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Introduction

Brilliant Treks & Adventure (P) Ltd
----------More than adventure holidays
EVEREST BASE CAMP TREKKING INTRODUCTION Everest trekking and mountaineering is one of the most famous mountain treks in the world. Every spring and autumn the trail fills with awestruck walkers who wind their way through friendly Sherpa villages. You pass through the famous Tengboche monastery which has magnificent views of the surrounding mountains. The goal for many who come here is to climb Kala Patthar – a rocky view point from where you can see the unforgiving Khumbu Icefall and the mighty Mt. Everest. We design high quality luxury trekking within Everest Base Camp trails where we provide best quality lodge and foods. According to our trip itinerary, we take you up to Kala Patar for the panoramic viewpoint of Everest, Lhotse and Nuptse and also the hike from Gorak Shep along the Khumbu glacier to Everest Base Camp. Of course you will pass Sherpa valley huge Namche bazaar settlement, Himalayan Monastery, Sherpa culture etc. EXPERIENCE / FITNESS LEVEL To get to Everest Base Camp or any higher than that, you will have to face challenging high altitude alpine tracks. It is strongly recommended that you have previous walking experience and a good level of fitness. The viewpoints and opportunity to meet the inspiring sherpa community provides rich rewards every day on the trail. You will need at least two acclimatization rest days to help your body cope with the increasing altitude. THE TRACK - WHAT TO EXPECT The trail to Everest Base Camp is a well-trod route as many thousands of trekkers visit the region every year. The track is therefore generally in excellent condition, which is great as it means you can fully concentrate on slogging up and down some really big hills. The first obstacle for many is the 800m climb to Namche bazaar, but once there the views are great. Then it’s down and up again to Tengboche monastery for more classic views. The trail then dips once more before constantly climbing for 3 more days until you finally arrive, puffed and elated at Base Camp. Along the trekking trails, there are many different basic to high standard lodges where you can have excellent service, international standard food and western toilets especially hot shower are available. TRIP FACTS:
Destination:
EBC & Kalapattar
Trip duration: 18 Days
Trip grade: moderate
Activity: Trekking / Hiking and Cultural excursion
Entry point: Lukla
Ends in: Kathmandu
Accommodation: Hotel, luxury lodge during trekking
Transportation: Flight, Car, Van depend on group size
Maximum altitude: 5545m
Minimum altitudes: 2853mt
Trekking Season: Spring & Autumn
Note: During adventure trekking and hiking (Camp or lodge treks)
within Nepal Himalayas, weather, local politics, transport or a
multitude of other factors beyond our control can result in a change of
itinerary. It is, however, very unlikely that the itinerary would be
substantially altered; if alterations are necessary the trekking guide /
leader will decide what is the best alternative, taking into
consideration the best interests of the whole group. Where a change
does occur, we do everything we can to minimize its effect, but we
cannot be responsible for the results of changes or delays.
Package Trip cost: U$ 2250.00 per person but more than 2
member price will be reduce

Outline Trekking Itinerary
Day 01: Arrival and transfer to 4-5 star standard selected hotel in
Kathmandu O/N Hotel
Day 02: Guided sightseeing tours in historical places O/N hotel
Day 03: Morning fly to Lukla (2,853m), trek to Phakding 2500mt, O/N
Lodge
Day 04: Trek to Namche Bazaar (3,445m) O/N lodge
Day 05: Rest and acclimatization at Namche, Short hike
Day 06: Trek to Thame village, Monastery (3,480m) O/N lodge
Day 06: Trek to Khumjung (3790m) O/N lodge
Day 07: Trek to Tengbuche (3867m) O/N lodge
Day 08: Trek to Dingbuche (4350m) O/N lodge
Day 09: Acclimatization day in Dingbuche and short hike around O/N
lodge
Day 10: Trek to Labuche (4930m) O/N lodge
Day 11: Trek to EBC (5400m) and back to Gorakchep 5160mt. O/N
lodge
Day 12: Early morning ascend Kala Patar (5,545m) and return to
Phiriche (4240m) O/N lodge
Day 13: Trek back to Tengbuche (3867m) O/N lodge
Day 14: Trek back to Namche Bazaar (3,445m) O/N lodge
Day 15: Trek back to Lukla (2853m) O/N lodge
Day 16: Morning fly back to Kathmandu O/N hotel
Day 17: At leisure in Kathmandu, Nepal souvenir shopping day
Day 18: Trip complete and final departure to onward destination
Note: Above mentioned itinerary can be change as per different
situation
Price includes:
 Twin sharing room at Hotel Shankar or similar on BB plan  Twin sharing room during trekking period  All trekking arrangement such as domestic flight tickets, Local experience trekking guide, 2 trekkers for 1 porter, Trekking permit,  Full board meals while on the trekking  4 night hotel accommodation in Kathmandu 4 star standard  Farwell & Welcome dinner in Kathmandu  Staffs- salary, equipments, accommodations, insurance Cost not includes
 Personal expenses and travel insurance  Lunch and dinner in Kathmandu except fare well and welcome  Rescue Evacuation for incase emergency
Nepal Culture & Custom
A: Addressing others:
Namaste is used for greeting (hello, hi, good morning, good
afternoon) as well as for parting (good bye, so long! Etc). Namaste is
informal and common between friends. The formal and more polite
form is “NAMASKAR” more common at the office with the officials
and teachers.
In Nepali society “ DHANYABAD” is not as common as thank you in
English. You say thank you even to a shopkeepers returning change.
Nepalese reserve “DHANYABAAD” for something very important for
a great occasion that really deserves it.
