Name ________ Key ________________ Lab: Onion Root Mitosis Analysis: Answer each question in complete sentences as part of your lab report write-up in the Analysis section. Analysis section should be in paragraph format! 1. What evidence did you observe that shows that the cell cycle is a continuous process, not a series of separate events? Some of the cells are in an “in betwe
Bardzo tanie apteki z dostawą w całej Polsce kupic cialis i ogromny wybór pigułek.
Quimicaalcidesribeiro.com.brThe best ICHO-tasks of the last years
According to the decision of the work shop of Amsterdam the delegation leaders of 8countries made an attempt to rank the ICHO-tasks of the years 1980 ~ 1990 into thecategories excellent / good / not so good / not acceptable The following pages indicate the ”top-twelve”, i.e. is the best tasks of the last years. Thiscollection should be an aid for the ICHO-designers of the next years. Examples for tasksconsidered as ”not acceptable” are available for the next organisers too.
P-Problem 10 (determination of a solubility product) P-Problem 10 (qualitative inorganic analysis) T-Problem 12 (inorganic chemistry, NaH2PO4•2H2O) P-Problem 21 (qualitative inorganic analysis) P-Problem 23 (iodometric determ. of HCl and KIO3) T-Problem 4/1 (physical chemistry, thermodynamics) T-Problem 4/3 (physical chemistry, kinetics) Physical chemistry (periodic system, quantum numbers)
The periodic system of the elements in our three-dimensional world is based on the four electron quantumnumbers n = 1, 2, 3,.; l = 0, 1,., n-1; ml = 0, ±1, ±2,., ±l; and ms = ±1/2.
Let us move to Flatlandia. It is a two-dimensional world where the periodic system of the elements is basedon three electron quantum numbers: n = 1, 2, 3,.; m = 0, ±1, ±2,., ±(n-1); and ms = ±1/2. m plays thecombined role of l and ml of the three dimensional worlds (For example s, p, d,. levels are related to m).
The following tasks and the basic principles relate to this two-dimensional Flatlandia where the chemical andphysical experience obtained from our common three-dimensional world is applicable.
a) Draw the first four periods of the Flatlandian periodic table of the elements. Number the elements according to their nuclear charge. Use the atomic numbers (Z) as the symbols of the elements. Write theelectron configuration of each element. (3.0 points).
b) Draw the hybrid-orbitals of the elements with n = 2. Which element is the basis for the organic chemistry in Flatlandia (use the atomic number as a symbol)? Find the Flatlandian analogues for ethane, etheneand cyclohexane. What kind of aromatic ring compounds are possible in Flatlandia? (2.0 points) c) Which rules in Flatlandia correspond to the octet and 18-electron rules in the three-dimensional world? d) Predict graphically the trends in the first ionisation energies of the Flatlandian elements with n = 2. Show graphically how the electronegativities of the elements increase in the Flatlandian periodic table. (1.0point) e) Draw the molecular orbital energy diagrams of the neutral homonuclear diatomic molecules of the elements with n = 2. Which of these molecules are stable in Flatlandia? (2.0 points) Consider simple binary compounds of the elements (n = 2) with the lightest element (Z = 1). Draw theirLewis-structures, predict geometries and propose analogues for them in the three-dimensional world.
(2.0 points) g) Consider elements with n ≤ 3. Propose an analog and write the chemical symbol from our three-dimensional world for each Flatlandian element. On the basis of this chemical and physicalanalogy predict which two-dimensional elements are solid, liquid or gas at the normal pressure andtemperature. (1.0 point) Solution of problem No. 1:
[ ]2s 22p1 [ ]2s 22p2 [ ]2s 22p3 [ ]2s 22p4 There are no aromatic ring compounds.
d) The ionisation energies and the trends in electronegativity: e) The molecular orbital diagram of the homonuclear X2 molecules: The energies of the molecular orbitals of g) The three-dimensional analogs and the states of Flatlandian e lemen ts: Problem No. 2:
Inorganic chemistry (complex chemistry)
Compounds containing divalent platinum with the general formula [PtX2(amine)2] (whereX = Cl or X2 = SO4,malonate, etc.) have over the last few years enjoyed an increasing scientific interest because of theirbiological activity, particularly in view of their properties in the treatment of tumours.
