Center for Disease Control Insect Repellent Use and Safety General Questions Q. Why should I use insect repellent? A. Insect repellents can help reduce exposure to mosquito bites that may carry viruses such as West Nile virus that can cause serious illness and even death. Using insect repellent allows you to continue to play and work outdoors with a reduced risk of mosquito bi
Advantag of ingestion administration way is its easiness even when applied at home. But with their help necessary treatment concentration in blood cannot be always quickly achieve doxycycline online transaction is carried out on anonymity and mutual profit principles, and in addition customers will be positively surprised with quality and speed of service.
Chemwatch msdsULTRALINE LINE MARKING PAINT
Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 15-Apr-2011
Section 1 - CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION
PROPER SHIPPING NAME
Company: Ultracolor ProductsAddress:3 Anderson PlaceSouth WindsorNSW, 2756AustraliaTelephone: +61 2 4577 4866Fax: +61 2 4577 6919 Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. DANGEROUS GOODS. According to NOHSC Criteria, and ADG Code.
CHEMWATCH HAZARD RATINGS
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4 â€¢ Keep away from sources of ignition. No smoking. â€¢ Do not breathe gas/ fumes/ vapour/ spray. â– Irritating to respiratory system and skin. â€¢ Use only in wel ventilated areas. â€¢ Keep container in a wel ventilated place. â– Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by â€¢ Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use. prolonged exposure through inhalation. â– Possible risk of harm to the unborn child. â– HARMFUL - May cause lung damage if â€¢ To clean the floor and al objects contaminated by this â– Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness and cracking. â– Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. â€¢ Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs. â€¢ If swal owed, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show this container or label). â€¢ This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Section 3 - COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
NOTE: Manufacturer has supplied ful ingredientinformation to al ow CHEMWATCH assessment.
Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor.
· If swal owed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient careful y.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Seek medical advice. â– If this product comes in contact with the eyes:· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasional y lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skil ed personnel. â– If solids or aerosol mists are deposited upon the skin:· Flush skin and hair with running water (and soap if available).
· Remove any adhering solids with industrial skin cleansing cream.
· DO NOT use solvents.
· Seek medical attention in the event of irritation. · If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor. NOTES TO PHYSICIAN
â– Fol owing acute or short term repeated exposures to toluene:· Toluene is absorbed across the alveolar barrier, the blood/air mixture being 11.2/15.6 (at 37 degrees C.) The concentration of toluene, in expired breath, is ofthe order of 18 ppm fol owing sustained exposure to 100 ppm. The tissue/blood proportion is 1/3 except in adipose where the proportion is 8/10.
· Metabolism by microsomal mono- oxygenation, results in the production of hippuric acid. This may be detected in the urine in amounts between 0.5 and 2.5 g/24 hrwhich represents, on average 0.8 gm/gm of creatinine. The biological half- life of hippuric acid is in the order of 1- 2 hours.
· Primary threat to life from ingestion and/or inhalation is respiratory failure.
· Patients should be quickly evaluated for signs of respiratory distress (eg cyanosis, tachypnoea, intercostal retraction, obtundation) and given oxygen. Patientswith inadequate tidal volumes or poor arterial blood gases (pO2 <50 mm Hg or pCO2 > 50 mm Hg) should be intubated.
· Arrhythmias complicate some hydrocarbon ingestion and/or inhalation and electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial damage has been reported; intravenous lines andcardiac monitors should be established in obviously symptomatic patients. The lungs excrete inhaled solvents, so that hyperventilation improves clearance.
· A chest x- ray should be taken immediately after stabilisation of breathing and circulation to document aspiration and detect the presence of pneumothorax.
· Epinephrine (adrenaline) is not recommended for treatment of bronchospasm because of potential myocardial sensitisation to catecholamines. Inhaled cardioselectivebronchodilators (e.g. Alupent, Salbutamol) are the preferred agents, with aminophyl ine a second choice.
· Lavage is indicated in patients who require decontamination; ensure use.
BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE INDEX - BEIThese represent the determinants observed in specimens col ected from a healthy worker exposed at the Exposure Standard (ES or TLV): NS: Non- specific determinant; also observed after exposure to other materialB: Background levels occur in specimens col ected from subjects NOT exposed.
Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
· Dry chemical powder.
· BCF (where regulations permit).
· Carbon dioxide.
· Water spray or fog - Large fires only.
· Alert Fire Brigade and tel them location and nature of hazard.
· May be violently or explosively reactive.
· Wear breathing apparatus plus protective gloves.
· Prevent, by any means available, spil age from entering drains or water course.
· Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
· Fight fire from a safe distance, with adequate cover.
· If safe, switch off electrical equipment until vapour fire hazard removed.
· Use water delivered as a fine spray to control the fire and cool adjacent area.
· Avoid spraying water onto liquid pools.
· Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Liquid and vapour are highly flammable.
· Severe fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame and/or oxidisers.
· Vapour forms an explosive mixture with air.
· Severe explosion hazard, in the form of vapour, when exposed to flame or spark.
· Vapour may travel a considerable distance to source of ignition.
· Heating may cause expansion / decomposition with violent rupture of containers.
· On combustion, may emit toxic fumes of carbon monoxide (CO).
Other combustion products include: carbon dioxide (CO2).
â– Avoid contamination with strong oxidising agents as ignition may result.
Personal Protective Equipment
Chemical splash suit. Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
· Remove al ignition sources.
· Clean up al spil s immediately.
· Avoid breathing vapours and contact with skin and eyes.
· Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
· Contain and absorb smal quantities with vermiculite or other absorbent material.
· Wipe up.
· Col ect residues in a flammable waste container.
· Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
· Alert Fire Brigade and tel them location and nature of hazard.
· May be violently or explosively reactive.
· Wear breathing apparatus plus protective gloves.
· Prevent, by any means available, spil age from entering drains or water course.
· Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
· No smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
· Increase ventilation.
· Stop leak if safe to do so.
· Water spray or fog may be used to disperse vapour.
· Contain spil with sand, earth or vermiculite.
· Use only spark- free shovels and explosion proof equipment.
· Col ect recoverable product into label ed containers for recycling.
· Col ect solid residues and seal in label ed drums for disposal.
· Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
· After clean up operations, decontaminate and launder al protective clothing and equipment before storingand re- using.
· If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.
PROTECTIVE ACTIONS FOR SPILL
From IERG (Canada/Australia)Isolation Distance 25 metresDownwind Protection Distance 300 metresIERG Number 14 FOOTNOTES1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines thevapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwindprotective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spil and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly al unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to takeprotective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly alpersons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gal ons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking lessthan 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a smal cylinder are also considered " smal spil s" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many smal leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressedgas cylinder.
5 Guide 128 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING GUIDELINES (ERPG)
The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly al individuals could be exposed for up to one hour WITHOUT experiencing or developinglife- threatening health effects is:toluene 1000ppm irreversible or other serious effects or symptoms which could impair an individual' s ability to take protective action is:toluene 300ppmother than mild, transient adverse effects without perceiving a clearly defined odour is:toluene 50ppmAmerican Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)Ingredients considered according to the fol owing cutoffsVery Toxic (T+) >= 0.1% Toxic (T) >= 3.0%R50 >= 0.25% Corrosive (C) >= 5.0%R51 >= 2.5%else >= 10%where percentage is percentage of ingredient found in the mixture Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.
Section 7 - HANDLING AND STORAGE
PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING
· Avoid al personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a wel -ventilated area.
· Prevent concentration in hol ows and sumps.
· DO NOT enter confined spaces until atmosphere has been checked.
· Avoid smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Vapour may ignite on pumping or pouring due to static electricity.
· DO NOT use plastic buckets.
· Earth and secure metal containers when dispensing or pouring product.
· Use spark-free tools when handling.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions. SUITABLE CONTAINER
· Metal can or drum· Packaging as recommended by manufacturer.