B: JUTHO:
Nepalese have a strong ritual sense of pure and impure, clean and
unclean referred to by the term CHOKHO and JUTHO. CHOKHO
means pure, untouched or undefiled whereas and JUTHO means
impure defiled or having been touched by someone.
Food & Etiquette
Food or drink touched by the lips or tongue becomes JUTHO. You
cannot give it to anyone else or return it to the common pot.
 Nepalese don’t take food from another’s plate  Nepali does not share their JUTHO food with their friends. So don’t offer food from your plate to anyone once you start eating.  Don’t touch any cooked food, unless it has been given to you to eat. It is all right to touch uncooked food such as fruits and raw vegetables.  Don’t put more food on your plate than you can eat as Nepalese believe that the food should be respected, not thrown away. Once your lips or tongue has touched the food placed on your plate, it is considered polluted.  People in Nepal eat with their right hand but use their left hand while drinking water (because the right hand is soiled with eating) they wash their hands with water before and after eating. People usually do not talk whole eating. The cook or their family members may sit near you and watch you eat just to find out whether you need something or are happy with food or not. Nepali people believe that eating without washing one’s face is
inauspicious for the day. If you are living in a Nepali family don’t take
breakfast without washing your face at least first.
Don’t touch or step over:
(a) Person: Touching a person who is performing PUJA (worship) in
the temple or in the worshipping room makes him JUTHO. He/she
cannot continue PUJA without purifying themselves by taken a
shower.
Touching a person who is brining water from a fiver or water tap can
be JUTHO if it is holy water to perform some religious events or an
offering to Gods/Goddess.
(b) Head: Touching some one head cap/hair is an offense and an
insult as most Nepalese consider their head as a sacred part of the
body and they touch only their own head. Don’t even pat children on
the head. Touching a person mourning the death of family member
makes both of you JUTHO. The mourning usually tries to sit apart
from others.
(c) Feet: Nepali does not point the soles of their feet at another
person. It is an insult and offending to other person. So, when you sit,
make sure that your feet are not pointed at anyone. You can sit
cross-legged or tuck your legs beneath you. Nepalese do not step on
or over anything written (newspapers, books or magazines). In case
that happens, they pick it up and touch it to their forehead to ask the
God for forgiveness. Nepalese do not step over people or foods as
Nepalese believe that the God dwells in every person and in food as
well. So if your outstretched legs are across a doorway or path, pull
them in when someone wants to pass.
If one accidentally touches someone with one’s feet he/she is
supposed to say ‘BISHNU, BISHNU’ and while saying that, he/she
first touches the other persons body (not on the head) with their right
hand then immediately touch their own forehead. The indication is
‘Oh God, forgive me.’
The left hand vs right hand:
Nepali does not use their left hand while giving or receiving
something. The left hand is considered to be inauspicious and ritually
impure as it is used for cleaning after defecating. The left hand can
be used for giving, receiving or passing things if the right hand is
soiled from eating. Otherwise use only your right hand for eating or
handing over an object. It is a sign of respect to give or receive things
with both hands. Nepalese extend their right hand out and hold onto
the right forearm with the left hand as they offer a accept objects.
Relation between Men and Women:
Nepali men and women do not show any physical interaction such as
holding hands, hugging or kissing in public. Even husband and wife
do not dare do this in public. Physical interaction between the same
sexes such as hand holding and linking arms is very common in
Nepal. It does not indicate a homosexual relationship. Do not
compliment someone’s wife or husband or an adult or married
woman before others. Sometimes words of appreciation could be
misinterpreted, leading to difficult situation for you. When a woman is
alone in the house do not go and meet her there. You should keep
the door open while you talking with a woman in a room. Other
people could misunderstand scenes. Nepali men and women do not
even touch each other; they rather keep certain distance from each
other. Women should be careful not to give any impression that you
are too liberal or not serious about sexual relations.
Privacy:
Nepalese normally visit their friends or family without prior notice.
Prior information is not a tradition. Nepalese usually do not knock on
the door before entering into their friends or family member's room.
Therefore lock the door from the inside while you are changing your
clothes or doing anything privet. Nepali people may ask you
questions about your family, personal life, personal preferences and
even about your earning, occupation, and marital status etc. In most
cases in Nepal this is a normal way of getting introduced to people.
When friends see you after some time (a month or more) and you
look very healthy or bit fat, they may say how fate you are’ in order to
compliment you. It is never meant to offend you at all. To be ‘fat’ in
Nepal means you are maintaining your health very well. Being skinny
in Nepal is not a sign of good health. Nepalese do not expose their
bodies when they change their clothes, even among members of the
same sex.
Dress:
Women should especially avoid dressing in revealing clothes such as
tight clothes, shorts, or short skirt. Women should not expose their
legs. They should wear long skirts or kurta salwar. Paints are okey if
they are not tight. Wearing kurta sawlar is sensible and comfortable
and it also gives the impression that a woman is making an effort to
share Nepali culture. If women have to bath at a public tap, she
should wear a ‘lungi’ that covers her from breast to knees. You just tie
it up underneath the arms. The same can be used for swimming. If
you are invited to ceremony or the celebrations of the weeding or
other religious function, dress nicely with neat and clean formal dress.
Formal dress gives you much respect and value.