The best known compound, which is used on a large scale clinically, is [PtCl2(NH3)2]. This compound, inwhich the platinum is coordinated in a square planar arrangement, has two geometrical isomers of whichone shows the anti tumour activity.
a) Sketch the spatial structures of the two possible isomers.
b) How many isomers has [PtBrCl(NH3)2]? Sketch these isomers.
It is possible to replace the two ammine ligands by one ligand containing two donor atoms (N). Then oneobtains a chelating ligand such as 1,2-diaminoethane (en for short).
c) Show by a drawing that [PtBrCl(en)] has only one stable structure.
The ligand (en) can be changed by substitution. For instance via methylation one can obtain: d) Give spatial structures of all isomers of the following compounds: [PtCl2 (dmen)][PtCl2 (pn)][PtBrCl (dmen)][PtBrCl (pn)] Platinum compounds and in particular the analogous palladium compounds (which are also square planarcoordinated when they contain bivalent metal ions) can isomerise in aqueous solutions, i.e. some isomerscan transform into one another. Such an isomerisation usually proceeds through dissociation of a ligand, theweak ligand water transiently replaces one or more of the stronger ligands. Cl– and Br– are replacedrelatively easily, but it is more difficult to replace the amine ligand, it usually requires heating the solution.
e) Considering each one of the isomers in answers 1a-1d, which can be converted to another isomer at room temperature?N.B. In your answer give both the original molecule and the products.
Which compound would one expect and in what proportion, when one carries out the reaction of[PtCl2(en)] and Br– in a molar proportion of 1:2 at room temperature. You can assume that the Pt—Brand Pt—Cl bonds are equally strong and that there is no perturbing influence from hydrolysis.
The compound [PtCl2(NH3)2] hydrolyses slowly in water to (amongst other compounds) [Pt(H2O)2(NH3)2]2+and 2Cl–. Patients are given the non-hydrolysed compound via injection into the bloodstream. The action inthe tumour cell appears to derive from the special way in which bonding to the DNA occurs. In cells the Cl–concentration is low, in blood it is fairly high (0.1 M) g) Show with the aid of the equations for chemical equilibrium that hydrolysis hardly occurs in the blood, After hydrolysis in the tumour cell a reactive platinum ion is formed to which two NH3 groups are still bound.
It turns out that these NH3 groups are still bound to platinum in the urine of patients treated with thiscompound. The reactive platinum ion appears to be bound to cellular DNA, where the bonding occurs viaguanine to one of the N-atoms.
Because the platinum has two reactive sites and two unreactive NH3 ligands, it can form a second bond toDNA in addition to the one shown above. Biochemical research has shown that this happens in particularwith a second guanine base of the same strand of the DNA.
h) Show by means of a calculation which of the two isomers in question a) can form this bond.
(Note: Pt—N distance = 210 pm, DNA base distance = 320 pm).
Solution of problem No. 2:
d) The isomers of PtCl2(dmen) and PtCl2(pn) are: The isomers of [PtBrCl(dmen)] and [PtBrCl(pn)] are: e) In a), b), c), no change. In d) 4 and 5 transform into one another, just like 6 and 7 and 8 and 9 BONUS: If one realises that [PtCl2(dmen)], [PtBr2(dmen)], [PtCl2(pn)] and [PtBr2(pn)] are also formed,even though they are not isomers.
f) One expects the products [PtCl2(en)], [PtBr2(en)] and [PtBrCl(en)] in the proportions 1:1:2.
g) We are concerned with the following equations for chemical equilibrium.
In blood the hydrolysis does not occur to any great extent because the concentration of Cl– is rather highand the equilibrium is on the left side.
h) The bond is due to the cis isomer because in that case the distance between the bases (320 pm) has tochange only 210 x √2 ≈ 300 pm, and with the trans compound 210 x 2 = 420 pm.
Problem No. 3:
Chemistry of ions (redox reactions)
A white, crystalline solid exhibits the following reactions: 1. The flame of a Bunsen burner is intensely yellow coloured.
