The following is a list of the most commonly prescribed drugs. It represents an abbreviatedversion of the drug list (formulary) that is at the core of your prescription-drug benefit plan. The list is not all-inclusive and does not guarantee coverage. In addition to using this list,you are encouraged to ask your doctor to prescribe generic drugs whenever appropriate. PLEASE NOTE: The symbol * nex
Bardzo tanie apteki z dostawą w całej Polsce kupic levitra i ogromny wybór pigułek.
Untitled documentIn any given area the water quality is determined by local conditions. Pure rain water starts to absorb pol utants even as it fal s through the atmosphere. As it permeates through the soil and lies as ground water, its chemical composition is affected by the nature of the earth’s strata in the locality and the level of contaminants these contain. The various treatments that are used to produce pure drinking water and the mains and pipes that carry the water to our homes can also contribute elements such as chlorine, copper and zinc that are harmful to aquarium life. Due to these many influences, no two types of tap water are alike - and vast differences often occur between neighboring towns. The chemical and biological processes in an aquarium bring about stil further changes in the water quality. In order for the flora and fauna to thrive, the conditions in the aquarium have to be suitable and must correspond as closely as possible to those of their natural habitat. The biological balance and hence the wel -being of fish and plants depends fundamental y upon the quality of the water in which they With the TetraWHVW Laborett you wil have a reliable and accurate means of measuring the general hardness, carbonate hardness, pH value, nitrite and carbon dioxide content of your aquarium water. The general hardness of water is determined by the concentration of calcium and magnesium salts. Where the level of these salts is high, the water is classified as hard and when it is low, as soft. A favorable GH value at which most ornamental fish can be kept, is between 6° dH and 16° dH (°dH = As wel as the calcium and magnesium salts already mentioned, almost every type of water contains further salt components, such as bicarbonates - their levels in the water are indicated by the KH-value. The bicarbonates have an important task to fulfil in the aquarium, acting as a pH-buffer and thus preventing a drastic or sudden change in the pH value, as in the case of an acid col apse. Due to the close interaction between the KH and pH values, the carbonate hardness also has a direct influence on the wel being of al the organisms in the aquarium. A KH value between 3° dH and 10° dH is general y recommended though fish from the East African Rift lakes (Malawi and Tanganyika) are adapted to living with higher levels of carbonate hardness. The pH value is calculated from the total amount of acidic and basic substances dissolved in the water that could either acidify the water or turn it alkaline. Chemical y pure water has a pH value of and is designated as neutral. In it the acid and alkaline components are equal y balanced. The more acids that are present, the lower the pH value. The more basic components present, the higher the pH value rises. A sudden lowering of the pH value can occur, for instance, in very soft water if the bicarbonate (KH value) buffer is used up. Al fish, plants and micro-organisms are very sensitive to drastic changes in pH and for this reason you should test the pH value at least once a week. A pH value of between 6.5 and 8.5 wil suit almost every species of fish encountered in the freshwater aquarium. Fish originating from blackwater rivers prefer soft water with pH values between 6.0 and 7.5 whilst East African cichlids find values in the range between 7.5 and 8.5 and a high carbonate hardness very 1+ 12 −2 DQG 12 − DPPRQLD QLWULWH DQG QLWUDWH Due to fish excreta, decaying plant residues and left-over food, nitrogen compounds, which are degraded in a series of steps, find their way into the aquarium water. The first stage of this process is the formation of either toxic ammonia or non-toxic ammonium. The pH value greatly influences the amount of ammonia or ammonium produced: with pH values of below 8.0, non-toxic ammonium wil mainly be formed; if the pH value exceeds this figure, however, ammonia wil mainly be produced. A long-term ammonia content of just 0.1 mg/l can even be harmful to sensitive fish. Concentrations of as little as 0.5 to 1 mg/l can have a lethal effect on some fish. In the second stage, ammonia and ammonium are broken down into nitrite with the aid of Nitrosomonas bacteria. Nitrite, however, is also poisonous and extremely harmful to ornamental fish. Ensure your aquarium has a biological y active filtration system – only aquaria with an intact filtration system have maximum