Few Facts in Nepal
 Nepalese can remain without talking for a long time and they  Invitations may arrive at the last moment. Even a short  Maalaa (necklace) 0f shoes draped around someone’s neck is  Offices outside Kathmandu often seem to be like a bus station with all kinds of people coming, sitting, and going at will.  The person who invites others out to eat at a restaurant usually makes the payment. Nepalese usually don’t drive the bill or go ‘Dutch’. It is expected that the other people will reciprocate at some later time.  Don’t expect your junior driver to mix easily with your senior administrative officer at the office party.  Nepalese often tend to compare persons/groups/cultures in wealth, size of body, beauty, age, income etc. you may find yourself being compared with some westerner who a Nepali person or community has met or known before.  Nepalese generally have community feelings. Most Nepalese make response with collective indications. Instead of saying “I, my and me” they say “we, our and us”. When hear such generalizations you are included in ‘we, our and us’.  The concept of time in Nepal is mostly multidimensional, which is different from the concept of the time in the west, which liner. Nepalese generally do not break into fractions and schedules. Things happen rather casually here ad people get into doing things upon circumstances. Because of this nation of time, appointments may not happen in time and delays may occur. Therefore a person may show up at 4 fro a 3 o’clock appointment. Ethnic diversity and custom of Nepal make Nepal the most fascinating tourist destination in the world. Official statistics indicates that Nepali population of around 23 millions includes more than 60 ethnic groups speaking 70 different languages and dialects. Northern Himalayan People, Middle Hills and Valley People and Terai People make up the total populations of the nation. Sherpas, Dolpas, Lopas, Baragaonlis and Manangis come under Northern Himalayan People. Magars, Gurungs, Tamangs, Sunuwars, Newars, Thakalis, Chepangs and majority of Brahmans and Chhetris are regarded as Middle Hills and Valley People. The Terai People are Tharus, Darai, Kumhal, Majhi and migrants from India. Nepali society is culturally influenced by caste hierarchy. Caste system comprises of Brahmin, Chettri, Vaisya and Shudra. Nepali is the official language. Nepal is a secular country. Hinduism and Buddhism are the two main religions. Official statistics shows that 89.5% of the population is Hindu, 5.3% Buddhist, 2.7% Muslim, 2.4% Shamanist and Animist, 0.1%Jain and 0.04% Christian. Regardless of ethnic background or religion, Nepali people are the most hospitable and friendly people you could ever wish to meet. Nepalese revere their guests as gods. Visit to Nepal can surely be an experience of a lifetime. Nepalese Gustures

Nodding head:
As the west, Nepalese may nod their heads up to down (vertically) to
mean "yes" and they may shake their heads from side to side
(horizontally) to mean "no". But in Nepal, the "yes" movement is
typically slower than the "no". Moreover, a very slow side-to-side
"figure 8" roll of the head is also affirmative. This last head movement
is the most confusing for westerners as it is easy to mistake fro "no"
or "may be".
Flapping hands: An important hand gesture for westerners to
understand is the one which means "no, I don't have it or any, or no, I
don't want or any". To make the gesture, the hand is held out in front
of you, as if you were going to shake hands, raised a little higher and
flapped back and forth quickly.
For Come & Go: Many westerners also mistake the Nepali hand
signals for "come here" and "go away". Both are done with the arm
extended in front of you, hand open, with the palm down for "come
here" fingers and brought down and towards the chest while hand is
closed as if drawing something towards to you. This can look like
“Bye, Go away” wave the exact opposite what it really means. The
Nepali gesture for “go away” is less confusing. In it the fingers of the
extended hand are swept up and away, as if brushing something off
the air in front of you.
Shaking hands: In the west, particularly the U.S., handshakes are
film and brief. In Nepal, handshakes are more extended and as a
gesture of sincerity the left hand may be placed on top of the person’s
hand you are shaking hand with. If the handshakes are too short, or if
the hand is pulled away too quickly, this may be interpreted
negatively, as a sign of dislike or anger.
Holding hands and embracing: Holding hands and embracing
between the same sexes is very common in Nepal and expresses
friendship between them. But it is not done between opposite sexes.
Eye contact: During conversation a Nepali normally do not look at
the eyes of the person he is talking with. Instead he may look
elsewhere, but this does not imply dishonesty or impoliteness.
Questions: Nepalese raise their hands and turn them once quickly
towards the chest to indicate questions like “what, where, or when”
depending upon the contexts.
High Altitude Sickness
What is High Altitude?
Altitude is defined on the following scale High (8,000 - 12,000 feet
[2,438 - 3,658 meters]), Very High (12,000 - 18,000 feet [3,658 -
5,487 meters]), and Extremely High (18,000+ feet [5,500+ meters]).
Since few people have been to such altitudes, it is hard to know who
may be affected. There are no specific factors such as age, sex, or
physical condition that correlate with susceptibility to altitude
sickness. Some people get it and some people don't, and some
people are more susceptible than others. Most people can go up to
8,000 feet (2,438 meters) with minimal effect. If you haven't been to
high altitude before, it's important to be cautious. If you have been at
that altitude before with no problem, you can probably return to that
altitude without problems as long as you are properly acclimatized.
What Causes Altitude Illnesses
The concentration of oxygen at sea level is about 21% and the
barometric pressure averages 760 mmHg. As altitude increases, the
concentration remains the same but the number of oxygen molecules
per breath is reduced. At 12,000 feet (3,658 meters) the barometric
pressure is only 483 mmHg, so there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen
molecules per breath. In order to properly oxygenate the body, your
breathing rate (even while at rest) has to increase. This extra
ventilation increases the oxygen content in the blood, but not to sea
level concentrations. Since the amount of oxygen required for activity
is the same, the body must adjust to having less oxygen. In addition,
for reasons not entirely understood, high altitude and lower air
pressure causes fluid to leak from the capillaries which can cause
fluid build-up in both the lungs and the brain. Continuing to higher
altitudes without proper acclimatization can lead to potentially
serious, even life-threatening illnesses.