· Check al containers are clearly label ed and free from leaks. STORAGE INCOMPATIBILITY
· Store in original containers in approved flame-proof area.
· No smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.
· DO NOT store in pits, depressions, basements or areas where vapours may be trapped.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store away from incompatible materials in a cool, dry wel ventilated area.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations. _____________________________________________________
SAFE STORAGE WITH OTHER CLASSIFIED CHEMICALS
O: May be stored together with specific preventions Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
ODOUR SAFETY FACTOR (OSF)
OSF=17 (TOLUENE)â– Exposed individuals are NOT reasonably expected to be warned, by smel , that the Exposure Standard is being exceeded.
Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is determined to fal into either Class C, D or E.
The Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is defined as:OSF= Exposure Standard (TWA) ppm/ Odour Threshold Value (OTV) ppmClassification into classes fol ows: Over 90% of exposed individuals are aware by smel that the Exposure Standard (TLV-TWA for example) is being reached, even when distracted by working activities As "A" for 50-90% of persons being distracted As "A" for less than 50% of persons being distracted 10-50% of persons aware of being tested perceive by smel that the Exposure Standard is being <0.18 As "D" for less than 10% of persons aware of being tested MATERIAL DATA
ULTRALINE LINE MARKING PAINT:â– None assigned. Refer to individual constituents.
TOLUENE:â– For toluene:Odour Threshold Value: 0.16- 6.7 (detection), 1.9- 69 (recognition)NOTE: Detector tubes measuring in excess of 5 ppm, are available.
High concentrations of toluene in the air produce depression of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Intentional toluene exposure (glue- sniffing) atmaternal y- intoxicating concentration has also produced birth defects. Foetotoxicity appears at levels associated with CNS narcosis and probably occurs only inthose with chronic toluene- induced kidney failure. Exposure at or below the recommended TLV- TWA is thought to prevent transient headache and irritation, to providea measure of safety for possible disturbances to human reproduction, the prevention of reductions in cognitive responses reported amongst humans inhaling greaterthan 40 ppm, and the significant risks of hepatotoxic, behavioural and nervous system effects (including impaired reaction time and incoordination). Althoughtoluene/ethanol interactions are wel recognised, the degree of protection afforded by the TLV- TWA among drinkers is not known.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)OSF=17 (TOLUENE).
Exposure limits with " skin" notation indicate that vapour and liquid may be absorbed through intact skin. Absorption by skin may readily exceed vapour inhalationexposure. Symptoms for skin absorption are the same as for inhalation. Contact with eyes and mucous membranes may also contribute to overal exposure and may alsoinvalidate the exposure standard.
· Safety glasses with side shields; or as required,· Chemical goggles.
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens orrestrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in useand an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In theevent of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye rednessor irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intel igence Bul etin 59].
· Polyethylene gloves.
Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC.
Wear safety footwear.
· Overal s.
· Eyewash unit.
· Barrier cream.
· Skin cleansing cream.
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consultsite specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.
â– Use in a wel - ventilated area.
General exhaust is adequate under normal operating conditions. Local exhaust ventilation may be required in specific circumstances. If risk of overexposure exists,wear approved respirator. Correct fit is essential to obtain adequate protection. Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage areas. Air contaminantsgenerated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn, determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectivelyremove the contaminant.
solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank 0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min) aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container fil ing, low speed conveyer transfers, welding, 0.5-1 m/s (100-200 f/min.) spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation) direct spray, spray painting in shal ow booths, drum fil ing, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion).
Within each range the appropriate value depends on: 1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity 4: Large hood or large air mass in motion Simple theory shows that air velocity fal s rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity general y decreases with the square ofdistance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distancefrom the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1- 2 m/s (200- 400 f/min) for extraction of solventsgenerated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, makeit essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are instal ed or used.
Spraying to be carried out in conditions conforming to local state regulations.
Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Various coloured flammable liquid with aromatic solvent odour; does not mix with water.
Does not mix with water.
Sinks in water. Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO INSTABILITY
· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable.