nitrite concentrations of 0.3 mg/l. The nitrite content should not exceed 0.8 mg/l over a long period of time since a content as low as 1.6 mg/l can be harmful to your freshwater In the final stage of degradation, Nitrobacter bacteria turn nitrite into nitrate, which is relatively harmless. One function of nitrate is to provide plant with nutrients. Excessive concentrations, however, are harmful to your ornamental fish and promote the tiresome growth of algae. Nitrate contents of up to 25 mg/l are considered harmless in aquarium water. Should the nitrate content rise to between 25 mg/l and 100 mg/l, particularly in marine water, a partial water change is recommended. Water is considered to be contaminated if nitrate values exceed 100 mg/l. In this case, Oxygen is essential in the aquarium for a number of reasons – it forms the basis for the existence of both fish and plants. During the day, the underwater flora absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2) and emits oxygen (O2) through photosynthesis. In order to breathe, the fish absorb oxygen through their gil s. Oxygen is also essential to al bacteria, especial y those that are responsible for degrading nitrogen in the aquarium. At night, the process is reversed – the aquatic plants emit carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen. This is why the oxygen content can be lower in the morning than in the evening if the aquarium is not ventilated. The maximum ability of the water to absorb oxygen is known as the saturation concentration (measured in mg/l), which is dependent on the water temperature and the salt content. Please ensure that the fol owing saturation values do not fal below 80% of the given value. If oxygen levels are too low for a long period of time, the resulting oxygen deficit can lead to your ornamental fish becoming more prone to diseases. Oxygen saturation concentration of freshwater. Corresponds to 100% saturation. Oxygen saturation concentration of marine water of varying densities. Corresponds to 100% /LTXLG WHVWV PXVW EH NHSW RXW RI UHDFK RI FKLOGUHQ 1. The temperature of the water must be between 20° and 30° Celsius. Samples taken outside this 2. Rinse the Tetra test vial with aquarium water. 3. Fil the test vial with 5 ml of aquarium water. 4. Hold the reagent bottle containing test liquid 1 over the test vial and add 14 drops to it. Careful y 5. Hold the reagent bottle containing test liquid 2 over the test vial and add 7 drops to it. Careful y 6. Hold the reagent bottle containing test liquid 3 over the test vial and add 7 drops to it. Careful y 7. Close the test vial and shake wel . Leave the vial to stand for 20 minutes at room temperature. 8. Compare the shade of the liquid with the color scale and read off the measurements. 9. On completion of the test, clean the test vial using tap water. :DUQLQJ /LTXLG WHVWV PXVW EH NHSW RXW RI UHDFK RI FKLOGUHQ +DUPIXO ,QIODPPDEOH ,UULWDQW WR H\HV DQG VNLQ &RQWDLQV OLWKLXP K\GUR[LGH SKHQRO DQG SURSDQRO +DUPIXO LI LQ FRQWDFW ZLWK WKH VNLQ DQG LI VZDO RZHG ,I VZDO RZHG FRQVXOW D GRFWRU LPPHGLDWHO\ DQG WDNH WKH SDFNDJLQJ 1. Rinse the test vial with aquarium water. 2. Fil the test vial with 5 ml of aquarium water. 3. Hold the reagent bottle containing the nitrate 1 test liquid over the test vial and careful y add 14 4. Now add 7 drops of the nitrate 2 test liquid to the vial and careful y shake it. 5. Using the measuring spoon, add 1 spoon of the test powder to the vial, close it and shake wel for 6. Add 7 drops from the reagent bottle containing the nitrate 3 test liquid to the vial, gently shake it and leave it to stand for 10 minutes for the color to form. 7. Compare the shade of the liquid with the color scale and read off the measurements. When reading the measured value, take care that the vial is kept upright and approx. one finger's :DUQLQJ /LTXLG WHVWV PXVW EH NHSW RXW RI UHDFK RI FKLOGUHQ ,QIODPPDEOH ,UULWDQW WR H\HV DQG VNLQ &RQWDLQV SURSDQRO HWK\O DOFRKRO DQG ]LQF GXVW Tip: The oxygen content in non-aerated aquariums wil be lower in the morning than over the day. The reason for this is that the plant organisms stop producing O2 at night and actual y make use of oxygen themselves. We therefore recommend taking O2 measurements in the morning. 1. Rinse the test vial with aquarium water. 2. Fil the test vial to the 15 ml mark with aquarium water. 3. Hold the O2 reagent bottle 1 over the vial and add 5 drops to it. 4. Hold the O2 reagent bottle 2 over the vial and add 5 drops to it. 5. Immediately put the lid on the test vial and turn it upside down. A deposit is formed (fine, undissolved particles that cloud the liquid). Vials containing freshwater should be left to stand for 30 seconds, whereas marine water requires 5 minutes. 