Acclimatization
The major cause of altitude illnesses is going too high too fast. Given
time, your body can adapt to the decrease in oxygen molecules at a
specific altitude. This process is known as acclimatization and
generally takes 1-3 days at that altitude. For example, if you hike to
10,000 feet (3,048 meters), and spend several days at that altitude,
your body acclimatizes to 10,000 feet (3,048 meters). If you climb to
12,000 feet (3,658 meters), your body has to acclimatize once again.
A number of changes take place in the body to allow it to operate with decreased oxygen. The depth of respiration increases. Pressure in pulmonary arteries is increased, "forcing" blood into portions of the lung which are normally not used during sea level breathing. The body produces more red blood cells to carry oxygen, The body produces more of a particular enzyme that facilitates The release of oxygen from hemoglobin to the body tissues. Prevention of Altitude Illnesses Prevention of altitude illnesses falls into two categories, proper acclimatization and preventive medications. Below are a few basic guidelines for proper acclimatization. If possible, don't fly or drive to high altitude. Start below 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) and walk up. If you do fly or drive, do not over-exert yourself or move higher for the first 24 hours. If you go above 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), only increase your altitude by 1,000 feet (305 meters) per day and for every 3,000 feet (915 meters) of elevation gained, take a rest day.  "Climb high and sleep low." This is the maxim used by climbers. You can climb more than 1,000 feet (305 meters) in a day as long as you come back down and sleep at a lower altitude.  If you begin to show symptoms of moderate altitude illness, don't go higher until symptoms decrease (&quote don’t go up until symptoms go down").  If symptoms increase, go down, down, down!  Keep in mind that different people will acclimatize at different rates. Make sure all of your party is properly acclimatized before going higher.  Stay properly hydrated. Acclimatization is often accompanied by fluid loss, so you need to drink lots of fluids to remain properly hydrated (at least 3-4 quarts per day). Urine output should be copious and clear.  Take it easy; don't over-exert yourself when you first get up to altitude. Light activity during the day is better than sleeping because respiration decreases during sleep, exacerbating the symptoms.  Avoid tobacco and alcohol and other depressant drugs including, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills. These depressants further decrease the respiratory drive during sleep resulting in a worsening of the symptoms.  Eat a high carbohydrate diet (more than 70% of your calories  The acclimatization process is inhibited by dehydration, over- exertion, and alcohol and other depressant drugs. Preventive Medications Diamox (Acetazolamide) allows you to breathe faster so that you metabolize more oxygen, thereby minimizing the symptoms caused by poor oxygenation. This is especially helpful at night when respiratory drive is decreased. Since it takes a while for Diamox to have an effect, it is advisable to start taking it 24 hours before you go to altitude and continue for at least five days at higher altitude. The recommendation of the Himalayan Rescue Association Medical Clinic is 125 mg. twice a day (morning and night). (The standard dose was 250 mg., but their research showed no difference for most people with the lower dose, although some individuals may need 250 mg.) Possible side effects include tingling of the lips and finger tips, blurring of vision, and alteration of taste. These side effects may be reduced with the 125 mg. dose. Side effects subside when the drug is stopped. Contact your physician for a prescription. Since Diamox is a sulfonamide drug, people who are allergic to sulfa drugs should not take Diamox. Diamox has also been known to cause severe allergic reactions to people with no previous history of Diamox or sulfa allergies. Frank Hubbell of SOLO recommends a trial course of the drug before going to a remote location where a severe allergic reaction could prove difficult to treat. Dexamethasone (a steroid) is a prescription drug that decreases brain and other swelling reversing the effects of AMS. Dosage is typically 4 mg twice a day for a few days starting with the ascent. This prevents most symptoms of altitude illness. It should be used with caution and only on the advice of a physician because of possible serious side effects. It may be combined with Diamox. No other medications have been proven valuable for preventing AMS. Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) AMS is common at high altitudes. At elevations over 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), 75% of people will have mild symptoms. The occurrence of AMS is dependent upon the elevation, the rate of ascent, and individual susceptibility. Many people will experience mild AMS during the acclimatization process. Symptoms usually start 12-24 hours after arrival at altitude and begin to decrease in severity about the third day. The symptoms of Mild AMS are headache, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, nausea, disturbed sleep, and a general feeling of malaise. Symptoms tend to be worse at night and when respiratory drive is decreased. Mild AMS does not interfere with normal activity and symptoms generally subside within 2-4 days as the body acclimatizes. As long as symptoms are mild, and only a nuisance, ascent can continue at a moderate rate. When hiking, it is essential that you communicate any symptoms of illness immediately to others on your trip. AMS is considered to be a neurological problem caused by changes in the central nervous system. It is basically a mild form of High Altitude Cerebral Edema (see below). Basic Treatment of AMS Do: Walk slowly, drink more fluid and look after each other, walk together. Don’t: Drink alcohol, smoke, take sleeping pills, carry heavy packs, ascend rapidly or worry. The only cure is either acclimatization or descent. Symptoms of Mild AMS can be treated with pain medications for headache and Diamox. Both help to reduce the severity of the symptoms, but remember, reducing the symptoms is not curing the problem. Diamox allows you to breathe faster so that you metabolize more oxygen, thereby minimizing the symptoms caused by poor oxygenation. This is especially helpful at night when respiratory drive is decreased. Since it takes a while for Diamox to have an effect, it is advisable to start taking it 24 hours before you go to altitude and continue for at least five days at higher altitude. The recommendation of the Himalayan Rescue Association Medical Clinic is 125 mg. twice a day (morning and night). (The standard dose was 250 mg., but their research showed no difference for most people with the lower dose, although some individuals may need 250 mg.) Possible side effects include tingling of the lips and finger tips, blurring of vision, and alteration of taste. These