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CURRENT TOPICS IN NUTRACEUTICAL RESEARCH
February 2010

Reviews
1-6
EFFICACY OF NUTRITIONAL ERGOGENIC AIDS IN HOT
ENVIRONMENTS
Brett R. Ely and Samuel N. Cheuvront [ABSTRACT]
ACUTE PROTEIN-CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION: EFFECTS
ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE
Emma Cockburn [ABSTRACT]

19-32 CREATINE AND β-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION IN STRENGTH/POWER

ATHLETES
Jay R. Hoffman [ABSTRACT]

33-44 QUERCETIN’S BIOACTIVE EFFECTS IN HUMAN ATHLETES

David C. Nieman [ABSTRACT]

Research Articles

45-54 DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH PECANS DELAYS MOTOR

NEURON PATHOLOGY IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING G93A
MUTANT HUMAN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE-1
James Suchy, Sangmook Lee, Ambar Ahmed, and Thomas B. Shea
[ABSTRACT]

CURRENT TOPICS IN NUTRACEUTICAL RESEARCH VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 8 (1): 1-6
1-6
EFFICACY OF NUTRITIONAL ERGOGENIC AIDS IN HOT
ENVIRONMENTS
Brett R. Ely and Samuel N. Cheuvront [ABSTRACT]

ABSTRACT: Many athletes seeking a competitive edge rely on nutritional ergogenic
aids to improve performance. Carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF)
supplementation appear efficacious at enhancing endurance exercise performance
when studied under ideal circumstances, but the unique challenges imposed by
environmental stressors such as heat may minimize or negate these effects. Similar to
findings in temperate or cool environments, CHO intake during endurance exercise in
hot environments produces a consistent performance benefit. But in contrast to the
benefits observed in moderate environments, CAF affords no apparent performance
advantage in the heat. These findings raise interesting questions about nutritional
ergogenic mechanisms of action and offer direction for future research.

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 8 (1): 7-18 7-18 ACUTE PROTEIN-CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION: EFFECTS
ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE
Emma Cockburn [ABSTRACT]

ABSTRACT: In recent years, research investigating strategies to reduce exercise-
induced muscle damage have become popular, with acute carbohydrate-protein
supplementation gaining interest. The results of these studies are equivocal. A review
of published peer-reviewed articles in reference to acute carbohydrate-protein
supplementation and their impact on alleviating exercise-induced muscle damage is
provided, in addition to an overview of the exercise-induced muscle damage process
and rationale for their use. It can be concluded that there is potential for acute
carbohydrate-protein supplementation to reduce some symptoms of exercise-induced
muscle damage. Primarily, there is evidence of reduced increases in intramuscular
proteins in serum and attenuated reductions in concentric muscle actions. However,
there is little evidence of muscle soreness being alleviated. There are also substantial
gaps in the literature, with information lacking in: (i) optimal dosage; (ii) optimal
timing of supplementation; (iii) the effect on all paradigms of muscle function; and (iv)
make-up of supplement(s), although whey protein concentrate and milk-based protein
appear to provide benefits. Due to the conflicting results and the lack of studies
conducted in this area it is difficult to provide definitive advice to the exercising
individual. However, consuming carbohydrate-protein supplements would be
recommended as they have demonstrated potential for reducing exercise-induced
muscle damage and may be beneficial for other aspects of recovery.

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 8 (1): 19-32
19-32 CREATINE AND β-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION IN STRENGTH/POWER

ATHLETES
Jay R. Hoffman [ABSTRACT]
ABSTRACT: Creatine and β-alanine are two of the most popular sport supplements
used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of creatine has resulted in more
than 600 studies examining the physiology, efficacy and safety of its use among
various athletic populations. Recently, β-alanine has become as popular a supplement
for the anaerobic athlete due to its unique ability to enhance muscle buffering capacity.
This review will examine the studies that have been conducted on the efficacy of these
supplements. In addition, the physiology that underlies the mechanisms of action
behind these supplements will be described and provide an understanding to the
potential ergogenic benefits that they hold for strength and power athletes. Finally,
discussion will also examine the potential adverse effects associated with each
supplement.

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 8 (1): 33-44

33-44 QUERCETIN’S BIOACTIVE EFFECTS IN HUMAN ATHLETES

David C. Nieman [ABSTRACT]
ABSTRACT: Quercetin exerts strong anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-
pathogenic, and immune regulatory effects in vitro and in animal-based studies.
Epidemiologic data indicate reduced rates of cardiovascular disease and various types
of cancer in groups self-selecting diets high in quercetin. Several recent quercetin
supplementation studies in human athletes have focused on potential influences as a
countermeasure to post-exercise inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune
dysfunction, in improving endurance performance, and in reducing illness rates
following periods of physiologic stress. When quercetin supplementation is combined
with other polyphenols and food components such as green tea extract, isoquercetin,
and fish oil, a substantial reduction in exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative
stress occurs in athletes, with chronic augmentation of innate immune function.
Quercetin supplementation (1,000 mg/day for two to three weeks) also reduces illness
rates in exercise-stressed athletes. Animal studies support a role for quercetin as an
exercise mimetic for mitochondrial biogenesis, and recent data in untrained human
subjects indicate modest enhancement in skeletal muscle mitochondrial density and
endurance performance. Quercetin has multiple bioactive effects that support athletic
endeavor, and research continues to better define optimal dosing regimens and
adjuvants that amplify these influences.


Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 8 (1): 45-54
45-54 DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH PECANS DELAYS MOTOR

NEURON PATHOLOGY IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING G93A
MUTANT HUMAN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE-1
James Suchy, Sangmook Lee, Ambar Ahmed, and Thomas B. Shea
[ABSTRACT]

ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates that diet can modulate health in
aging to the extent of delaying the manifestation of age-related diseases. Nuts are
among the antioxidant-rich foods that have been demonstrated to provide a degree of
protection against age-related disorders We examined herein whether or not dietary
supplementation with pecans could affect the course of pathology in a mouse model of
the age-related human motor neuron disorder amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Transgenic mice expressing the G93A mutation of human superoxide dismutase-1
SOD-1 have been widely utilized to study the onset and progression of familial ALS.
Mice provided a diet supplemented with 0.05% pecans displayed a significant delay in
decline in motor neuron function, which was accompanied by increased survival of
motor neurons and a decrease in reactive gliosis, as compared to non-supplemented
mice. These findings support inclusion of pecans and/or other nuts as part of a
comprehensive nutritional therapeutic approach that may augment pharmacological
approaches.

Source: http://www.nocipecan.it/DIETARY_SUPPLEMENTATION%20WITH%20PECANS_DELAYS_MOTOR_NEURON_PATHOLOGY.pdf

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