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Research Journal of
Pharmacy and Technology
Volume 04, Issue 03, March 2011 ISSN 0974-3618 (PRINT) ISSN 0974-360X (ONLINE)
CONTENT

REVIEW ARTICLE

Solid Dispersions: A Review
Punitha S, Srinivasa Reddy G, Srikrishna T and Lakshman Kumar M…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…… 331 A Review on Herbal Diuretics
N. Sirisha, M. Sreenivasulu, K. Sangeeta, G. Swarna Latha, A. Lakshmi Devi and C. Madhusudhana Chetty….…….………. 335 A Review: Nasal Drug Delivery System
Nirav S Sheth and Rajan B Mistry….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 349 Carriers used for the development of solid dispersion for poorly water-soluble drugs
Tapan Kumar Giri, Saumya Mishra and Dulal Krishna Tripathi…………….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 356 Organoselenium as a Cancer Chemopreventive Agent against Carcinogenesis.
D. Saha, D. Mridha, S. Mondal, M. Jana and S. Kayal…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 367 Vaccine: An Ultimate Way of Immunization
Vaibhav Dagaji Aher, Subham Banerjee, Kamal K. Mahaur…………….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……… 369 RESEARCH ARTICLE
Synthesis and Evaluation of Schiff’s Bases and Their Azetidinone Derivatives for It’s Antibacterial Activity
Vijabaskaran M., Senthilraja M., Babu G. and Sajeer P…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………375 Formulation and Evaluation of Dispersible Tablets of Sudarshan, Vyswanara and Panchasakar Churnas
Mettu Srikanth Reddy, Mallikarjun Setty……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 380 Bioadhesive Microbeads of Ketoprofen for Controlled and Site Specific Delivery
R. Sivakumar, N. Narayanan and N.N. Rajendran……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…………. 385 Derivative and Absorption Factor Spectrophotometric Estimation of Montelukast Sodium and Levocetirizine
Dihydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Formulations
Vishnu P. Choudhari, Anamika N. Kale, Satish A.Polshettiwar, Abhijit S. Sutar, Dhaval M. Patel and Bhanudas S. Kuchekar………….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 389 Formulation and Evaluation of Silymarin Floating Drug Delivery System
Vinay Kumar D., Palanichamy S., Kumara Swamy G. and Ashok Kumar U……….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 393 Simultaneous Estimation of Ramipril, Aspirin and Atorvastatin Calcium by Classical Least Squares Regression in
Capsule Dosage Form
A.S.K. Sankar, T. Vetrichelvan, D. Venkappaya, D. Nagavalli and O. Divya…………….…….…….…….…….…….………. 398 Comparative Evaluation of Microbiological Quality of Triphala Churna Marketed In Yavatmal District of India
Bais Sanjay K, Chandewar Anil V and Bakal R.L…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……… 402 Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Prednisolone by Press Coating Technique: Effect of Different Grades of
Hydroxyethylcellulose in Coat.
R.J. Garala, S.V. Shirolkar, A.D. Deshpande and A.D. Kulkarni…………….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 405 Antihelmintic Activity of Methanol Extract of Gamma Irradiated and Unirradiated Citrus medica Fruit Bio-Mass
S.L. Munne, D.V. Parwate, V.N. Ingle and M.A. Kamble…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……… 411 Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Fluoro-Pyrazole Derivatives for Antiinflammatory Activity.
Sahu Sudeep, Dey Tathagata, Khaidem Somila and Y. Jyothi…………….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……. 413 High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Estimation of Rupatadine Fumerate
M. Shaiba, K. Devi, R. Prashanthi, K. Raghavi and M. Sindhura…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………… 420 Compatibility Study of Aceclofenac and Tablet Disintegrants by Thermal and Nonthermal Methods
Monica R.P. Rao, Devidas G.Bachhav, Ramdas B. Rode, Komal R. Nikam and Namrata D. Pathade…………….…….……… 423 Simultaneous Estimation of Telmisartan and Amlodipine in Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC
S. Angayer Kanchana, Dr. Ajithadas Aruna, V. Niraimathi and A. Jerad Suresh………….…….…….…….…….…….……… 428 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Aerial Part of Plant Ammannia baccifera Linn.
Srimanta Kumar Das, A.S Dhake, A. Nayak, N.B. Das and S.N. Pandeya…………….…….…….…….…….…….…….……. 430 Analytical Method Development, Validation studies of a Fluoroquinolone chemotherapeutic antibiotic and its
Characterization studies
Mallikarjuna Gouda M , Somashekar shyale, Putta Rajesh Kumar and S.M. Shanta kumar…….…….…….…….…….……. 433 Visible Spectrophotometric Estimation of Emtricitabine in Pharmaceutical Formulations
P. Janaki Pathi, P. Raveendra Reddy and N. Appala Raju…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…………. 437 Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Methanolic Extract of Cleome viscosa Linn.
Sheeba Rani M, Raja Sreekanth M and Emmanuel S…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…………. 441 Visible Spectrophotometric Estimation of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Pharmaceutical Formulations
P. Janaki Pathi, P. Raveendra Reddy and N. Appala Raju……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………. 446 Validation of New Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Fluvoxamine as Maleate in Pharmaceutical
Formulations
Medikondu Kishore, A. Koteswarao and M. Janardhan……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….450 Formulation and Evaluation of Valsartan Fast Dissolving Tablets
A. Pavan Kumar, J. Satyanaryana, V. Sai Kishore and T.E. Gopala Krishna Murthy……………….…….…….…….………… 454 Bioavailability Enhancement of Curcumin through Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
Latheeshjlal.L, Sunil Murala, Vaidya Mehul J, G. Swetha and Phanitejaswini Swapna……….…….…….…….…….………. 457 Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Aceclofenac and Tizanidine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet
Dosage Form
Balap Aishwarya R. , Khidse Anuja S., Prasad Deepshikha V, Jadhav Shailaja B, Ingale Pramod L and Chaudhari Praveen D……. 461 Detection of Free Radicals Using GC/MS Trapped By Proxyl Derivatives
Sai Krishna Putta and Bala Krishna Talupula……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………… 465 Study on Anti-Solar Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn
Nevade Sidram A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N.V. Kalyane…………….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………… 472 Antifungal Activity of Some Rare Himalayan Bryophytes
Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…………474 Principal Antioxidative Flavonoids from Rosmarinus officinalis Grown in the Hills of Central Himalaya
Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…………476 Phyto - Physico Chemical Evaluation and Anti Microbial Activity of Morus alba Linn
A. Sethuramani, P. Devi, Edward Jaslin, R. Meera and B. Kameswari…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….………… 480 Taxonomic Studies on Lentinus tuberregium (GQ292711) Tamil Nadu, India
J. Manjunathan, M. Kumar and V. Kaviyarasan……….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……………. 484 Instruction to author …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….490
ABSTRACT