side effects may be reduced with the 125 mg. dose. Side effects subside when the drug is stopped. Contact your physician for a prescription. Since Diamox is a sulfonamide drug, people who are allergic to sulfa drugs should not take Diamox. Diamox has also been known to cause severe allergic reactions to people with no previous history of Diamox or sulfa allergies. Frank Hubbell of SOLO in New Hampshire recommends a trial course of the drug before going to a remote location where a severe allergic reaction could prove difficult to treat. Moderate AMS Moderate AMS includes severe headache that is not relieved by medication, nausea and vomiting, increasing weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and decreased coordination (ataxia). Normal activity is difficult, although the person may still be able to walk on their own. At this stage, only advanced medications or descent can reverse the problem. Descending even a few hundred feet (70-100 meters) may help and definite improvement will be seen in descents of 1,000-2,000 feet (305-610 meters). Twenty-four hours at the lower altitude will result in significant improvements. The person should remain at lower altitude until symptoms have subsided (up to 3 days). At this point, the person has become acclimatized to that altitude and can begin ascending again. The best test for moderate AMS is to have the person "walk a straight line" heel to toe. Just like a sobriety test, a person with ataxia will be unable to walk a straight line. This is a clear indication that immediate descent is required. It is important to get the person to descend before the ataxia reaches the point where they cannot walk on their own (which would necessitate a litter evacuation). Severe AMS Severe AMS presents as an increase in the severity of the aforementioned symptoms, including shortness of breath at rest, inability to walk, decreasing mental status, and fluid buildup in the lungs. Severe AMS requires immediate descent to lower altitudes (2,000 - 4,000 feet [610-1,220 meters]). There are two other severe forms of altitude illness, High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) and High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). Both of these happen less frequently, especially to those who are properly acclimatized. When they do occur, it is usually with people going too high too fast or going very high and staying there. The lack of oxygen results in leakage of fluid through the capillary walls into either the lungs or the brain. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) HAPE results from fluid buildup in the lungs. The fluid in the lungs prevents effective oxygen exchange. As the condition becomes more severe, the level of oxygen in the bloodstream decreases, and this can lead to cyanosis, impaired cerebral function, and death. Symptoms include shortness of breath even at rest, "tightness in the chest," marked fatigue, a feeling of impending suffocation at night, weakness, and a persistent productive cough bringing up white, watery, or frothy fluid. Confusion and irrational behavior are signs that insufficient oxygen is reaching the brain. One of the methods for testing yourself for HAPE is to check your recovery time after exertion. If your heart and breathing rates normally slow down in X seconds after exercise, but at altitude your recovery time is much greater, it may mean fluid is building up in the lungs. In cases of HAPE, immediate descent is a necessary life-saving measure (2,000 - 4,000 feet [610-1,220 meters]). Anyone suffering from HAPE must be evacuated to a medical facility for proper follow-up treatment. High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) HACE is the result of swelling of brain tissue from fluid leakage. Symptoms can include headache, loss of coordination (ataxia), weakness, and decreasing levels of consciousness including, disorientation, loss of memory, hallucinations, psychotic behavior, and coma. It generally occurs after a week or more at high altitude. Severe instances can lead to death if not treated quickly. Immediate descent is a necessary life-saving measure (2,000 - 4,000 feet [610-1,220 meters]). There are some medications that may be prescribed for treatment in the field, but these require that you have proper training in their use. Anyone suffering from HACE must be evacuated to a medical facility for proper follow-up treatment. Symptoms Symptoms range from mild to life-threatening, and can affect the nervous system, lungs, muscles, and heart. In most cases, the symptoms are mild. Symptoms generally associated with mild to moderate acute mountain sickness include: Symptoms generally associated with more severe acute mountain sickness include:  Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis)  Decreased consciousness or withdrawal from social interaction  Inability to walk in a straight line, or to walk at all  Ibuprofen is effective at relieving altitude headache.  Nifedipine rapidly decreases pulmonary artery pressure and  Breathing oxygen reduces the effects of altitude illnesses. This clever invention has revolutionized field treatment of high altitude illnesses. The bag is basically a sealed chamber with a pump. The person is placed inside the bag and it is inflated. Pumping the bag full of air effectively increases the concentration of oxygen molecules and therefore simulates a descent to lower altitude. In as little as 10 minutes the bag can create an "atmosphere" that corresponds to that at 3,000 - 5,000 feet (915 - 1,525 meters) lower. After 1-2 hours in the bag, the person's body chemistry will have "reset" to the lower altitude. This lasts for up to 12 hours outside of the bag which should be enough time to walk them down to a lower altitude and allow for
further acclimatization. The bag and pump weigh about 14 pounds
(6.3 kilos) and are now carried on most major high altitude
expeditions. Bags can be rented for short term trips such as treks or
expeditions.

Trekking Equipments
Trekking mans to walk in some mountain whether it is for many days
or few. It may led you to the base camp of the Himalayas or just
some small hills form where you will have spectacular view of the
nature and mountains. To walk in the mountain or to enjoy with them
you have to be prepared with essential equipments. That is we use to
call trekking gears. We can't say which trekking gears are essential to
where or in which season. For those details you can consult to your
trekking operator or think in general. It will be always a gentle way to
trek with the basic trekking gears because you never know what can
be most important items to you in trek. Except the basic food and a
room or tent to sleep the following things could be useful to trek in
proper way.
Kitbag (duffel bag / duffle bag): For all the treks your gear that is
carried by the porters or yaks is best packed in a strong kitbag. A
simple design without wheels and without foldable handles is best.
You can buy in Kathmandu, although they are not as tough as say
the North Face Base Camp Duffel. Mountain Hard wear duffels look
tough but are not.