· Hazardous polymerisation wil not occur. For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage. Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS
ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS
â– The liquid is highly discomforting and may be harmful if swal owed.
Ingestion may result in nausea, pain, vomiting. Vomit entering the lungs by aspiration may cause potential y lethal chemical pneumonitis.
Considered an unlikely route of entry in commercial/industrial environments.
â– The vapour is discomforting to the eyes.
The liquid is highly discomforting and is capable of causing pain and severe conjunctivitis. Corneal injury may develop, with possible permanent impairment ofvision, if not promptly and adequately treated.
The material may produce severe irritation to the eye causing pronounced inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis.
â– The liquid is discomforting to the skin and may cause drying of the skin, which may lead to dermatitis.
Toxic effects may result from skin absorption.
The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin redness, swel ing, the production of vesicles, scalingand thickening of the skin.
â– The vapour is highly discomforting to the upper respiratory tract.
Inhalation hazard is increased at higher temperatures.
Inhalation of high concentrations of gas/vapour causes lung irritation with coughing and nausea, central nervous depression with headache and dizziness, slowing ofreflexes, fatigue and inco- ordination.
If exposure to highly concentrated solvent atmosphere is prolonged this may lead to narcosis, unconsciousness, even coma and possible death.
CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS
â– Principal routes of exposure are usual y by inhalation of vapour and skin contact.
Chronic solvent inhalation exposures may result in nervous system impairment and liver and blood changes. [PATTYS].
Prolonged or continuous skin contact with the liquid may cause defatting with drying, cracking, irritation and dermatitis fol owing.
TOXICITY AND IRRITATION
ULTRALINE LINE MARKING PAINT:â– Not available. Refer to individual constituents.
TOLUENE:â– unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
Inhalation (rat) LC50: >26700 ppm/1h Eye (rabbit):100 mg/30sec - Mild Dermal (rabbit) LD50: 12124 mg/kg â– The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin redness, swel ing, the production of vesicles, scalingand thickening of the skin.
For toluene:Acute ToxicityHumans exposed to intermediate to high levels of toluene for short periods of time experience adverse central nervous system effects ranging from headaches tointoxication, convulsions, narcosis, and death. Similar effects are observed in short- term animal studies.
Humans - Toluene ingestion or inhalation can result in severe central nervous system depression, and in large doses, can act as a narcotic. The ingestion of about 60mL resulted in fatal nervous system depression within 30 minutes in one reported case.
Constriction and necrosis of myocardial fibers, markedly swol en liver, congestion and haemorrhage of the lungs and acute tubular necrosis were found on autopsy.
Central nervous system effects (headaches, dizziness, intoxication) and eye irritation occurred fol owing inhalation exposure to 100 ppm toluene 6 hours/day for 4days.
Exposure to 600 ppm for 8 hours resulted in the same and more serious symptoms including euphoria, dilated pupils, convulsions, and nausea . Exposure to 10, 000- 30,000 ppm has been reported to cause narcosis and deathToluene can also strip the skin of lipids causing dermatitisAnimals - The initial effects are instability and incoordination, lachrymation and sniffles (respiratory exposure), fol owed by narcosis. Animals die of respiratory failure from severe nervous system depression. Cloudy swel ing of the kidneys was reported in rats fol owing inhalation exposure to 1600 ppm, 18- 20 hours/day for 3daysSubchronic/Chronic Effects:Repeat doses of toluene cause adverse central nervous system effects and can damage the upper respiratory system, the liver, and the kidney. Adverse effects occur asa result from both oral and the inhalation exposures. A reported lowest- observed- effect level in humans for adverse neurobehavioral effects is 88 ppm.
Humans - Chronic occupational exposure and incidences of toluene abuse have resulted in hepatomegaly and liver function changes. It has also resulted innephrotoxicity and, in one case, was a cardiac sensitiser and fatal cardiotoxin.
