conduct a practice services using SMS for appointment booking, repeat prescription technical appraisal and qualitative interviews ordering, clinical enquiries and remote access to the core clinical summary. with short message service (SMS – mobile Patients were able to use SMS services responsibly and found automation of prescription ordering particularly useful. Service utilisation was modest and did not adversely impact on the work- load of general practitioners (GPs) or their staff.
All randomized children received a brief psychoeducational intervention. They then either monitored target behaviors via SMS with feedback or via paper diaries (PD) or 1.) Children in SMS had somewhat lower attrition (28%) than both PD (61%) participated in a no-monitoring control (C) for 8 and C (50%), and significantly greater adherence to self-monitoring than PD weeks. Children and parents participated in a total of 3 group education sessions (1 session weekly for 3 weeks) to encourage increasing physical activity and decreasing screen time and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Twenty-five patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group and twenty- six to a control group. The intervention was applied for 1.) Type 2 diabetes participants in the intervention group had lower HbA1c over 12 months. The goal of the intervention was to 12 months when compared with the control group. At 12 months the change keep blood glucose concentrations close to the from baseline in HbA1c was 1.32 in the intervention group versus +0.81 in the normal range (HbA1c < 7%). Patients in the intervention group were asked to access a website by using a cellular phone or to wiring 2.) Two hours post-meal glucose (2HPMG) had a significantly greater decline in the Internet and input their blood glucose levels the intervention group after 12 months when compared with the control group weekly. Participants were sent the optimal recommendations by both cellular phone and the Internet weekly. 1.) If usage were free, only 45% of the participants would continue to use it for Fifty-one participants received daily cell phone a long indefinite period of time. If the usage were for a fee, 29% of the participants would use the service just a few weeks; 28% would use it an vitamin C pill daily for preventive reasons. At indefinite period of time if they could see its usefulness and if the cost were the end of the trial they answered a survey reasonable. The median amount indicated by the participants as a reasonable regarding their willingness to pay for and to Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method 1.) Results showed that text prompts led to significant improvements in recall between baseline and 7 days (z = – 2.31, p = .02) but not between 7 days and end of study (z = – 7.19, p = .47). This would suggest that the majority of improvement brought about by the intervention was achieved during the initial 7 days. This was confirmed by effect sizes which were large between baseline Eleven participants were recruited from two and 7 days (r =.69) but relatively small (r = .21) between 7 days and end of community-based rehabilitation centers and were sent text messages relating to three randomly selected goals from a selection of six 2.) Text prompts significantly improved participants’ cued recall between base- line and 7 days (z = – 2.05, p = .04) but not between 7 days and end of study (z = – 1.58, p = .11) again indicating that the majority of benefit had occurred by the seventh day of the intervention. This was confirmed by effect sizes which were large between baseline and 7 days (r =.61) and medium to large between 7 days and end of study (r = .47).
3.) All 11 would use the service again.
Forty insulin-treated adolescents and young adults with diabetes were randomized to receive electronic reminders to check their BG levels via cell phone text messaging or e-mail 1.) Of the 40 participants, 22 were randomized to receive cell phone text reminders for a 3-month pilot study. Electronic message reminders and 18 to receive e-mail reminders; 18 in the cell phone messages were automatically generated, and group and 11 in the e-mail group used the system. Compared to the e-mail participant replies with BG results were group, users in the cell phone group received more reminders (180.4 vs. 106.6 per user) and responded with BG results significantly more often (30.0 vs. 6.9 Computerized Automated Reminder Diabetes per user, P#0.04). During the first month cell phone users submitted twice as many BGs as e-mail users (27.2 vs. 13.8 per user); by month 3, usage waned.
schedule for reminders on the secure CARDS website where they could also enter and review BG data. The participants were randomly allocated to one of three study groups: (a) control condition without intervention, (b) intervention with one weekly SMS feedback (1SMS), or (c) intervention with three weekly SMS feedbacks (3SMS). In study groups (b) and (c), individualized SMS feedbacks were 1.) The median number of replies to the weekly SMS assessments was 12.5 in sent to the participants weekly, based on data the 1SMS group and 13.0 in the 3SMS group (not significant). The acceptance from the baseline assessment and a weekly of the program did not differ between the intervention groups. At postassessment, no significant differences between the three study groups according to the transtheoretical model. emerged on the examined smoking variables. Program use and acceptance were compared between the two intervention groups differing in support intensity. An exploration of the short-term efficacy of the program was conducted by comparing the three study groups at the end of the 3-month intervention program on smoking variables.