Sleeping bag: Down-filled bags are better. Beg, borrow or steal a
good one (ie 4-5 season) because high altitude nights will be cool.
Good down is fluffy, light and thick. A muff (an extra section around
the neck) makes a big difference to the overall warmth of a bag.
Reasonable sleeping bags are cheaply available for rent in
Kathmandu. Alternatively add a fleece sleeping bag liner to add
warmth to a 3-4 season bag.
Sleeping bag liner: Cotton, silk or fleece. Saves washing your
sleeping bag and adds warmth available in Kathmandu.
Daypack: This should be comfortable and a good waist band that
transfers some of the weight to the hips is most important. It needs to
be big enough to take a jacket, fleece, water, camera and odds and
ends. Kathmandu now offers a range of cheap fall-part packs to
fantastic Mammoth and Black Diamond day packs, my personal
favorite are my Osprey packs though (unavailable in Kathmandu).
Boots: For a happy trek you need comfortable feet. Good boots
have: good ankle support, plenty of toe room for long descents, a stiff
sole to lessen twisting torsion, and are light because with every step
you lift your boot up. Look at the inner lining, a material that eats
smelly feet bacteria. Gore-Tex boots have an inner liner that helps
with warmth but your feet tend to sweat more in the warmer low
country. You don't necessarily need Gore-Tex boots. Good
lightweight trekking boots or light all leather boots are perfect. Boots
must be lightly worn in before trekking and this should include some
steep hills to show up trouble spots.
The rougher the trek, the longer the trek, the tougher and newer your
boots should be. If you are trekking in heavier boots then it may also
be worth taking along some light running shoe-style trainers (eg
Salomon XA's), and wear these for the first few days, switching to
real boots in the higher country or when it rains.
Socks: In the low country your feet will be warm or even hot while
walking so quality cotton mixes sports socks can work well, or light
hiking socks. Three to four pairs are enough. Thick trekking socks are
better for higher up and cool evenings, three-four pairs. Mostly
modern trekking boots fit snugly so wearing two pairs of socks at the
same time is impractical.
Camp shoes/sandals/flip-flops: Luxury for your feet at the end of
the day. Sandals or running shoes (tougher cross-trainers also work,
see above). Flip-flops or crocs, available for cheap in Kathmandu, are
a necessity for showering during the Khumbu and Annapurna treks.
Fleece jacket/vest: Most trekkers consider this essential, but
alternatives are a thick thermal top or a light down jacket.
Down jacket/vest: Almost essential for the cool evenings. If you
don't already have a jacket, they are readily available or easily rented
in Kathmandu for around $1 a day. A down jacket is the best option,
although a vest can also be brought along (ie bring a jacket as well).
Wind/rain jacket: Waterproof and breathable. Gore-tex (or similar)
jackets are recommended for treks over passes or climbing trips.
Plastic ponchos or non-breathable raincoats are not suitable.
Thermal shirts/underwear: Good thermals, both tops and bottoms,
are one of the secrets to cold weather trekking comfort. A mid-weight
top (zip-T style) is great for high country day wear. Lighter thermal
tops are still useful in the low country and an expedition-weight
thermal top is a good warm but light system for the real cold.
Nightwear thermals: Silk-weight is light yet still warm, but for cooler
treks mid-weight is perfect. A toasty (but not hot) sleep is essential for
a full recovery.
Fleece/sweatpants: Great for the chilly evenings, thicker is better
(except for when the stoves in the teahouses really heat up!).Readily
available in Kathmandu.
Prim aloft pants are the expedition camper's best friend though.
Day-wear shirt: T-shirts are popular but a travel shirt is more
versatile. The collar protects the back of your neck and the sleeves
can be rolled up or down. Take two so you can swap damp for dry.
Trekking pants: You will live in these. Light material, loose and
medium-colored is best. You can survive with only one pair, although
two is better, and if heading high, a soft shell pair is really useful.
Wind pants: If you have soft-shell trekking pants then special wind
pants are not needed. If you do bring a pair, it is not necessary to
have Gore-tex. Similar, non-waterproof is quite OK.
Underwear: 4 to 7 pairs.
Warm hat/balaclava: Nice for the evenings, and useful for cold
trekking days. Beanies work, so do buffs.

Neck gaiter: For winter trekking a fleece neck gaiter is really the
best for staying warm! A buff is versatile on less cold treks.
Trekking poles: Definitely useful, especially on steep, rough terrain,
but if you are not used to using them you can survive without. One
can be useful for easing long descents.
Sunglasses: Bring good wraparound glasses suitable for snow, its
bright up there, but specialized glacier glasses with side pieces are
not needed. Contact lens wearers report very few problems except
cleaning them in the conditions. Ski goggles are unnecessary.
Mittens/gloves: A good pair of wind-proof gloves is essential.
Available in Kathmandu for cheap if you don't have a pair.
Water bottle: Should be one liter or more in capacity, take boiling
water and be leak-proof. Nalgene or a similar brand, or European
Aluminum bottles, are best, all available in Kathmandu. You need a
minimum of 2 water bottles, or at least 1 water bottle IN ADDITION to
a Camelback or hydration system.
Pee bottle: Very useful on cold high country nights! Can buy a
cheap one in Kathmandu.
Torch / Flashlight: LED head torches rule, the Black Diamond ones
seem to be better than Petzls now. Available in Kathmandu.

Toiletries and odds & ends: Essentials for the month only. The
smallest tube of toothpaste available in Kathmandu is perfect for a
month. Teahouse trekking, there are a surprising number of showers
or buckets of hot water available. We provide toilet paper for
expeditions; you bring or buy along the way for tea-house treks.
Deodorant can spare you grief with your room mate/tent partner.