Neural and cerebel ar dystrophy were reported in several cases of habitual " glue sniffing." An epidemiological study in France on workers chronical y exposed totoluene fumes reported leukopenia and neutropenia. Exposure levels were not given in the secondary reference; however, the average urinary excretion of hippuricacid, a metabolite of toluene, was given as 4 g/L compared to a normal level of 0.6 g/LAnimals - The major target organs for the subchronic/chronic toxicity of toluene are the nervous system, liver, and kidney. Depressed immune response has beenreported in male mice given doses of 105 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Toluene in corn oil administered to F344 male and female rats by gavage 5 days/week for 13 weeks,induced prostration, hypoactivity, ataxia, piloerection, lachrymation, excess salivation, and body tremors at doses 2500 mg/kg. Liver, kidney, and heart weights werealso increased at this dose and histopathologic lesions were seen in the liver, kidneys, brain and urinary bladder. The no- observed- adverse effect level (NOAEL)for the study was 312 mg/kg (223 mg/kg/day) and the lowest- observed- adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the study was 625 mg/kg (446 mg/kg/day) .
Developmental/Reproductive ToxicityExposures to high levels of toluene can result in adverse effects in the developing human foetus. Several studies have indicated that high levels of toluene can alsoadversely effect the developing offspring in laboratory animals.
Humans - Variable growth, microcephaly, CNS dysfunction, attentional deficits, minor craniofacial and limb abnormalities, and developmental delay were seen in threechildren exposed to toluene in utero as a result of maternal solvent abuse before and during pregnancyAnimals - Sternebral alterations, extra ribs, and missing tails were reported fol owing treatment of rats with 1500 mg/m3 toluene 24 hours/day during days 9- 14 ofgestation. Two of the dams died during the exposure. Another group of rats received 1000 mg/m3 8 hours/day during days 1- 21 of gestation. No maternal deaths ortoxicity occurred, however, minor skeletal retardation was present in the exposed fetuses. CFLP Mice were exposed to 500 or 1500 mg/m3 toluene continuously duringdays 6- 13 of pregnancy. Al dams died at the high dose during the first 24 hours of exposure, however none died at 500 mg/m3. Decreased foetal weight was reported,but there were no differences in the incidences of skeletal malformations or anomalies between the treated and control offspring.
Absorption - Studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that toluene is readily absorbed via the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption through theskin is estimated at about 1% of that absorbed by the lungs when exposed to toluene vapor.
Dermal absorption is expected to be higher upon exposure to the liquid; however, exposure is limited by the rapid evaporation of toluene .
Distribution - In studies with mice exposed to radiolabeled toluene by inhalation, high levels of radioactivity were present in body fat, bone marrow, spinal nerves,spinal cord, and brain white matter. Lower levels of radioactivity were present in blood, kidney, and liver. Accumulation of toluene has general y been found inadipose tissue, other tissues with high fat content, and in highly vascularised tissues .
Metabolism - The metabolites of inhaled or ingested toluene include benzyl alcohol resulting from the hydroxylation of the methyl group. Further oxidation results inthe formation of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. The latter is conjugated with glycine to yield hippuric acid or reacted with glucuronic acid to form benzoylglucuronide. o- cresol and p- cresol formed by ring hydroxylation are considered minor metabolitesExcretion - Toluene is primarily (60- 70%) excreted through the urine as hippuric acid. The excretion of benzoyl glucuronide accounts for 10- 20%, and excretion ofunchanged toluene through the lungs also accounts for 10- 20%. Excretion of hippuric acid is usual y complete within 24 hours after exposure.