A total of 106 women who volunteered to participate in the study were trained in the technique of breast self-examination (BSE) with the help of a lecture, video, demonstration of the technique on breast model by the demonstration by the technique participants. 1.) After the first two months of sending reminder the practice of BSE increased significantly (p<0.05).
Susequently, short text meassges (SMS) were sent according to the last menstrual period (LMP) information collected. Women who did not menstruate were sent reminders on the first of every month. Statistical analysis was done using epinfo software.
Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya wi ll be randomized to 1.) Primary binary outcomes (12 months post initiation of HAART) receive either a structured weekly SMS (’short a. Self-reported adherence (>95%) in previous 30 days) message system’ or text message) slogan (the b. Suppressed HIV viral load (≤400 copies/ml) intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control).
Appendix A - Tracked Clinical Trials using SMS as the primary communicaitons method 1.) Online diaries were more likely to be submitted late than SMS diaries Participants were recruited by telephone and (p<0.001). 3.9% of SMS diaries, 3.1% of paper diaries and 0.5% of online randomised into one of three groups. They completed weekly sexual behaviour diaries for three months by SMS, online, or paper (by 2.) Online data collection was the preferred mode for 51%. post). An online survey was conducted at the 65 participants completed the end point retrospective questionnaire. The end of three months to compare retrospective correlation between the diary and questionnaire on sexual risk classification was reports to the diaries, and assess opinions on substantial (kappa=0.74) regardless of diary mode.
1.) The mean tacrolimus level SD de-creased from 3.46 g/L before the study to A prospective study of sending text messaging administrator (patient or caregiver) for 2.) The number of immunosuppressants taken and patient self/caregiver pediatric transplant recipients was performed. medication administration did not significantly affect the results.
Patient records were reviewed, comparing the 3.) Number of Acute cellular rejection episodes year before and the year of the study. The SD 3.) The number of acute cellular rejection episodes decreased from 12 to 2 of serum tacrolimus levels was used as an The study was a randomized controlled trial, with participants being exposed to one of the 1.) At the end of 4 months, the intervention group (n = 33) lost more weight following two conditions, lasting 16 weeks: (1) than the comparison group (−1.97 kg difference, 95% CI −0.34 to −3.60 kg, P receipt of monthly printed materials about = .02) after adjusting for sex and age. Intervention participants’ adjusted weight control; (2) an intervention that average weight loss was 2.88 kg (3.16%).
included personalized SMS and MMS messages sent two to five times daily, printed materials, 2.) At the end of the study, 22 of 24 (92%) intervention participants stated that and brief monthly phone calls from a health they would recommend the intervention for weight control to friends and family.
counselor. The primary outcome was weight at the end of the intervention. Sixty-two people with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders were included in the study. All patients showed impaired goal-directed 1.) The overall mean success percentage overall goal categories was behaviour in daily life-situations. Patients were 47%(across patients SD 27.9) during baseline, increased to 62%(SD20.1) prompted with SMS text messages to improve during the intervention, and dropped to 40%(SD31.7) at follow-up.
their everyday functioning.The primary outcome measure was the percentage of goals achieved. A total of 26 subjects aged 18-45 years, with a clinical history of asthma and a positive methacholine challenge test were randomised to receive, or to not receive, a daily short message service (SMS) reminder on their cell 1.) The absolute difference in mean adherence rate between the two groups after 12 weeks was 17.8%, 95% CI (3.2-32.3%), p = 0.019.
phone to take their anti-asthmatic medication. Inhaled corticosteroids to last for eight weeks and a prescription for four additional weeks were given to the subjects.

Source: http://www.michaelscharf.us/Healthcare%20Academic%20Literature%20Summary.pdf

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