Towel: Bring only a small one trekking, or a camp towel. In
Kathmandu the hotel supplies towels.
Sunscreen and lip balm with sunscreen: The sun is strong at
altitude, especially after snow. Bring at least sunscreen and lip balm
WITH SPF 15, and better still SPF 30+. The best brand is Banana
Boat, which is usually available in Kathmandu.
Moisturizer: A small tube for sensitive or well cared for skins. The air
is dry and the sun harsh.
Sun hat: A technical running cap is ideal. A wide-brim sun hat is also
good.
First aid kit: We carry one with aspirin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen,
decongestants, lozenges, various antibiotics for Nepalese varieties of
diarrhoea and chests infections, Diamox (an acclimatizing aid drug),
antiseptic, antihistamine cream, oral rehydration, bandages and
band-aids.You should bring any personal medicines that you need,
and if you have had blisters in the past, a good kit.
Water purification: You can get away without water purification but,
especially for a hot trek, it is nice to be independent from the lodges
or expedition crew. A bottle of iodine tablets such as Potable Aqua,
PolarPure or Couglans can be useful however the most convenient
system is the strpen which uses UV light to neutralize bugs in the
water. We mostly use to water from the lodges but occasionally take
water from the streams. The use of mineral water is discouraged from
an environmental point of view, but is available everywhere.
Books: One or two with high swap ability. Kathmandu has some
great second-hand book shops.
Money-pouch/belt/inside pocket: Most people find wearing one
while trekking is a hassle and keep it buried in their kitbag or
daypack. The Kathmandu hotel has safety deposit boxes.
Snow gaiters: Not needed but if you have them, consider bringing
them if going above 4000m.
Crampons and ice axe: Not needed for trekking - trekking is
walking, not climbing.
Additional gear for camping treks:
Inflatable sleeping pad: Thermarest or similar - for
expedition/climbing treks ONLY, not tea-house treks. We provide a
sponge foam mattress and if necessary, a closed cell pad, but if you
have your own Thermarest, bring it. We also have a few available for
rent.
Down booties: A good luxury for chilly evenings, available in
Kathmandu.
Evening camp-wear: Around camp you can wear camp shoes,
sandals (for non-winter treks) or leather boots. No matter what
altitude and what season, it is cool to bloody freezing in the evenings.
By far the best clothing is:
+ a down jacket, light or thick, available in Kathmandu. Fleece and
layers isn't really enough.
+ Primaloft pants (hard to find) or thick fleece pants
+ fleece hat and neck gaiter
+ thick sox
+ Nalgene or Aluminum water bottle filled with boiling water
Snacks and nutrition:
You will feel your best with plenty of good food and keeping hydrated.
We provide the food and the water. However you will also want
wholesome snacks and vitamin tablets. Chocolate, chocolate bars,
dried fruit bars and dried fruit are readily available in Kathmandu, but
Cliff bars, Power bars, energy gels and the like are not usually
available.
Nepal Trekking Grade
Trip Grading.
Nepal is perfect place to trek and mountains explore both for novice
and hardened adventures. But, it has been really difficult to determine
the grades precisely. Your fitness level and experienced counts a lot
in trek. Still, trekking routes in Nepal have been graded based on
different factors such as length, altitude, remoteness, walking
conditions, weather and others. You should note that there are two types grading it self. Some divide the routes into three grades and other five grades. However, the best use of grading can be made by comparing different trekking routes. As you might know, all trekking demands certain level of physical efforts. Most common five types of grade have been given below: It is not compulsory to have an experience. However, little walk is required for trekking. Transportation is by Car, Bus, Jeep or airplane. (A) GRADE - Easy: This grade applies for 3-5 days walking and hiking. It involves trekking to the altitude of less than 3000m. You have to take four to five hours daily walk (sometimes a bit longer) with some uphill climbs. Some previous uphill climbing is desirable (B) GRADE: Moderate: This grade applies for 6-8 days walking. The days are moderate, but some days are unavoidably slightly longer. This involves trekking to the altitude between 2000m to 3500m. You have to take six to eight hours daily walking with longer ascents and the scramble on an exposed ridge and rough conditions under foot on occasion. (C) GRADE: Challenging: This grade applies for 9-15 days walking. It involves trekking to the altitude of 3000m to 4500m. it demands 8 hours daily walk. These trekking are comparatively longer and more strenuous with long ascents and descents, steep gradients, rough ground, some backpacking. Therefore, Strong body fitness and stamina along with hill walking experience is required to enjoy the trekking. (D) Grade hard: This grade applies for the duration of 17 to 29 days trek. This involves trekking to the altitude of 4600m to 5600m. You are supposed to walk for 25km per day. This trek is considered to be very hardest available in Nepal, but many people dare to do these types of trek. However, you must be very fit both physically and mentally for this trip. These types of treks are highly discouraged for those people who are suffering from asthma, high blood pressure, heart diseases.
(E) Grade Alpine:
This type of trek is highly demanding in remote areas on a rough
terrain and it may include some trekking peaks, maximum heights of
6,461m/21,192ft. You have to have at least basic knowledge of using
crampons and ice axes. However, first time climber can also be
accepted on some of the easy routes in these peaks. Medical
certificate is required prior to acceptance on any climbing trek.
Trekking Season

When to Trek and tours in Nepal

There are two major factors to weigh as you decide when to go to
Nepal: crowds and weather. As a general rule, the better the weather,
the more people come to Nepal to go trekking. During the high tourist
season in October and November, flights and hotels are fully booked
and hotels and trails in the hills can be horrendously busy.