ILO Chemicals in the electronics industry that Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Half-life Surface water - High (hours): Half-life Surface water - Low (hours): Half-life Ground water - High (hours): Half-life Ground water - Low (hours): Aqueous biodegradation - Aerobic - High (hours): Aqueous biodegradation - Aerobic - Low (hours): Aqueous biodegradation - Anaerobic - High (hours): Aqueous biodegradation - Anaerobic - Low (hours): Aqueous biodegradation - Removal secondary treatment - High (hours): Photolysis maximum light absorption - High (nano-m): Photolysis maximum light absorption - Low (nano-m): Photooxidation half-life water - High (hours): Photooxidation half-life water - Low (hours): Photooxidation half-life air - High (hours): Photooxidation half-life air - Low (hours): â– For toluene:log Kow : 2.1- 3log Koc : 1.12- 2.85Koc : 37- 260log Kom : 1.39- 2.89Half- life (hr) air : 2.4- 104Half- life (hr) H2O surface water : 5.55- 528Half- life (hr) H2O ground : 168- 2628Half- life (hr) soil : <48- 240Henry' s Pa m3 /mol: 518- 694Henry' s atm m3 /mol: 5.94E- 03BOD 5 0.86- 2.12, 5%COD : 0.7- 2.52, 21- 27%ThOD : 3.13BCF : 1.67- 380log BCF : 0.22- 3.28Environmental fate:Transport: The majority of toluene evaporates to the atmosphere from the water and soil.It is moderately retarded by adsorption to soils rich in organic material(Koc = 259), therefore, transport to ground water is dependent on the soil composition. In unsaturated topsoil containing organic material, it has been estimatedthat 97% of the toluene is adsorbed to the soil and only about 2% is in the soil- water phase and transported with flowing groundwater. There is little retardationin sandy soils and 2- 13% of the toluene was estimated to migrate with flowing water; the remainder was volatilised, biodegraded, or unaccounted for. In saturateddeep soils with no soil- air phase, about 48% may be transported with flowing groundwater.
Transformation/Persistence:Air - The main degradation pathway for toluene in the atmosphere is reaction with photochemical y produced hydroxyl radicals. The estimated atmospheric half life fortoluene is about 13 hours. Toluene is also oxidised by reactions with atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and ozone, but these are minor degradation pathways.
Photolysis is not considered a significant degradative pathway for tolueneSoil - In surface soil, volatilisation to air is an important fate process for toluene. Biodegradation of toluene has been demonstrated in the laboratory to occurwith a half life of about 1 hour. In the environment, biodegradation of toluene to carbon dioxide occurs with a typical half life of 1- 7 days.
Water - An important fate process for toluene is volatilization, the rate of which depends on the amount of turbulence in the surface water .The volatilisation oftoluene from static water has a half life of 1- 16 days, whereas from turbulent water the half life is 5- 6 hours. Degradation of toluene in surface water occursprimarily by biodegradation with a half life of less than one day under favorable conditions (presence of microorganisms, microbial adaptation, and optimumtemperature). Biodegradation also occurs in shal ow groundwater and in salt water at a reduced rate). No data are available on anaerobic degradation of toluene indeep ground water conditions where aerobic degradation would be minimal .
Biota - Bioaccumulation in most organisms is limited by the metabolism of toluene into more polar compounds that have greater water solubility and a lower affinityfor lipids. Bioaccumulation in the food chain is predicted to be low.
Ecotoxicity:Toluene has moderate acute toxicity to aquatic organisms; several toxicity values are in the range of greater than 1 mg/L and 100 mg/L.
Fish LC50 (96 h): fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 12.6- 72 mg/l; Lepomis macrochirus 13- 24 mg/l;guppy (Poecilia reticulata) 28.2- 59.3 mg/l; channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) 240 mg/l; goldfish (Carassius auratus): 22.8- 57.68 mg/lCrustaceans LC50 (96 h): grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) 9.5 ppm, crab larvae stage (Cancer magister) 28 ppm; shrimp (Crangon franciscorum) 4.3 ppm; daggerbladegrass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) 9.5 mg/lAlgae EC50 (24 h): green algae (Chlorel a vulgaris) 245 mg/l (growth); (72 h) green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) 12.5 mg/l (growth).
DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways.
Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
· Consult manufacturer for recycling options and recycle where possible .
· Consult State Land Waste Management Authority for disposal.
· Incinerate residue at an approved site.
