Section of Dermatology • ' Tinea' is derived from the Latin word meaningclothes-moth which the Romans thought wasresponsible for this condition. • It is caused by a superficial fungus that colonizeskeratin (hair, nails and the stratum corneum)• There are three genera of dennatophytes infectingthe skin: Microsporum. Epidermophyton andTrichopyton• Tinea infections often result from
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Nerczyca.plIs Nephrotic Syndrome
likely to recur?
Approximately 70% of children with minimal a condition that most children outgrow.
change lesion have recurrences of oedema.
This is more likely to occur at the same time to occur with the common cold. Prednisolone as a common cold. The urine can be tested is very effective in controlling the urine proteinleak in the majority of cases. Every effort at home. The first sign of recurrence is an should be made so that the child continues in Children
excessive amount of protein on the dip stick.
Swelling does not occur until excessiveprotein has been present in the urine for some days. If either occurs the parent shouldcontact their doctor and drug management Other Pamphlets Available:
frequent the child may remain on prednisolonefor some months or years depending on the • From Me to You: So Your Relative Needs prednisolone can occur and include obesity, roundness in the face, a decrease in growth rate and small cataracts. The other medications listed above are given at certain times to prevent these complications. The majority of children who have relapses stop relapsing • Rehabilitation & Exercise for Renal Patients If the nephrotic syndrome does not respond • Urinary Reflux. Information for Parents of to the prednisolone a renal biopsy is usually performed. A small percentage of childrenwith other forms of nephrotic syndrome do not respond to drug therapy and they may develop kidney failure. In these patientsmedications that act on the kidney to increase urine output will decrease theamount of oedema. If high blood pressure is present then it is important that this be well controlled and smoking should 37 Darling Point Road, Darling Point, NSW 2027 37 Darling Point Road, Darling Point, NSW 2027 Telephone: (02) 9362 3995 or (02) 9362 3121 Telephone: (02) 9362 3995 or (02) 9362 3121 Supported by the Australian Kidney Foundation Supported by the Australian Kidney Foundation What is
As the child is losing excessive protein in the Nephrotic syndrome occurs when the filters The commonest type of nephrotic syndrome urine a good diet is necessary. A normal or high in the kidney leak an excessive amount of in children is called “minimal change” and protein diet is encouraged. Mild reduction of protein. The level of protein in the blood then occurs in 80% of cases. In this type, the kidney fluid intake will assist in preventing excessswelling of the tissues. Salt reduction should be falls and this allows fluid to leak across very function remains normal. A small percentage encouraged by not adding salt to the food.
small blood vessels into the tissues. Swelling of children may have partial scarring involving around the eyes, abdomen and legs is then some of their filters, while others may have activities. The majority of children with noted. Protein in the body is normally made nephrotic syndrome respond to drug therapy.
by the liver and the liver then responds by Prednisolone (a steroid medication) is the initial producing extra protein. Nephrotic syndrome drug used with “minimal change” nephrotic is a combination of proteinuria (excessive syndrome. The urine usually becomes clear protein in the urine), low blood protein and of protein within 2-3 weeks. Prednisolone can What causes
Most cases of nephrotic syndrome are caused types of white cells produce a substance that acts on the filters in the kidney to produce a change in the filters. This allows protein nephrotic syndrome are caused by swelling Are there any
and increased cell numbers in the filters. In Complications?
some instances this may result in permanent Infections are infrequent but the child should see their doctor with any fevers or tummy pain. Clotting of a blood vessel is a rarecomplication, but should be suspected if a child develops severe tummy pain with a small needle is inserted into the kidney frank blood in the urine. With the low blood protein, the circulating blood volume may by producing less urine. This is more likely to occur if a child becomes ill with vomiting or diarrhoea. This complication is easily treated by infusion of protein into a vein.
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