2. An aqueous solution is neutral; dropwise addition of sulfurous acid (an SO2 solution) leads to a deep brown solution which is discoloured in the presence of excess sulfurous acid.
3. If an AgNO3 solution is added to the discoloured solution obtained in 2. and acidified with HNO3, a yellow precipitate that is insoluble on addition of NH3, but that can be readily dissolved by adding CN– orS 4. If an aqueous solution of the solid is treated with KI and dilute H2SO4, a deep brown solution is formed that can be discoloured by addition of sulfurous acid or a Na2S2O3 solution.
5. An amount of 0.1000 g of the solid is dissolved in water, 0.5 g KI and a few mL of dilute H2SO4 are added. The deep brown solution formed is titrated with a 0.1000 M Na2S2O3 solution until the solution iscompletely discoloured; the consumption, 37.40 mL.
a) What elements are contained in the solid? b) What compounds can be considered as present on the basis of reactions 1-4.? Calculate their molecular c) Formulate the reactions corresponding to 2-4. for the compounds considered and write them as d) Decide on the basis of reaction 5 which compound is present.
Solution of problem No. 3:
a) The solid must contain Na and I: The yellow colouration of the flame of the Bunsen burner indicates the presence of Na; a yellow silver salt that is dissolved only by strong complexing agents, such as CN– orS b) Reactions 1-4. indicate a Na salt of an oxygen-containing acid containing iodine.
Both SO2 and I are oxidised, while in the first case I– is formed with an intermediate of I2 (or I brown solution) and in the second I2 (or I ) is formed.
As the solution is neutral, NaIO3 and NaIO4 come into consideration.
M (NaIO3) = 22.99 + 126.905 + 3 x 16.000 = 197.895 = 197.90 g/molM (NaIO4) = 22.99 + 126.905 + 4 x 16.000 = 213.895 = 213.90 g/mol d) Experiment: 0 1000 g of the compound ……3.740 x 10–3 moles S O 1 mole NaIO3 ≡ 197.90 g NaIO3 ≡ 6 moles S O 1 mole NaIO4 ≡ 213.90 g NaIO4 ≡ 8 moles S O Problem No. 4:
Inorganic and physical chemistry (dissociation of chlorine)
The dissociation of (molecular) chlorine is an endothermic process, ∆H = 24.36 kJ mol–1. The dissociationcan also be attained by the effect of light.
1) At what wavelength can the dissociating effect of light be expected? 2) Can this effect also be obtained with light whose wavelength is smaller or larger than the calculated 3) What is the energy of the photon with the critical wavelength? When light that can effect the chlorine dissociation is incident on a mixture of gaseous chlorine andhydrogen, hydrogen chloride is formed. The mixture is irradiated with a mercury UV-lamp (λ = 253.6 nm. Thelamp has a power input of 10 watt. An amount of 2% of the energy supplied is absorbed by the gas mixture(in a 10 litre vessel). Within 2.5 seconds of irradiation, 65 millimoles of HCl is formed.
4) How large is the quantum yield (= the number of the product molecules per absorbed photon)? 5) How can the value obtained be (qualitatively) explained? Describe the reaction mechanism.
Solution of problem No. 4:
2) Short-wave light ls effective, as its photons have a greater energy than required, whereas the photons of longer-wavelength light are too poor in energy to effect the dissociation.
4) The quantum yield (φ) = the number of absorbed photons Now the number of HCl molecules formed = nHCl NA and the number of photons absorbed = Ephoton 6.5 x 10–2 x 6.02 x 1023 x 6.6 x 10–34 x 3 x 108 5) The observed quantum yield is based on a chain mechanism.
