Vol. 73, 379–386, No. 3, February 15, 2002Copyright © 2002 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. POSTTRANSPLANT DIABETES MELLITUS IN KIDNEY ALLOGRAFT RECIPIENTS: INCIDENCE, RISK FACTORS, AND MANAGEMENT 1 M. ROY FIRST,2,7 DAVID A. GERBER,3 SUNDARAM HARIHARAN,4 DIXON B. KAUFMAN,5 AND University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267; University of North Carolina at C
New-pths209.orgWhat is swine flu?
Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses. Outbreaks of
swine flu happen regularly in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do
happen. Most commonly, human cases of swine flu happen in people who are around pigs but it’s possible for
swine flu viruses to spread from person to person also.
Are there human infections with swine flu in the U.S.?
Cases of human infection with swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have been confirmed in the United States.
CDC and local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation.
Is this swine flu virus contagious?
CDC has determined that this virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human. However, at this
time, it not known how easily the virus spreads between people.
What are the signs and symptoms of swine flu in people?
The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever,
cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and
vomiting associated with swine flu. In the past, severe illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths
have been reported with swine flu infection in people. Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of
underlying chronic medical conditions.
How serious is swine flu infection?
Like seasonal flu, swine flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Between 2005 until January
2009, 12 human cases of swine flu were detected in the U.S. with no deaths occurring. However, swine flu
infection can be serious. In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman in Wisconsin
was hospitalized for pneumonia after being infected with swine flu and died 8 days later. A swine flu outbreak
in Fort Dix, New Jersey occurred in 1976 that caused more than 200 cases with serious illness in several
people and one death.
How do you catch swine flu?
Spread of swine flu can occur in two ways:
• Through contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine flu viruses. • Through contact with a person with swine flu. Human-to-human spread of swine flu has been documented also and is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu. Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to- person through coughing or sneezing of infected people. Are there medicines to treat swine flu?
Yes. CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and/or
prevention of infection with these swine influenza viruses. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills,
liquid or an inhaler) that fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get
sick, antiviral drugs can make your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also prevent
serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2
days of symptoms).
How long can an infected person spread swine flu to others?
People with swine influenza virus infection should be considered potentially contagious as long as they are
symptomatic and possible for up to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods. What can I do to protect myself from getting sick?
There is no vaccine available right now to protect against swine flu. There are everyday actions that can help
prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza. Take these everyday steps to
protect your health:
• Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after • Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand • Try to avoid close contact with sick people. • If you get sick with influenza, CDC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way. What should I do if I get sick?
If you are sick, you should stay home and avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from
spreading your illness to others.
If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care. In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include: • Fast breathing or trouble breathing • Bluish skin color • Not drinking enough fluids • Not waking up or not interacting • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough • Fever with a rash In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include: • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen • Sudden dizziness • Confusion • Severe or persistent vomiting Can I get swine influenza from eating or preparing pork?
No. Swine influenza viruses are not spread by food. You cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork
products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe.
Wednesday 4th Thursday 5th Friday 6th Saturday 7th MUCUS AND NON-PYLORI AND EFFECTIVE H. EXTRACELLULAR EXTRA-GASTRIC PYLORI VACCINE MANIFESTATIONS David Thornton: F. Haesebrouck: Markus Gerhard Abstract Abstract Phil Sutton presentations presentations ADHESION AND “- OMICS” SCIENTIST VIRULENCE P