During autumn the nights are cold in the mountains, but the bright sun makes for pleasant day temperatures - in the high 20s° C, falling to 5° C at night, between 1000 meters and 3500 meters. At higher altitudes temperatures range from about 20° C down to -10° C. Mornings are usually clear with clouds building up during the afternoon, disappearing at night to reveal spectacular starry skies. During winter it is about 10 degrees colder. Early December usually has a lull, but this is also a good trekking season. High passes, especially Thorung La on the Around Annapurna trek and Laurabina Pass on the Gosainkund trek are usually closed from late November to March. February is still cold; though less so as the spring trekking season of March and April approaches. The Middle Hills, especially around Pokhara, are full of dust and haze in April and May, but the high country is usually clear. Trekking tapers off in the heat of May except at high elevations. The monsoon is a good time to visit Kathmandu, but there are few trekkers among those who come. A monsoon trek is possible if you are willing to put up with the rain, leeches, slippery trails and lousy mountain views. Flights operate throughout the monsoon to Lukla, Jumla and Jomsom, so it is possible to fly in and trek above the leech line. Many of the new treks to recently opened restricted areas are good summer treks. Mustang and Simikot are partially in the Himalayan rain shadow, so trekking conditions are good throughout the monsoon season. Most of the restricted area treks are impossible during the winter season. There are two major factors to weigh as you decide when to go to Nepal: crowds and weather. As a general rule, the better the weather, the more people come to Nepal to go trekking. During the high tourist season in October and November, flights and hotels are fully booked and hotels and trails in the hills can be horrendously busy. During autumn the nights are cold in the mountains, but the bright sun makes for pleasant day temperatures - in the high 20s° C, falling to 5° C at night, between 1000 meters and 3500 meters. At higher altitudes temperatures range from about 20° C down to -10° C. Mornings are usually clear with clouds building up during the afternoon, disappearing at night to reveal spectacular starry skies. During winter it is about 10 degrees colder. Early December usually has a lull, but this is also a good trekking season. High passes, especially Thorung La on the Around Annapurna trek and Laurabina Pass on the Gosainkund trek are usually closed from late November to March. February is still cold; though less so as the spring trekking season of March and April approaches. The Middle Hills, especially around Pokhara, are full of dust and haze in April and May, but the high country is usually clear. Trekking tapers off in the heat of May except at high elevations. The monsoon is a good time to visit Kathmandu, but there are few trekkers among those who come. A monsoon trek is possible if you are willing to put up with the rain, leeches, slippery trails and lousy mountain views. Flights operate throughout the monsoon to Lukla, Jumla and Jomsom, so it is possible to fly in and trek above the leech line. Many of the new treks to recently opened restricted areas are good summer treks. Mustang and Simikot are partially in the Himalayan rain shadow, so trekking conditions are good throughout the monsoon season. Most of the restricted area treks are impossible during the winter season. Nepal climate varies according to its season. Autumn and spring are the two most favorable seasons for visiting Nepal. Autumn starts from early September to early December and brings in clear weather with sunny days and warm nights. Whereas spring starts from the beginning of March to the end of May with occasional rain falls. From June to September, is the monsoon season. Trekking is generally difficult and uncomfortable as the climate of Nepal at this time of year brings about hot weather and rain falls almost every day. The trails become muddy and are often leech-infested. Moreover, the mountains are usually obscured by cloud. There are, however, possibilities for summer trekking in the trans-Himalayan regions of Mustang, Dolpo and Tibet. These regions lie in a rain-shadow and therefore receive significantly less precipitation than the more southerly areas. CLIMATE CONSIDERATION FOR TREKKING TRIPS
The best seasons to trek in Nepal are autumn, from mid September until end November and spring, from the beginning of March until the mid May. This is the most popular time to trek. Generally during autumn, the weather is clear with mild to warm days and cold nights. However, in the higher altitude, the nights drop into freezing temperature. In this season, the mountains views are astonishingly clear. Approach to winter and the mid winter (End-November through March). It is also possible to trek during winter, from December until the end of February. Daytime temperatures will be cooler; however, the nights will often be very cold. The days are generally clear but occasional winter storms can bring snow as low as 2500m. Early October through late November is also the busiest period for trekking. But in mid winter (January through March), trekking is more challenging in the high altitudes with semi-regular snowfall followed by more winter storms, which break the long fine periods. The mid-December to mid-February is the coldest time.As snow gets harder and wind condition remains stabilized in early winter, climbing some of trekking peaks is possible. Climbing Mera peak, Island peak, Chulu, and trekking in Annapurna, Everest, Langtang in early winter have been quite popular over the past few years. Spring and early summer (mid-March through May. In the spring, the mornings are usually clear but afternoon cloud build-up brings occasional showers. The days are mix up with warm and rain, which displays wildflowers like rhododendrons. The whole country is lush and an abundant green at this season. This period instigate the second most popular and pleasant trekking season as this is rice-planting time. Late-march into April is especially beautiful. It is also a good time for climbing as the high passes are usually snow free and the mountain views are still clear in April. Up to May, the weather becomes hazy and disturbed with the clouds. From June to September, is the monsoon season. Generally the morning is cloudy and cloud wisps form on random ridges and peaks. Trekking at this time of year is generally difficult and uncomfortable as the weather is hot and it rains almost every day. The trails become muddy and are often leech-infested and the mountains are usually obscured by cloud. During April and May, there is an expectation of thunderstorm, hail shower and strong winds among the fine periods. There are, however, possibilities for summer trekking in the trans-Himalayan regions of mustang, Dolpo and Tibet. These regions lie in a rain-shadow and therefore receive significantly less precipitation than the more southerly areas.

Source: http://www.trekkingandtours.com/userfiles/Everest%20Base%20camp%20trekking1.pdf

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