Problem No. 5:
Physical chemistry (thermodynamics)
Carbon monoxide is one of the most serious environmental hazards caused by automobiles and extensiveinvestigation is being carried out to develop efficient catalysts for the conversion of CO present in theexhaust gases to CO2. Consider a typical family car. It has four cylinders with a total cylinder volume of 1600cm3 and a fuel consumption of 7.0 dm3 /100 km when driving at a speed of 90 km/h. During one secondeach cylinder goes through 25 burn cycles and consumes 0.400 g of fuel. Assume that the fuel is composedof 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, C8H18. The compression ratio of the cylinder is 1:8 (the ratio between thesmallest and the largest volume within the cylinder as the piston moves to and fro).
a) Calculate the air intake of the engine (m3/s). The gasified fuel and air are introduced into the cylinder when its volume is largest until the pressure in the cylinder is 101.0 kPa. You may assume that thetemperature of both the incoming fuel and air is 100.0 °C. Air contains 21.0% by volume of O2 and 79.0% by volume of N2. It is assumed that 10.0l% of carbon formsCO upon combustion and that nitrogen remains inert.
b) The gasified fuel and the air are then compressed until the volume in the cylinder is at its smallest. They are ignited. Calculate (1) the composition (% by volume) and (2) the temperature (K) of the exhaustgases immediately after the combustion (the exhaust gases have not yet started to expand). Thefollowing thermodynamic values are known. You can assume that both the enthalpies of formation andthe molar heat capacities are independent of temperature and may be used in an approximatecalculation of the temperature change.
c) Calculate the final temperature of the exhaust gases leaving the cylinder assuming that the piston has moved to expand the gases to the maximum volume in the cylinder, the gas mixture obeys the ideal gasequation and that the final pressure in the cylinder is 200.0 kPa. d) To convert the CO(g) to CO2(g) the exhaust gases are led through a bed of catalyst. The catalyst has the where [n(CO)/n(CO2)] is the molar ratio of CO and CO2 leaving the catalyst, [n(CO)/n(CO2)]i is themolar ratio before the catalyst, v is the flow rate of the exhaust gases (mol s–1), T is the temperature ofthe exhaust gases entering the catalyst (assumed to be the same as the final temperature of the gasesleaving the cylinder). T0 is a reference temperature (373 K) and k is a constant (3.141 s mol–1).
Calculate the composition (% by volume) of the exhaust gases leaving the catalyst. Solution of problem No. 5:
mf = 0.400/25g = 0.0160 gnf = 1.4004 x 10–4 mol nA = air moles = nG - nf = 0.0130 - 1.404 x 10–4 mol = 0.0129 mol Air intake (m3 s–1) (one cylinder; 25 burn cycles) 25 s–1 x 0.0129 mol x 8.314 JK–1 mol–1 x 373 K VA = 4 x 9.902 x 10–3 m3 s–1 = 0.0396 m3 s–1 Composition of the exhaust gases (consider one cylinder and one burn cycle) nnitrogen = 0.79 x nA = 10.191 x 10–3 mol C8H18 + 12.1 O2 → 0.8CO + 7.2CO2 + 9H2O The composition of the gas after combustion: 2) The temperature of gas immediately after combustion = nf[0.8 x ∆Hf(CO) + 7.2 x ∆Hf(CO2) + 9 x ∆Hf(H2O) - ∆Hf(C8H18)] = 1.40 x 10–4 [0.8 (-110.53) + 7.2 (-395.51) + 9 (-241.82) - (-187.82)] = [1.12(29.14) + 10.11(37.11) + 12.63(33.58) +101.91(29.13) + 10.10(29.36)] 104(T1 – 373) = 691.4 J c) Temperature of the exhaust gas leaving the cylinder P2 = 200.0 kPaV = 4.00 x 10–4 m3nG = exhaust gas moles in one cylinder = 0.01359 mol d) Composition of the exhaust gas after the catalyst Mass stream of the exhaust gas from all four cylinders: v = 4.0 x 01359 mol x 25 s–1 = 1.359 mol s–1 2 can be calculated considering the amounts of exhaust gas components from Composition of the gas after the catalyst (one cycle): moles x 104
Problem No. 6:
Inorganic chemistry (labelled compounds)
The course of chemical reactions can be followed by using labelled compounds. 32P labelled phosphoruspentachloride (half life t1/2 =14.3 days) is employed to establish reaction (1) as an electrophilic attack on a PCl cation on nitrogen or on oxygen.
The reaction is carried out in tetrachloromethane and then the solvent and IV is distilled off.
Individually, samples of:• III, remaining in the distillation flask.