6. Reopen the test vial, hold the O2 reagent bottle 3 over the vial and add 5 drops to it. 7. Immediately put the lid on the test vial and turn it upside down twice. The deposit dissolves, 8. In order to read the oxygen content, compare the shade of the liquid with the color scale and read :DUQLQJ /LTXLG WHVWV PXVW EH NHSW RXW RI UHDFK RI FKLOGUHQ ,UULWDQW ,UULWDQW WR H\HV DQG VNLQ &RQWDLQV OLWKLXP K\GUR[LGH DQG WDUWDULF DFLG ,I VZDO RZHG FRQVXOW D GRFWRU LPPHGLDWHO\ DQG There are also a number of general tips that al aquarium owners should know about to help reduce • $YRLG RYHUVWRFNLQJ WKH DTXDULXP ZLWK ILVK Avoid having too many fish in your aquarium. Also ensure that the fish are not too large in It is better to feed the fish smal portions several times a day rather than just one large helping a day. Only give the fish the amount of food they can eat within a few minutes. We recommend the proven Tetra range of quality fish foods. Make sure that you have a filtration system suited to both the size of the aquarium and the number of fish contained in it. In a newly set up tank, the filtration system wil take approximately 4 to 6 weeks to become biological y activated. Use biological filter media, e.g. foam or depot filters that enable actively degrading bacteria to settle on them. The filter material must be cleaned regularly to prevent it from silting or blocking up. • 5HJXODU UHPRYDO RI DO SODQW DQG IRRG UHVLGXHV VRFDO HG IHQPXO IURP WKH ERWWRP RI WKH Carry out regular partial water changes, using an appropriate tap water conditioning product, such as Tetra$TXD AquaSafe, replacing ¼ to RI WKH ZDWHU HYHU\ WR ZHHNV Make sure that you have dense, healthy plant growth. Thriving plants take nitrate out of the water and thus stabilize the biological state of the aquarium. Use nitrate- and phosphate-free fertilizers such as Tetra3ODQW PlantaMin, Tetra3ODQW Crypto fertilizers and Tetra3ODQW InitialSticks, because these supply the aquatic plants with balanced quantities of micro- and trace elements. :DWHU KDUGQHVV *HQHUDO &DUERQDWH +DUGQHVV • Fol ow the general advice on reducing contaminants. • Ask your local dealer about suitable methods to reduce water hardness, e.g. ion exchangers. • An excessively high pH value can easily be lowered by using Tetra$TXD pH/KH Minus or by adding carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilizer in the form of Tetra CO2 Optimat. The CO2 acidifies the water, while at the same time improving plant growth. • If the pH value is too low, this can be regulated precisely and on a long-term basis with Tetra$TXD pH/KH Plus, which simultaneously raises the carbonate hardness of the water. In general, the pH value of the water can also be raised by driving off excess CO2, e.g. by aerating the aquarium using a TetraWHF Air Pump and air stone. Overnight aeration of the aquarium is general y recommended. For further information, please refer to the specialist journals and literature. If you have any specific problems, your local dealer wil be happy to give you helpful advice. • If the ammonia content is too high, immediately change half of the aquarium water, fol owing the information given above on reducing contaminants. • Check the filtration system and measure the O2 content. • Reduce the biological pH value by adding CO2. • Immediately carry out a partial water change (approx. 50%). • Check the filtration system and measure the O2 content. • Fol ow the general advice on reducing contaminants. • If the nitrate content in freshwater and marine water exceeds 100 mg/l and 50 mg/l, respectively, immediately carry out a partial water change (approx. 50%). • Fol ow the general advice on reducing contaminants, since an excessive level of nitrate is a clear and sure sign of impurity and the gradual contamination of the aquarium water. Pay particular attention to healthy plant growth – thriving plants remove nitrate from the water, stabilizing the • In marine aquaria, algae, e.g. filamentous algae and the decorative leaf-like algae (e.g. Caulerpales) can be used to denitrificate the water. • Aerate the tank as an immediate measure. • Aerate the tank at night using an air pump and an air stone (medium-term measure). • Use an air-powered filtration system (e.g. Tetra Filter). • Ensure the water is circulated sufficiently, e.g. by the filter. • Improvement and promotion of plant growth by adding CO2 and fertilizer, e.g. Tetra3ODQW • Check the filter (silting, excessive use of oxygen). • Fol ow the general advice on reducing contaminants. ' 0HOOH 7HO ZZZWHWUDILVKFRP
Promising Phase II Data For New Parkinson's Disease Drug Presented 22 Mar 2013 A new levodopa product (ODM-101) developed by Orion Corporation could improve the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease patients. According to a Phase II study, presented yesterday at American Academy of Neurology's Annual Meeting in San Diego, ODM-101 significantly decreased daily OFF-time without increasing