REVIEW ARTICLE


Solid Dispersions: A Review
Punitha S, Srinivasa Reddy G, Srikrishna T and Lakshman Kumar M……………………………………………….331
ABSTRACT:

Solid dispersion can be defined as “The dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inert carrier or matrix at solid state”. Solid dispersions are prepared with an aim to improve the solubility and dissolution rate. Polyethylene Glycols (PEG4000, PEG6000and PEG8000), Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) used as polymers in the preparation of solid dispersions. Chloroform, Ethanol, Methanol is used as the solvents. The method of preparation of solid dispersions include Fusion method, hot melt extrusion, Solvent evaporation method, super critical fluid method, Dielectrostatic spinning process. Solid dispersions are divided into six types based on their molecular arrangement. They are Eutectics (crystalline drug in crystalline matrix), Amorphous precipitations in crystalline matrix (crystalline drug in amorphous matrix), Solid solutions (crystalline drug molecularly dispersed in matrix), Glass suspensions (crystalline drug in amorphous matrix), Glass suspensions (amorphous drug in amorphous matrix), Glass solutions (amorphous drug molecularly dispersed in matrix). Thin Layer Chromatography and Infra Red spectral analysis confirms the absence of interaction between the drug and the carriers. A marked improvement in the dissolution rate was observed in all the solid dispersions compared with the pure drug.900ml of 0.1M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer used as dissolution medium. The stirrer is adjusted to 75 rpm at 37oC and absorbance is measured
KEYWORDS: Solid dispersions, Solvent evaporation method, Fusion method, Super critical fluid method, hot melt
extrusion, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Polyethylene Glycols (PEG4000, PEG6000and PEG8000), chloroform, dichloro ethane.

A Review on Herbal Diuretics

N. Sirisha, M. Sreenivasulu, K. Sangeeta, G. Swarna Latha, A. Lakshmi Devi and C. Madhusudhana Chetty…….335
ABSTRACT:

Herbs are highly esteemed source of medicine since ancient history. These plants and phytoconstituents are rich source of active principles which themselves are therapeutically active or act as lead compounds for the synthesis of newer drugs. These plants are relatively safe and are free from toxic effects and hence are considered as better choice to treat diseases, when compared to allopathic medicines. Such an example described is the use of herbs by the primitive folklore as diuretics. Diuretics increase the rate of urine flow and are used to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids in a variety of clinical situations. Hence,diuretics remain the cornerstone for the treatment of many pathological conditions. As we are back to herbals, the present article gives a brief review about some folklore herbs that are used as diuretics, which are proved to be effective in many investigations.
KEYWORDS: Herbs, diuresis, saluresis, natriuresis, flavanoids, saponins, alkaloids.

A Review: Nasal Drug Delivery System

Nirav S Sheth and Rajan B Mistry…………………………………………………………………………………………….349
ABSTRACT:

For many years, drugs have been administered intranasally for their local effect on the mucosa (e.g. Antihistamines, decongestant, vasoconstrictors and antibiotics). In more recent years many drugs have been shown to achieve a better systemic bioavailability by self medication through the nasal route than by oral administration.Some of them have been shown to duplicate the plasma profile as i.v. administration. More recently the intranasal route has aroused increasing interest as means of the systemic administration of vaccine, hormones, peptides and certain other drugs. Although traditional nasal drug delivery methods offer significant advantages over injection or oral administration, they face challenges that limit efficacy and applications. Once relegated to treating conditions such as nasal congestion and rhinitis, intranasal drug delivery is now gaining attention for administration of a wide range of pharmaceuticals. Industries are looking at nasal drug delivery options as a viable alternative to traditional routes of administration for systemic drugs. This is due to the high permeability of the nasal epithelium, allowing a higher molecular mass cut-off at approximately 1000 Da, and the rapid drug absorption rate with plasma drug profiles sometimes almost identical to those from intravenous injections.
KEYWORDS: Nose, Nasal Devices, Nasal Vaccine, Nasal Drug Absorption


Carriers used for the development of solid dispersion for poorly water-soluble drugs

Tapan Kumar Giri, Saumya Mishra and Dulal Krishna Tripathi…………………………………………………………356
ABSTRACT:

Compounds with poor aqueous solubility are increasingly posing challenges in the development of new drugs, since a large number of drugs coming directly from synthesis or from throughout screening have a poor solubility. It is well known that drug efficacy can be severely limited by poor aqueous solubility, leading to low dissolution rate and thus results in low absorption in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration hence compromising oral bioavailability. Among the various strategies for improving aqueous solubility of drug, the solid dispersion approach has been widely and successfully applied to improve the solubility, dissolution rate, and consequently, the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Although solid dispersions have tremendous potential for improving drug solubility, 40 years of research have resulted in only a few marketed products using this approach. The situation has, however, been changing in recent years because of the availability of surface active and self emulsifying carriers for the preparation of solid dispersions. Some practical limitations of dosage from development might be the inadequate solubility of drugs in carriers and the instability of drugs and carriers at elevated temperatures. This article is devoted to the different carriers used for the production of solid dispersion.
KEYWORDS: solid dispersion, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, surface-active carriers
Organoselenium as a Cancer Chemopreventive Agent against Carcinogenesis.
D. Saha, D. Mridha, S. Mondal, M. Jana and S. Kayal…………………………………………………………………….367
ABSTRACT:

The mechanisms by which organoselenium compounds inhibit tumor formation during the initiation phase of carcinogenesis have been explored in vitro and in well defined animal model. Various organoselenium compounds were found to have the ability to decrease lipids and phospholipids hydroperoxide levels, hydrogen peroxide, thereby destroying the propagation of free radicals; reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species mediating cellular damage. Organoselenium may inhibit oxidative stress to cells that produce toxicity and malignant transformation of cells leading to cancer. Organoselenium compounds have received wide attention as possible cancer
KEYWORDS: Organoselenium, Cancer chemoprevention, Carcinogenesis.
Vaccine: An Ultimate Way of Immunization
Vaibhav Dagaji Aher, Subham Banerjee, Kamal K. Mahaur………………………………………………………………369
ABSTRACT:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "recognize" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases known to man. Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a hundred years ago. As long as the vast majority of people are vaccinated, it is much more difficult for an outbreak of disease to occur, let alone spread.
KEYWORDS: Immunity, Vaccine Delivery, Excipient, Vaccination Schedule.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Synthesis and Evaluation of Schiff’s Bases and Their Azetidinone Derivatives for It’s Antibacterial Activity
Vijabaskaran M., Senthilraja M., Babu G. and Sajeer P………………………………………………………………….375
ABSTRACT:

A series of Schiff’s bases were prepared by the condensation of various aryl amines with hydroxy benzaldehyde in the presence of ethanol. The synthesized Schiff’s bases were converted to 2-azetidinone derivatives by reacting with triethylamine which is dissolved in dioxane and chloro acetyl chloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of their elemental analysis and spectral data. Antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated. The result reveals that the test compounds E and F exhibit good activity and remaining compounds show moderate anti-bacterial activity when compared to the standard drug Sparfloxacin.
KEYWORDS: Schiff’s bases; 2-Azetidinone; Antibacterial; Sparfloxacin.
Formulation and Evaluation of Dispersible Tablets of Sudarshan, Vyswanara and Panchasakar Churnas
Mettu Srikanth Reddy, Mallikarjun Setty…………………………………………………………………………………….380
ABSTRACT:

The dosage uniformity of ayurvedic powders can be increased by formulating them in to tablets. In the present study, dispersible tablets of sudarshan, vyswanara and panchasakar churnas were prepared by wet granulation method. Initially sudarshan, vyswanara and panchasakar churnas were subjected to preformulation studies to test the suitability of direct compression method and was found that the results were not within the standard limits1. So wet granulation method was opted and appropriate formulations were developed. These tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, uniformity of dispersion, disintegration test, diameter of tablet, thickness of tablet, wetting time and stability studies. Here attempts were made to get minimum possible disintegration time by varying the concentrations of superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate (SSG), croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and crospovidone (CP) and usage of various diluents like lactose, insoluble starch powder, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). It was found that concentration of CP at 20% w/w, MCC as diluent and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as binder was highly effective in the formulation of dispersible tablets of sudarshan churna.
KEYWORDS: Sudarshan churna; vyswanara churna; panchasakar churna; dispersible tablets.
Bioadhesive Microbeads of Ketoprofen for Controlled and Site Specific Delivery
R. Sivakumar, N. Narayanan and N.N. Rajendran………………………………………………………………………….385
ABSTRACT:

The objective of this work was to design mucoadhesive oral controlled release drug delivery system for ketoprofen to target the small intestine. Mucoadhesive microbeads containing Ketoprofen were prepared by ionic gelation method using sodium alginate, pectin, and xanthan gum as polymers. The prepared beads were coated with 1% chitosan solution and dried. The dried beads were filled into hard gelatin capsules and coated by a enteric polymer. All microbeads were nearly spherical in shape with rough surface with the mean particle size of 1.6 mm – 1.8 mm. Of the six formulations prepared and evaluated formulas A6 were found satisfactory results. The release followed zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion.
KEYWORDS: Ketoprofen, ionic gelation, beads, mucoadhesion, small intestine
Derivative and Absorption Factor Spectrophotometric Estimation of Montelukast Sodium and Levocetirizine
Dihydrochloride from Pharmaceutical Formulations
Vishnu P. Choudhari, Anamika N. Kale, Satish A.Polshettiwar, Abhijit S. Sutar, Dhaval M. Patel and Bhanudas S. Kuchekar………….………….………….………….………….………….………….………….………….………….………389
ABSTRACT:

Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of Montelukast sodium and Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride in combined dosage form. First method was first order derivative spectroscopy where montelukast and levocetirizine were determined at max 340nm and 331nm, respectively in methanol. The second method was based on the absorption factor in which montelukast and levocetirizine exhibit max at 232 nm and 279 nm respectively in methanol. Montelukast has some interference at 232nm, while levocetirizine do not show any absorption at 279 nm. Quantitative estimation of levocetirizine was carried out by subtracting the absorption due to montelukast at 232nm using experimentally calculated absorption factor. Beer’s law was obeyed for montelukast and levocetirizine in the concentration range of 4-12 µg ml-1 and 2-6 µg ml-1 , respectively for both methods. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the
KEYWORDS: Montelukast, Levocetirizine, absorption factor, Derivative Spectrophotometry

Formulation and Evaluation of Silymarin Floating Drug Delivery System

Vinay Kumar D., Palanichamy S., Kumara Swamy G. and Ashok Kumar U………………….………….…………….393
ABSTRACT:

A Gastroretentive floating controlled drug delivery system containing Silymarin was prepared in the form of tablets and evaluated for its processing parameters, in vitro release in 0.1 N HCl. Eight formulations were prepared by using rate controlling polymers such as HPMC K4M and Eudragit RS100, alkalizing agent sodium bicarbonate and solubilizing agent poly vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP K30). Floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The preformulation studies and tablet evaluation tests were performed and results were within the limits. Tablets remained buoyant over 20 hours in the release medium and the amount of sodium bicarbonate found to be significant for not only to remaining buoyant without causing disintegration of the tablet. The different ratios of polymers 15% and 20% showed the significant difference in the drug release with increasing in the concentration of solubilizing agent PVP K30. All the formulations exhibited diffusion dominant drug release. Stability studies for all formulations were conducted for a period of 60 days at 4º±2ºC, 27º±2ºC and 45º±2ºC respectively and the formulations showed no significant changes in physical appearance, drug content and in-vitro drug release even
KEYWORDS: Floating drug delivery system, controlled drug release, low-density polymers, Silymarin.

Simultaneous Estimation of Ramipril, Aspirin and Atorvastatin Calcium by Classical Least Squares

Regression in Capsule Dosage Form
A.S.K. Sankar, T. Vetrichelvan, D. Venkappaya, D. Nagavalli and O. Divya………………….………….…………….398
ABSTRACT:

A simple, accurate and precise chemometrics assisted UV-visible Spectrophotometric determination of triple combination commercial preparation containing ramipril (RA), aspirin (AS) and atorvastatin calcium (AT) has been proposed. The spectra of the component mixtures under investigation show substantial overlap. Resolution of the mixtures under investigation has been accomplished mainly by using one of the chemometrics methods, classical least squares regression method (CLS). CLS method does not need prior graphical treatment of the overlapping spectra of the three drugs in a mixture. Here wavelength selection is done by trial and error method. For chemometric calibrations a concentration set of the mixture consisting of the three drugs in methanol was prepared. The absorbance data were measured in the range of 210 – 340 nm at an interval of 0.1 nm. The CLS method uses 1.0 - 5.0, 10.0 – 50.0 and 2.0 – 10.0 µgmL-1 of ramipril, aspirin and atorvastatin calcium respectively for calibration. The developed calibrations were tested for the synthetic mixtures (prediction set) consisting of three drugs and the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the three drugs in commercial formulation. The results obtained were of high accuracy and without interference from commonly encountered excipients and additives, this is evident from the statistical validation results. Good recoveries were obtained with both synthetic mixtures and commercial formulation. Therefore this method can be routinely used in the analysis of the said combination in quality control laboratories.
KEYWORDS: Ramipril, Aspirin, Atorvastatin Calcium, Chemometrics, Classical Least Squares, Multivariate.
Comparative Evaluation of Microbiological Quality of Triphala Churna Marketed In Yavatmal District of
Bais Sanjay K, Chandewar Anil V and Bakal R.L…….………….………….………….………….………….………….402
ABSTRACT:

In the present study herbal products marketed in Yavatmal District of India were determined for the presence of microbial. Microbial contents in herbal products were examined as suggested in as per W.H.O. The total of ten herbal products of various brands were selected randomly and tested for microbial contamination. Of which 3 samples did not conform to the W.H.O guidelines. The formulations are used daily by the patients suffering from constipation. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli (4 samples), Staphylococcus aureus (3 samples), and P. aeruginosa (4 samples). The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in
KEYWORDS: Marketed herbal products, medicinal plants, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa
Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Prednisolone by Press Coating Technique: Effect of Different
Grades of Hydroxyethylcellulose in Coat.
R.J. Garala, S.V. Shirolkar, A.D. Deshpande and A.D. Kulkarni………………….………….………….………….405
ABSTRACT:

Press-coated tablets are able to release the core drug after of lag time and have potential for colon targeted drug delivery based on gastrointestinal transit time concept. This study investigated the factors influencing in vitro release characteristics of model drug prednisolone from press coated tablets. Prednisolone is a poorly water soluble drug having pH-independent solubility. Solubility enhancement of prednisolone with hydroxypropyl -cyclodextrin (HP -CD) was studied by phase solubility analysis. HP -CD increased solubility of prednisolone. Phase solubility studies suggested that 1:2 complex of prednisolone-HP -CD was formed. A physical mixture of prednisolone and HP -CD was incorporated in core tablet. The core tablet, prepared by a direct compression method, was designed to disintegrate and release drug quickly. To prepare press coated tablets, 50 % of coating polymer was first, followed by centering the core tablet and compressing with remaining 50 % of the coating polymer. Effect of Natrosol viscosity grades (Natrosol L, M and HHX), weight of Natrosol coating, different weight ratios of Natrosol-HHX: Natrosol M and different weight ratios of Natrosol-L: Natrosol M on the lag time of drug release was studied. The lag phase was markedly dependent on the weight ratios of Natrosol-HHX: Natrosol M or Natrosol-L: Natrosol M in coat. Larger coating weight of Natrosol M produced larger coating thickness around core tablet, which resulted in increased lag time and decreased drug release. Different lag times of the press-coated tablets from 2 to 9.5 hours could be modulated by changing the type and amount of Natrosol. Natrosol of higher viscosity (Natrosol HHX) provide better protection of the drug containing core, showing increased lag time and slower drug release. Incorporating low viscosity polymer (Natrosol-L) in coat leads to decrease in lag time and rapid drug release. The results indicate that Natrosol M coated tablet formulation is more suitable for transit (5.5 hrs) through stomach and small intestine and faster release of drug in colon.
KEYWORDS: Colon targeted drug delivery, Press coating, Phase solubility analysis, Nastrosol M, Nastrosol-L and
Nastrosol-HHX.
Antihelmintic Activity of Methanol Extract of Gamma Irradiated and Unirradiated Citrus medica Fruit Bio-
S.L. Munne, D.V. Parwate, V.N. Ingle and M.A. Kamble……………….………….………….………….……………….411
ABSTRACT:

The present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of irradiated and unirradiated Citrus medica fruit bio-mass belonging to Rutaceae family using Pheretima posthuma as test worms. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml) of methanolic extracts were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as standard reference and distilled water as control. The results of present study indicated that the unirradiated extract significantly demonstrated paralysis and death of worms in less time as compare to radiated sample at higher
KEYWORDS: Anthelmintic, Citrus medica, Pheretima posthuma, Piperazine citrate

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Fluoro-Pyrazole Derivatives for Antiinflammatory Activity.
Sahu Sudeep, Dey Tathagata, Khaidem Somila and Y. Jyothi………………….………….………….………………….413
ABSTRACT:

A series of fluoro-pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory screening using formaline induce rat paw edema model. The studies of synthesized compounds were characterized by TLC, IR, 1H NMR analysis. These compounds have shown promising anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the
KEYWORDS: Fluoro-pyrazole, Chalcone, Anti-inflammatory activity.
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Estimation of Rupatadine Fumerate
M. Shaiba, K. Devi, R. Prashanthi, K. Raghavi and M. Sindhura…….………….………….………….……………….420
ABSTRACT:

A simple, sensitive and validated high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Rupatadine Fumarate in pure drug and its formulation. Aluminium plates precoated with Silica gel G 60 F254 was used as stationary phase and Acetonitrile: Water: Formic acid in the ratio of 50:50:3 were used as mobile phase. Quantification was carried out by the use of Densitometric absorbance mode at 263 nm. The content of Rupatadine Fumarate in the formulation was calculated and found to be 99.1%. The proposed HPTLC method was quantitatively evaluated in terms of precision, repeatability, accuracy and calibration correlation proving its utility in
KEYWORDS: HPTLC, Densitometric Absorbance mode,
Compatibility Study of Aceclofenac and Tablet Disintegrants by Thermal and Nonthermal Methods
Monica R.P. Rao, Devidas G.Bachhav, Ramdas B. Rode, Komal R. Nikam and Namrata D. Pathade…………….423
ABSTRACT:

Drug excipients compatibility study is important preformulation tool for the selection of excipients prior to large scale development trials, thereby helpful to avoid potential stability problems. The present investigation was aimed at Compatibility study of Aceclofenac, an NSAID with some tablet disintegrants as Starch 1500, Croscarmellose Sodium and Sodium starch glycolate, by thermal method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and results of DSC were confirmed by nonthermal methods (IR and Assay).
KEYWORDS: Compatibility study, DSC, IR, Excipients, Thermal, Nonthermal.
Simultaneous Estimation of Telmisartan and Amlodipine in Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC
S. Angayer Kanchana, Dr. Ajithadas Aruna, V. Niraimathi and A. Jerad Suresh……………….…………………….428
ABSTRACT:

A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of telmisartan and amlodipine in tablet formulation. The separation was achieved by Luna C18 column and phosphate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (60:40v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. Detection was carried out at 251 nm. Retention time of telmisartan and amlodipine was found to be 4.427min and 2.643min respectively. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity for telmisartan and amlodipine were in the range of 160-240µg/mL and 25-45µg/mL, respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for telmisartan and amlodipine were 102.4% and 101.6% respectively. Developed method was found to be accurate, precise, selective and rapid for simultaneous estimation of telmisartan and amlodipine in tablet dosage form.
KEYWORDS: RP-HPLC, Telmisartan, Amlodipine, Simultaneous determination.
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Aerial Part of Plant Ammannia baccifera Linn.
Srimanta Kumar Das, A.S Dhake, A. Nayak, N.B. Das and S.N. Pandeya………………….………….……………….430
ABSTRACT:

Ammannia baccifera Linn, (family Lythraceae), traditionally it is used as cooling appetizer, rubifacient, laxative, stomachic, diuretic, aphrodisiac and lithotriptic also reported as posses antityphoid and antitubercular.The present study was investigated to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanolic, hexane extracts against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and against the fungi Candida albicans,Kluyuviromyces mamlamus .The pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method, and An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected pathogen and all the extracts exhibited significant activity.
KEYWORDS: Ammannia baccifera, disc diffusion method, antibacterial activity,antifungal activity.
Analytical Method Development, Validation studies of a Fluoroquinolone chemotherapeutic antibiotic and its
Characterization studies
Mallikarjuna Gouda M , Somashekar shyale, Putta Rajesh Kumar and S.M. Shanta kumar………………………….433
ABSTRACT:

Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFH) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. A sensitive analytical UV spectrophotometric method was developed showed its absorption maxima at 271 nm in distilled water between 200 nm and 400 nm. Linearity studies indicated that estimation of CFH between 2.00 g /ml to 10.00 g /ml was found to be linear and obeyed beers law with regression equation of y = 0.0985X 0.0004;( r2 = 0.9997). The low SD values of Inter day and Intraday variation studies indicated that the variation is minimum. The accuracy, precision studies showed that the recovery of drug from bulk fluids and dosage form are highly accurate and precise with minimum error. The above analytical parameters indicated that the developed UV Spectrophotometric method for CFH was simple, accurate, precise and reproducible for analysis of drug in different pharmaceutical dosage forms. Characterization studies showed that CFH melting point was 3240 C; the solubility studies indicated that, the drug is more soluble in water than in acidic or alkaline media. Further the log p value was observed as -0.538. The results showed that the methods used for drug characterization were simple with repeatable sensitivity.
KEYWORDS: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, UV Spectrophotometric Method, Validation, Characterization studies.
Visible Spectrophotometric Estimation of Emtricitabine in Pharmaceutical Formulations
P. Janaki Pathi, P. Raveendra Reddy and N. Appala Raju…….………….………….………….……………………….437
ABSTRACT:

Three simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive methods (A, B and C) have been developed for the estimation of Emtricitabine in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The Method A is based on the formation of orange red colored chromogen, due to reaction of Emtricitabine with p-Dimethyl amino Cinnamaldehyde (PDAC) reagent in the presence of methanol, which exhibits max at 538 nm. Method B is based on the reaction of Emtricitabine with 3- methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) in the presence of Cerric ammonium sulphate toform a bluish green colored chromogen, which shows maximum absorbance at 635 nm. The Method C is based on the formation of reddish brown colored chromogen with Mordant Black Dye in the presence of Phthalate buffer, which shows absorption maximum at 543 nm. The absorbance-concentration plot is linear over the range of 1-10 mcg/ml for Method A, 1-18 mcg/ml for Method B and 5-90 mcg/ml for Method C. Results of analysis for all the methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. Literature survey reveals only HPLC methods deals with biological fluids and in fixed pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed methods are economical and sensitive for the estimation of Emtricitabine in bulk drug and in its formulations.
KEYWORDS:
UV-Visible Spectrophotometry, Emtricitabine, Ferric chloride, p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde
(PDAC), 3-methyl 2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone,(MBTH), Mordant Black III, Potassium Phthalate. Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Methanolic Extract of Cleome Viscosa Linn.
Sheeba Rani M, Raja Sreekanth M and Emmanuel S……………….………….………….………….…………………….441
ABSTRACT:

The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the wound healing potential of aerial parts and roots of Cleome viscosa Linn on albino Wistar rats. Excision and incision models were employed. In each wound model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200g were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. In both the models, group I served as control and group II as reference standard treated with Soframycin. In an excision wound model, group III animals were treated with methanol extract of the aerial parts of C.viscosa (CVAMExt) 500 mg kg/ kg b.w and group IV animals were treated with methanol extract of the roots of C.viscosa (CVRMExt) 500 mg/ kg b.w, for 16 days respectively. In incision wound model, group III and IV animals were treated with CVAMExt and CVRMExt 500 mg/ kg b.w, for 9 days respectively. CVAMExt showed a 91.53% contraction in excision wounds, which was close to the contraction value of the reference drug Soframycin (100%). On the other hand, the same extract used on the incision wound model showed a significant increase (414.37±3.0) in wound tensile strength, which was almost similar to Soframycin. CVRMExt was also showed better wound healing activity in excision wound model 90.75% on day 16. Similarly the same extract used on the incision wound model also showed a better tensile strength (385.23±2.28). Enhanced wound contraction, skin breaking strength, decreased epithelialization time and histological characteristics suggest that extract C.viscosa may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing
KEYWORDS: Cleome viscosa, albino Wistar rats, wound healing, Methanol extract, Soframycin
Visible Spectrophotometric Estimation of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Pharmaceutical Formulations
P. Janaki Pathi, P. Raveendra Reddy and N. Appala Raju……….………….………….………….…………………….446
ABSTRACT:

Three simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive methods (A, B and C) have been developed for the estimation of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The Method A is based on the formation of golden yellow colored chromogen, due to ion-association of Tenofovir with Metanil Yellow dye in Chloroform, which exhibits max at 425 nm. Method B is based on the formation of reddish brown colored chromogen due to ion- association of Tenofovir with Solochrome Black-T dye in Chloloroform, which exhibits max at 438 nm. The Method C is based on the formation of blood red colored chromogen with Ferric Chloride and 2,2-Bipyridyl which shows absorption maximum at 523 nm. The absorbance-concentration plot is linear over the range of 10-60 mcg/ml for Method A, 10-60 mcg/ml for Method B and 2-9 mcg/ml for Method C. Results of analysis for all the methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The proposed methods are economical and sensitive for the estimation of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in bulk drug and in its formulations.
KEYWORDS:
UV-Visible Spectrophotometry, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Metanil Yellow, Solochrome
black-T, 2, 2-Bipyridyl.
Validation of New Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Fluvoxamine as Maleate in
Pharmaceutical Formulations
Medikondu Kishore, A. Koteswarao and M. Janardhan……….………….………….………….………….…………….450
ABSTRACT:

Two simple extractive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of Fluvoxamine as maleate (FXA) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of the FXA with 3-(4-(dimethyl amino) phenyl) acryl aldehyde (PDAC) (M1) and Ninhydrin (NH) (M2) in basic buffer of pH 9.8 followed by their extraction in chloroform. The absorbance of the chloroform layer for each method was measured at its appropriate max against the reagent blank. These methods have been statistically evaluated and found to be precise and accurate. The procedures described were applied successfully to the determination of the compound in their dosage forms. The results showed that the proposed procedures compared favorably with the reference method and satisfactory sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The optical characteristics such as Beer’s law limits, molar absorptivity and sandell’s sensitivity are reported. Regression analysis using the method of least squares was made to evaluate the slope (b), intercept (a) and correlation coefficient (r) and standard error of estimation (Se) for the drug.
KEYWORDS: Fluvoxamine maleate, spectrophotometric methods, statistical analysis, recovery studies.

Formulation and Evaluation of Valsartan Fast Dissolving Tablets
A. Pavan Kumar, J. Satyanaryana, V. Sai Kishore and T.E. Gopala Krishna Murthy…………………….………….454
ABSTRACT:

Valsartan is an ACE inhibitor and effectively used in the treatment of hypertension. Valsartan is a poorly soluble drug, belonging to biopharmaceutical classification- II and dissolution is the rate limiting step for drug absorption. Valsartan fast dissolving tablets are formulated to overcome its poor solubility. Nature and concentration of the superdisintegrant and type of diluent influence the rate of dissolution. The present research focused the influence of concentration of the superdisintegrant and diluents on rate of drug release from the Valsartan fast dissolving tablets. The rate of drug release was found to be increased by increasing the concentration of the superdisintegrant and found to be highest for tablets formulated with Crospovidone 5%. The rate of drug release was found to be more for tablets formulated by spray dried lactose than compared to tablets formulated by Mannitol and Microcrystalline
KEYWORDS: Valsartan , Crospovidone, Fast dissolving tablets.
Bioavailability Enhancement of Curcumin through Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
Latheeshjlal.L, Sunil Murala, Vaidya Mehul J, G. Swetha and Phanitejaswini Swapna……….………….………….457
ABSTRACT:

The main objective of this study was to improve the bioavailability of curcumin through buccal route. Curcumin is practically insoluble in water. After oral administration, most part of the drug was metabolized in liver. Therefore an attempt has been made to improve the bioavailability by using different conc. of sodium lauryl sulphate (0.1, 0.25 0.50 and 1 %) as bioenhancer. Buccal bilayer tablets were prepared by direct compression with different ratio of HPMC.K4M. (1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%) as bioadhesive polymer and ethyl cellulose (10, 20, 30 and 40%) as backing layer. The formulation were characterized for physicochemical parameter such as weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, mucoadhesive strength, drug content, swelling studies and in vitro diffusion studies. The best mucoadhesive performance and in vitro drug release profile were exhibited by tablets containing hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M (5%) and sodium lauryl sulphate (0.1%). This product was more comfortable to the user due to absence of erosion, faster hydration rate and less viscosity of surrounding environment. To conclude that the formulated unidirectional, bilayered, buccoadhesive tablet for curcumin using HPMC as mucoadhesive agent is superior to oral conventional tablets, as it has the potential to bypass the first pass metabolism and improve the
KEYWORDS: Curcumin, HPMC, Ethylcellulose, sodium lauryl sulphate
Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Aceclofenac and Tizanidine Hydrochloride in Combined
Tablet Dosage Form
Balap Aishwarya R. , Khidse Anuja S., Prasad Deepshikha V, Jadhav Shailaja B, Ingale Pramod L and Chaudhari Praveen D…………….………….………….………….………….………….………….………….………….……………….461
ABSTRACT:

Three simple, precise and economical spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Aceclofenac (ACF) and Tizanidine Hydrochloride (TZH) in combined tablet dosage form. The first method is simultaneous equation method, second method is based on the determination of Q-value and third method is Area under the Curve method. All methods utilize Methanol: Water (25:75) as solvent. Simultaneous equation method involves the measurement of absorbances at 273.5 nm ( max of ACF) and 227.5 nm ( max of TZH). The absorption ratio (Q-value) was determined at 218.5 nm (Iso-absorptivity point) and 227.5 nm ( max of TZH). For AUC method, wavelength range between 270-275 nm and 225-230 nm were selected for ACF and TZH respectively. Both the drugs obey Beer’s law in the concentration ranges employed for these methods. All three methods were statistically validated and the results of recovery studies were found to be satisfactory. All the methods were found to be simple, rapid, and accurate and can be adopted in routine analysis of drugs in
KEYWORDS: Simultaneous equation method, absorption ratio method, AUC method.