• IV, in the distillate, and• the radio-labelled starting material, II are hydrolysed by heating with sodium hydroxide solution. The phosphate ions formed are precipitated asammonium magnesium phosphate. The compounds are then recrystallised and dried. Exactly weighedsamples of the three precipitates are dissolved in known volumes. The radioactivity is then determined andthe specific radioactivities of the phosphates are calculated (per unit mass).
1) Write the reaction equation for labelled red phosphorus forming phosphorus pentachloride.
2) Write the reaction equations for the complete hydrolysis of the compounds II and III using sodium 3) After how many days (an integer) does the radioactivity decay to 10–3 of the initial value? 4) Write two alternative mechanisms for the reaction of labelled PCl with the anion of I.
5) After hydrolysis, the precipitated ammonium magnesium phosphates possess the following values of II. 2380 Bq for 128 mg of Mg(NH4)PO4 .
III. 28 Bq for 153 mg of Mg(NH4)PO4 .
IV. 2627 Bq for 142 mg of Mg(NH4)PO4 .
Using a calculation based on these data, what can you say about the nucleophilic centre attacked by and the equilibrium concentration of NH = 0.1 mol dm–3. Calculate the solubility for Mg(NH mol dm–3 under idealised conditions (activity coefficient equals one) at pH equals 10.
Solution of problem No. 6:
1) 2P + 5Cl2 → 2 PCl5 or 232P + 5Cl2 → 232PCl5 3) In the time dt dN nuclei are degradated. With λ as radio-active constant follows No is the number of atoms present at time t = 0. With half-life value Because Asp (II) ≈ Asp (IV) reaction (8) is right.
Problem No. 7:
Organic chemistry (stereochemistry)
Lactic acid is produced industrially (by CCA-Biochem, the Netherlands) through the bacterial conversion ofsaccharose. In this process (S)-(+)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid (L-(+)-lactic acid) is formed, which is used in thefood sector and also as a starting material for a number of chemical products.
a) Give the spatial formula and the Fischer projection of L-(+)-lactic acid.
A fine-chemical produced from L-(+)-lactic acid is the so-called dilactide, a cyclic ester in which 2 moleculeshave been esterified with one another. This dilactide is polymerized to a polylactide, which among otherthings is being used in surgery as a “biodegrading” thread in the suturing of surgical wounds.
b) Draw the spatial structure of the dilactide prepared from (+)-lactic acid.
c) Sketch the spatial structure of the polylactide discussed above (at least three units). What is its tacticity? d) Draw the isomeric dilactides, which occur when one starts with racemic lactic acid and show the configuration of the chiral centres.
Note: In the questions b) and d), for convenience the ring may be considered planar.
L-(+)-lactic acid is also one of the starting materials for the preparation of the herbicide Barnon(manufactured by Shell Chemicals, used against wild oats). In this case (+)-lactic acid is esterified with2-propanol and then the hydroxyl group is treated with methanesulfonyl chloride : The product obtained is then submitted to a SN2-reaction with 3-fluoro-4-chloroaniline*, in which reaction the methanesulfonate group leaves as CH3S O . Finally a benzoyl group is introduced with the aid of e) Draw the Fischer projection of the various consecutive reaction products.
*3-fluoro-4-chloroaniline is the same as 3-fluoro-4-chloro-phenylamine.
Solution of problem No. 7:
b) Dilactide of L-(+)-lactic acid, spatial formula: c) Polylactide of L-(+)-lactic acid; spatial formula: d) Dilactides of racemic lactic acid; spatial formulae with configurations: e) Consecutive products in Fischer projection: Problem No. 8:
In recombinant DNA technology one makes use of specific endonucleases. These are enzymes whichrecognise specific nucleotide sequences in double strand DNA and which catalyse the hydrolysis of aphosphoric ester bond in each of both strands. In this problem we consider two different endonucleaseswhich carry the names Cla I and Taq I.
Cla I hydrolyses the bond between two nucleotides in the sequence: a) Give the base sequence of the complementary strand in the 5’→3’ direction and indicate with an arrow the location where the hydrolysis by Cla I occurs.
b) How often on average will this sequence occur in one strand of a DNA molecule of 105 base pairs? You can assume that the four bases occur equally often and that they are randomly distributed in the twochains.
