Qualidigm Corporate Bibliography Van Hoof TJ, Meehan, Jr, TP, Kelvey-Albert M, Galusha D, Curry M, Barr JK, Meehan, Sr, TP. A comprehensive evaluation of a diabetes quality improvement project in privately-owned primary care practices that serve minority patients. (In press). Meehan TP Jr, Van Hoof TJ, Galusha D, Barr JK, Curry M, Kelvey-Albert M, Meehan, Sr, TP. Challenges in recruiting m
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Microsoft word - psi- urinary rc.docNUTRITION UPDATE: URINARY DIETS G. Thoni DVM Veterinarians have been using diet to manage lower urinary tract disease in their patients for over 50 years. Just as medicine and surgery have evolved with research and development, so has the use of nutrition to help treat animals with lower urinary tract disease. The original diets boasted low ash contents followed by low magnesium diets. Then came the pH-based diets, which were effective as long as struvite was the main problem. With the rise of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, pH was just not enough to prevent problems, and more recent studies have shown that calcium oxalate crystals can form in urine where pH ranges from 4.8 to 7.4. Now with more extensive and up-to-date research we are entering into the age of urinary dilution. This is a simple concept. We know that when we analyze a watery-looking urine sample, the chances of finding much sediment after centrifugation are low. The same is true for crystal and stone formation…the more dilute (watery) the urine, the less likely urolithiasis is to develop. This is the basis for Relative Super Saturation (RSS) technology. However, there is more science behind RSS than just urine dilution. The concentrations of ions (calcium, magnesium, oxalate, citrate, pyrophosphate, sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, sulphate, and phosphate) which are involved in the formation of the most common uroliths are considered (as well as pH to some extent.) RSS originated as a tool developed by human physician Dr. William G. Robertson. With the most common form of kidney stones in humans identified as calcium oxalate, he sought to formulate a model to predict stone formation. Physicians usually advise their patients to drink plenty of water. Since animals cannot simply be told to drink more water, Dr. Robertson and a team from the Waltham Center formulated the first diet for both dogs and cats that would ensure their increased consumption of water. This came only after years of exhaustive research which involved collecting copious amount of urine from study cats. Knowing that the Waltham Center does not conduct invasive research on its animals but rather, treats them like household pets in a luxurious surrounding, this task seemed impossible. Canine urine collection is far less challenging than feline, so how could the urine be collected without catheterization or cystocentesis? The solution was to clicker train the study cats to urinate in individual receptacles and to perform other eliminations in a litter box. The urine is then immediately analyzed with the remainder snap frozen for further analysis. Thus after years of research and many successful years in Europe, URI ARY
SO® was introduced to the U.S. in 1996. URINARY SO not only prevents struvite and
calcium oxalate stones, it actually dissolves struvite as well. A recent study shows that
Urinary SO can dissolve feline struvite stones in as little as 17 days!
Besides urolithiasis, Royal Canin has put another claim on the label of the very popular feline diet. After further research, it was proven that the wet forms of feline URINARY SO could actually reduce the recurrence of Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC), one of the most challenging diseases facing veterinary clinics today. It is no secret that one of the leading causes of feline euthanasia is inappropriate urination and that idiopathic cystitis is a major cause of this. While many cats have been treated with NUTRITION UPDATE: URINARY DIETS G. Thoni DVM antibiotics and urinary acidifiers with disappointing results, the label claim for idiopathic cystitis on URINARY SO has made an impact for the treatment regime of FIC. Why is the formula so effective against FIC? One theory is that since the cat is drinking more water, urine volume is increased. As a result, the bladder stays fuller, stretching out the bladder wall which concurrently decreases muscle spasms. An additional benefit is that the increased urine flow flushes out whatever irritants may be present in that bladder. We know that no matter how scientifically sound a veterinary diet is, it is absolutely useless unless the animal eats it. Royal Canin, who is known for their devotion to palatability, made sure that their leading urinary diet, URINARY SO, was no exception. In addition to the traditional canned and dry which was well –accepted by the public, in 2008 they introduced a pouch form to entice even the most finicky feline. Although urolithiasis can be a complex disease, Royal Canin’s attention to research and palatability provides veterinarians and their patients with simple, effective nutrition to enhance the length and quality of life of our canine and feline companions. Please call our technical services department at 1-800-592-6687 if you would like further information on any of the diets mentioned in this article or our wide range of therapeutic formulas. ________________________________________________________________________ There are other canine stones besides those mentioned above, and for these Royal Canin makes extremely effective diets as well. Urate stones have been shown to affect as many as 34% of male Dalmatians, although females can be affected as well. Urate urolithiasis is also seen in English bulldogs, Yorkshire terriers, and Shih Tzu’s. Since urate stones result from faulty purine metabolism, Royal Canin set out to make a low purine diet that was extremely palatable as well as being sufficient in protein, (serious problems the original urate diets have.)
The first product we offered for urate problems was VEGETARIA
FORMULA, a dry, meat free, low purine diet. To complement this, Royal Canin
launched a canned version in 2009. Vegetarian is a great diet for urate stones, and
possesses the additional benefit of working well as a dermatologic diet that is also lower
in dietary fat.
The newer, even more superior metabolic stone diet, Royal Canin URI ARY
UC, was launched in the U.S. in 2009. Although the letters UC stand for urate and
cystine, this diet also prevents xanthine stones. Unlike VEGETARIAN FORMULA ,
URINARY UC is not a strict vegetarian diet and is rich in low purine protein sources
such as egg. It contains anchovy oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids for skin health and is
supplemented with taurine.
Interestingly enough, URINARY UC was launched in Europe in February of 2008. It has been widely used there since cystine is much more common, resulting from NUTRITION UPDATE: URINARY DIETS G. Thoni DVM dogs treated for Leishmaniasis who consequently form xanthine stones. Allopurinol, a common treatment for both urate urolithiasis and Leishmaniasis, can result in the formation of xanthine stones by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme that converts xanthine to uric acid. Although urolithiasis can be a complex disease, Royal Canin’s attention to research and palatability provides veterinarians and their patients with simple, effective nutrition to enhance the length and quality of life of our canine and feline companions. Please call our technical services department at 1-800-592-6687 if you would like further information on any of the diets mentioned in this article or our wide range of therapeutic formulas.
Milk Thistle Text by Armando González Stuart, Ph.D., 2005 Botanical family: Asteraceae (Compositae). Other common names: Marian thistle, St. Mary’s Thistle. Common names in Spanish: Cardo mariano, Cardo lechoso. Medicinal parts: The dried, ripe fruits or achenes (“seeds”). The ripe fruits or achenes (“seeds”) of this plant have been employed in Europe for many