Detection of Free Radicals Using GC/MS Trapped By Proxyl Derivatives
Sai Krishna Putta and Bala Krishna Talupula……….………….………….………….………….………….…………….465
ABSTRACT:

The free radicals are having much importance in the body and which they lead to cell degradation via different path ways. To avoid the free radical interaction with the cells in the body the spin trapping agents normally nitraso compounds are used to trap them later which they leads to formation of Spin adduct easily excreted by the body. In This current research the methyl and ethyl radicals are trapped by using 3-Carboxy-PROXYL and 3-Carbamoyl- PROXYL and were finally identified by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Initially, Fenton chemistry along with the 3-Carboxy-PROXYL and/or 3-Carbamoyl-PROXYL is used for the generation of hydroxyl radicals, and then these are used in the oxidation of di-methyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and ethanol producing methyl and ethyl radicals that were spin trapped and were identified by GC/MS. This research was indirectly used to detect hydroxyl radicals by trapping methyl and ethyl radicals.
KEYWORDS: Free radicals, Spin-trap, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.
Study on Anti-Solar Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Flower of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn
Nevade Sidram A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N.V. Kalyane………………….………….………….………….………….472
ABSTRACT:

Sunlight stimulates hormone protection, and it allows synthesis of vitamins D promotes skin cell regeneration and contributes to all overseen of well being of individual. The sunlight which also stimulates melanin and the pigment that acts as the skin natural sunscreen. But excessive radiations of sunrays are unprotected and leading to painful sunburn or other skin related complication. This study evaluates on UV absorption ability of flower of hibiscus rosa- sinensis Linn as an anti-solar agent. The extract was prepared with 90% ethanol by maceration process. The method was performed by UV visible spectrophotometer in the range of 200-400nm. The finalize result of extract was reported as maximum absorbance at 200nm while good absorbance at 260nm to 300nm. The moderate absorbance at
KEYWORDS: UV protective, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, anti solar.
Antifungal Activity of Some Rare Himalayan Bryophytes
Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma……….………….………….………….………….………….………….………….……474
ABSTRACT:

50% aq. methanolic extract of the liverwort, Sauchia spongigosa, Riccia fluitants, Marcantia polymorpha, Conocephalum conicum, Wiesnerella denudata, Metzeria himalayensis and Fossombornia himalayensis were screened for antifungal activity by thin layer autobiochromatographic methods. The CH3Cl fraction of MeOH-H2O extract of the liverwort, Marcantia polymorpha, Conocephalum conicum, Wiesnerella denudata, Metzeria himalayensis and Fossombornia himalayensis gave positive antifungal tests while BuOH fractions of MeOH-H2O extract of the liverwort, Sauchia spongigosa, Marcantia polymorpha, Conocephalum conium, gave positive
KEYWORDS: Rare Bryophytes, Kumaun Himalaya, antifungal activity
Principal Antioxidative Flavonoids from Rosmarinus officinalis Grown in the Hills of Central Himalaya
Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma……….………….………….………….………….………….………….……………….476
ABSTRACT:

Rosmarinus officinalis, an antioxidative polyphenolics producing plant, is characterized for the presence of some prominent ortho-dihydroxyl bearing antioxidant flavonoids. Rosmarinus officinalis grown in the hills of Central Himalaya is being chemically investigated for first time. The aqueous-ethanolic extract of the plant was fractionated with CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH. Cellulose CC fraction of each partition gave a fluorescent bands and each was eluted and collected separately under UV light and anti oxidant activity of each fraction was determined against DPPH free radical at 518 nm. The flavonoids from prominent antioxidative fractions were characterized by UV, 1HNMR and MS studies. Two antioxidative flavonoids, luteolin-5-O- -D-glucopyranoside and hispidulin-7-O-(6”-O-caffeoyl)- glucopyranoside were characterized from the plant first time.
KEYWORDS: Central Himalaya, Kumaun, Rosmarinus officinalis, antioxidative
Phyto - Physico Chemical Evaluation and Anti Microbial Activity of Morus alba Linn
A. Sethuramani, P. Devi, Edward Jaslin, R. Meera and B. Kameswari………………………………………………….480
ABSTRACT:

The present study deals with the preliminary phyto physicochemical evaluation of a well known folklore remedy for diabetic and hyperlipidemic activityi.e Morus alba Linn. The standardization is carried out on the basis of physiochemical and phytochemical studies and analysis of inorganic constituents. The study contributes to the development of standardization parameters of herbal drugs used in Indian system of medicine. In preliminary phyto chemical investigation was found that Aminoacids, Tannins, Phytosterols, Flavanoids, Saponins, Triterpenoids and Cardiacglycosides present in the extracts. In antimicrobial activity the effect of known concentration of standard was compared with the effect of alcoholic extract of the plant Morus alba.Linn using the organism Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.
KEYWORDS: Morus alba Linn, Phyto-Physiochemical evaluation, Antimicrobial activity
Taxonomic Studies on Lentinus tuberregium (GQ292711) Tamil Nadu, India
J. Manjunathan, M. Kumar and V. Kaviyarasan…………………………………………………………………………….484
ABSTRACT:

The genus Lentinus is a white rot fungus, with many taxonomic controversies and it has attracted the attention of many mycologists for many years. Basidiospore shape, size and structure and pileal surface have been used as primary taxonomic character in the identification of Lentinus spp. However, high levels of phenotypic plasticity and descriptive key led many taxonomists to explore chemical and molecular methods to distinguish the species of Lentinus. Phylogenetic studies were initiated in Lentinus during 1990’s based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26SrDNA. Their studies implied the significance of ITS gene in systematic.
KEYWORDS: Isolation, classical taxonomy, molecular taxonomy, phylogenetic tree, NCBI.
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NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Tasmar 100 mg film-coated tablets ▼ 2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION Each film-coated tablet contains 100 mg tolcapone. Excipients: Each tablet contains 7.5 mg lactose. For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1 3. PHARMACEUTICAL Film-coated tablet. Pale to light yellow, hexagonal, biconvex, film-coated tablet. “TASMAR”

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