Taq I hydrolyses a long double strand DNA molecule into fragments which are on average 256 base pairslong. The 3’ end of these fragments created by cleavage turns out to be a thymine(T), and the 5’ end is acytosine(C).
c) How long is the sequence recognised by Taq I? d) Give the two possible base sequences (in the direction 5’→3’) which form the recognition pattern for It will be evident from the foregoing that the recognised part of DNA has a certain symmetry. The DNA of aphage which occurs as a close circle contains only one 5’–pApTpCpGpApT–3’ sequence in each of the twostrands. After treatment of this DNA with a Cla I an equilibrium is established: e) Give a schematic drawing of the circular and linear molecules. Indicate the bases adjacent to the cleaving site in both strands. Indicate also the 3’ and 5’ ends.
In the figure on the next page the percentage of linear DNA molecules is given as a function of temperature,as measured in a solution of 0.15 M NaCl buffered with citrate at pH = 6.5.
Is the reaction as written endothermic or exothermic? Explain why.
This particular phage also has only one cleavage site for the endonuclease Taq I. The figure also shows thepercentage of linear DNA versus temperature after cleavage by Taq I. As is evident, one obtains the samecurve as after cleavage with Cla I.
g) Show, considering the information above, which of the two base sequences of the answer to d) is the h) Copy the figure completely and show how the curve for Taq I would have been if the recognition pattern had been the other possibility of d).
A large DNA molecule is cut into fragments with the aid of Cla I. One fragment is isolated and purified. Thisfragment is then mixed one to one with phage DNA which was also cleaved with Cla I. So-calledrecombinant molecules can be formed through the reaction: Would the ∆Ho of this reaction be positive, negative, or about zero? k) Which combination of temperature, DNA concentration, and ionic strength (high or low in each case) will give the maximum percentage of recombinant molecules? These recombinant molecules are used in genetic manipulation.
Solution of problem No. 8:
d) 5’–pTpCpGpA –3’ or 5’–pGpApTpC–3’ (one sequence of four bases occurs in 256 times) The reaction has a positivev ∆H0, because the hydrogen bonds (between the G and the C bases) in thecomplementary strands are broken.
g) The two reactions show the same dependence on temperature. Therefore the ∆H0 of the two reactions is the same. Then the interaction in the overlapping part of the double helix must be identical andtherefore we must choose for the first recognition sequence of question d). The cleavage in the twocases occurs as follows: k) Temperature low, concentration DNA high, ionic strength high.
Practical problem No. 1:
Synthesis and analysis of a nickel complex
IntroductionThe experimental assignment consists of the synthesis and subsequently, the analysis of an amminenickelchloride: NiClx(NH3)y.
a) preparation of a solution of nickel nitrate from nickel and concentrated nitric acid (green solution), time b) preparation of amminenickel nitrate (blue crystals); andc) preparation of amminenickel chloride (blue-violet crystals) The analysis encompasses the determination of the percentages of the three components (ammonia, nickel and chlorine) of the salt, according to the instructions given in 2.
ReportRecord in the indicated places on the report form the data asked in the experimental part 1, and all relevantexperimental data, the calculation and the results from part 2.
All work on the synthesis must be carried out in the fume hood. Use of (safety) glasses is obligatory. Ifnecessary use other safety equipment such as rubber gloves and pipetting balloons.
a) Put a “dubbeltje” (Dutch coin of 10 c, containing 1.5 g of nickel), in a conical flask (Erlenmeyer flask) of 100 mL and add 10 mL of concentrated nitric acid (65%). Fit the flask with an “air cooled” condenser (nowater) and heat the contents on a hot plate until a violent reaction occurs. Continue heating carefullyuntil all metal has been dissolved.
Cool the green solution in an ice-water mixture.
Write in the report form the equation of the chemical reaction that has occurred.
b) Add, continuously cooling, in small portions 25 mL of ammonia solution (25%) to the ice cold solution. As soon as about 15 mL has been added, salt crystals start to precipitate.
Having added all ammonia solution, filter the cold solution through a sintered glass filtering crucible byapplying a vacuum with an aspirator. Wash the crystals three times with small portions of a coldammonia solution(25%). Remove as much liquid as possible from the crystalline mass by maintainingthe vacuum.
c) Dissolve the moist crystalline mass in 10 mL of hydrochloric acid (18%). Cool the blue solution in an ice water mixture and then add slowly 30 mL of a solution of 30 g ammonium chloride in 100 mL ofammonia solution (25%). This yields a blue-violet coloured crystalline mass. Cool the mixture and filteras in b).
Wash with ammonia solution (25%), then with ethanol and finally with diethyl ether. Leave the crystals inair until all ether has evaporated. Determine the mass of the dry product and record this on the reportform.
For the analysis of the salt, only one sample solution is prepared. The determination of the components isachieved by titrating each time 25 mL of the sample solution in duplicate.
For the determination of the ammonia and chlorine content a back titration is carried out. For that purpose acertain amount of reagent is added in excess. The total amount of reagent, available for the sample, isdetermined by following the same procedure for 25 mL of a blank solution.
This titration should not be carried out in duplicate.
Pipette 25 mL 1.6 M nitric acid into a volumetric flask of 250 mL. Add a sample of about 1.2 g of theamminenickelchloride and dilute with water to a volume of 250 mL.
Pipette 25 mL of the same 1.6 M nitric acid and dilute this with water to a volume of 250 mL.
1) For the chlorine determination use conical (erlenmeyer) flasks with a ground glass stopper.
2) The nitric acid contains a small amount of hydrochloric acid. The total acid content is 1.6 M.
Determination of the ammonia content.
Titrate the solutions with a standard solution of NaOH (about 0.1 M).
Indicator: methyl red, 0.1% solution in ethanol.
Calculate the percentage of ammonia in the salt.
b) Determination of the nickel content.
Add about 100 mL of water, 2 mL of ammonia solution (25%) and 5 drops of murexide solution to thenickel solution, which now should have a yellow colour.
Titrate the solution with a standard solution of EDTA (about 0.025 M) until a sharp colour change fromyellow to violet is observed. Calculate the percentage of nickel in the salt.
c) Determination of the chlorine content.
Execute the titrations as quickly as possible after the addition of the reagent!Add to each solution 25 mL of 0.1 M silver nitrate solution. Add about 5 mL of toluene, shake vigorously,add indicator and titrate with the standard solution of ammonium thiocyanate (rhodanide, about 0.05 M)until a permanent colour change to red is observed.
At the end of the titration, shake vigorously again. The red coloration should persist.
Indicator: 1 mL of a saturated solution of iron(III)sulphate.
Calculate the percentage of chlorine in the salt.
Data: Atomic masses: H = 1; Cl = 35.5; N = 14; Ni = 58.7.
d) Calculate from the results obtained the molar ratio of the components, to two decimal points and enter this on the report form in the format: Ni : Cl: NH3 = 1.00 : x : y.
Practical problem No. 2:
Potentiometric determination of phosphoric acid in Coca-Cola
Round bottom flask (500 mL), magnetic stirrer, reflux condenser, water bath, electric heater.
6.0 g charcoal,standard solution of sodium hydroxide (c = 0.05 mol L–1),buffer solutions.
Pour the contents of a Cola can into a round-bottomed flask and add 6.0 g of powdered charcoal to thestirred solution. Cautiously raise the temperature of the solution and reflux for 10 minutes. Allow thesolution to cool to room temperature and filter using a fluted filter paper. Repeat the filtration step.
Calibrate the pH-meter by means of two buffer solutions.
Titrate a 150 mL aliquot of your sample with sodium hydroxide solution (c = 0.05 mol L–1) by measuringthe pH using a pH-meter.
The first equivalence point occurs after the addition of about 6 mL NaOH solution. Continue the titrationuntil at least 12 mL of sodium hydroxide solution has been added.
Evaluation:a) Draw the titration curve. Determine the first equivalence point.
b) Give the pH-value of the boiled Cola-beverage and the pH-value of the first equivalence point.
c) Calculate the concentration of phosphoric acid in the Cola-beverage. Record the calculation and the Practical problem No. 3:
Preparation of a buffer solution
A pH buffer solution has a well specified acidity, which changes only very slightly upon addition of moderatequantities of strong acid or base. The larger the quantity of acid or base that must be added to a certainvolume of buffer solution in order to change its pH by a specified amount, the better its buffer action is saidto be. A buffer solution is prepared by mixing a weak acid and its conjugate base in appropriate amounts insolution. An example of a useful buffer system in aqueous solution is the phosphate system.
Your task is to prepare a phosphate buffer solution with properties specified by the following two conditions: 2) pH = 6.80 in a mixture of 50.0 cm3 of the buffer solution and 5.0 cm3 hydrochloric acid with a Aqueous solution of phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide solution of known concentration, hydrochloricacid (0.100 mol/dm3), solution of bromocresol green, distilled water.
Burettes, pipettes (25 cm3 and 5 cm3), Erlenmeyer flasks (100 cm3 and 250 cm3), volumetric flask (100cm3), beaker, and funnel.
Determine the concentration of the phosphoric acid solution by titration with the sodium hydroxide solutionusing bromocresol green as an indicator (pH range 3.8 < pH < 5.4).
Make the buffer solution by mixing calculated volumes of phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide solution inthe volumetric flask and filling the flask to the mark with distilled water.
Mix 50.0 cm3 buffer solution with 5.0 cm3 hydrochloric acid in an Erlenmeyer flask.
Hand in your answer sheet to the referees who will also measure the pH of your two solutions and note yourresult.
The pKa values of phosphoric acid are pKa1 = 1.75, pKa2 = 6.73 and pKa3 = 11.50.
The buffer solution must contain H PO (concentration a mol/dm3) and HPO mol/dm3). The concentrations should satisfy the condition After addition of HCl, the condition will be (50.0 x b – 0.50) / (50.0 x a + 0.50) = 10–6.73/10–6.80 Total concentration of the phosphate system = 0.0483 mol/dm3 Total concentration of Na+ = (a + 2b) mol/dm3 = 0.0844 mol/dm3 If the concentrations of both phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions are 0.500 mol/dm3, then100.0 cm3 buffer solution will require volume of H3PO4 solution = 0.0483 x 0.1000/0.500 dm3 = 9.7 cm3 volume of NaOH solution = 0.0844 x 0.1000/0.500 dm3 = 16.9 cm3 Practical problem No. 4:
Synthesis of aspirin
Prepare 2-ethanoyloxybenzoic acid (acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin) by ethanoylation(acetylation) of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) with ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride).
Relative atomic masses: C : 12.011; O : 15.999; H : 1.008 Reagents: 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (melting point 158°C) Ethanoic anhydride (boiling point 140 °C) Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction using structural formulae.
Take a 100 cm3 Erlenmeyer/conical flask. In the flask, mix the 2.760 g of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid fromweighing bottle A, the 5.100 g of ethanoic anhydride from flask B, and with cautious swirling, add 5 - 7drops of 85 % phosphoric acid. Heat the flask to 70 - 80 °C in a beaker of near boiling water andmaintain the mixture at this temperature for 15 minutes. Remove the flask from the water bath and, withgentle swirling, add dropwise 1 cm3 of deionised water to the still hot flask; then immediately add 20 cm3of the cold deionised water all at once to the reaction flask. Place the flask in an ice bath. If no crystalsare deposited or if an oil appears, gently scratch the inner surface of the flask with a glass rod whilst theflask remains in the ice bath.
Using the Buchner funnel, filter the product under suction. Rinse the flask twice with a small amount ofcold deionised water. Recrystallise the crude product in a 100 cm3 Erlenmeyer/conical flask usingsuitable amounts of water and ethanol. If no crystals form, or if an oil appears, gently scratch the innersurface of the flask with a glass rod. Filter the crystals under suction and wash with a small amount ofcold deionised water.
Place the crystals on the porous plate to draw water from them. When the crystals have been air dried,transfer the product to the small glass dish labelled C. This dish has previously been weighed.
The dish containing the product should be given to a technician who will dry it in an oven for 30 minutesat 80 °C.
A technician should then weigh the cooled dish containing your product in your presence. Record thatmass. The melting point will subsequently be taken by a technician to check the purity of your product.
l. Write the balanced equation for the reaction.
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