· Recycle containers if possible, or dispose of in an authorised landfil . Section 14 - TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: PP1 Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P001, IBC02 Name and Description: PAINT (including paint, lacquer, enamel, stain,shel ac, varnish, polish, liquid fil er and liquid lacquer base) orPAINT RELATED MATERIAL (including paint thinning or reducingcompound) (see 3.2.5 for relevant [AUST.] entries) Land Transport UNDG:
Shipping Name:PAINT (including paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shel ac,varnish, polish, liquid fil er and liquid lacquer base) Air Transport IATA:
Maritime Transport IMDG:
Shipping Name: PAINT (including paint, lacquer, enamel, stain, shel ac solutions, varnish, polish, liquid fil er and liquid lacquer base) or PAINT RELATED MATERIAL(including paint thinning or reducing compound) Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
Regulations for ingredients
toluene (CAS: 108-88-3) is found on the following regulatory lists;
"Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (Domestic water supply - organic compounds)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pol utants entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Aquatic habitat)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory Environment Protection Regulation Ecosystem maintenance - Organic chemicals - Non-pesticide anthropogenic organics","Australia - Australian Capital Territory Environment Protection Regulation Pol utants entering waterways - Domestic water quality","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Il icit Drug Reagents/Essential Chemicals - Category III","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pol utant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix F (Part 3)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix I","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","IMO Provisional Categorization of Liquid Substances - List 3: (Trade-named) mixtures containing at least 99% by weight of components already assessed by IMO, presenting safety hazards","International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs","International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Standards Prohibited","OECD Representative List of High Production Volume (HPV) Chemicals","WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Guideline values for chemicals that are of health significance in drinking-water" No data for Ultraline (CW: 4503-92)
Section 16 - OTHER INFORMATION
INGREDIENTS WITH MULTIPLE CAS NUMBERS
471-34-1, 13397-26-7, 15634-14-7, 1317-65-3 13463-67-7, 1317-70-0, 1317-80-2, 12188-41-9, 1309-63-3, 100292-32-8, 101239-53-6, 116788-85-3, 12000-59-8, 12701-76-7, 12767-65-6, 12789-63-8, 1344-29-2, 185323-71-1, 185828-91-5, 188357- 76-8, 188357-79-1, 195740-11-5, 221548-98-7, 224963-00-2, 246178-32-5, 252962-41-7, 37230-92- 5, 37230-94-7, 37230-95-8, 37230-96-9, 39320-58-6, 39360-64-0, 39379-02-7, 416845-43-7, 494848-07-6, 494848-23-6, 494851-77-3, 494851-98-8, 55068-84-3, 55068-85-4, 552316-51-5, 62338-64-1, 767341-00-4, 97929-50-5, 98084-96-9 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH GUIDELINES
â– Established occupational exposure limits frequently do not take into consideration reproductive end points that are clearly below the thresholds for other toxic effects. Occupational reproductive guidelines (ORGs) have been suggested as an additional standard. These have been established after a literature search for reproductive no-observed-adverse effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL). In addition the US EPA's procedures for risk assessment for hazard identification and dose-response assessment as applied by NIOSH were used in the creation of such limits. Uncertainty factors (UFs) have also been incorporated.
â– These exposure guidelines have been derived from a screening level of risk assessment and should not be construed as unequivocal y safe limits. ORGS represent an 8-hour time-weighted average unless specified otherwise.
CR = Cancer Risk/10000; UF = Uncertainty factor:TLV believed to be adequate to protect reproductive health:LOD: Limit of detectionToxic endpoints have also been identified as:D = Developmental; R = Reproductive; TC = Transplacental carcinogenJankovic J., Drake F.: A Screening Method for Occupational ReproductiveAmerican Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 57: 641-649 (1996).
â– Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as wel as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:www.chemwatch.net/references. â– The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered. This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.
OPEN EXPRESS ONE DAY COURSE & INTEGRATED MULTIPHYSICS SIMULATION & DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Salón de Actos del Edificio Central del Parque Científico y Tecnológico REGISTRATIONS AND RESERVATIONS Please, fil the fol owing data and remit us the registration and booking form to the fax (+34) 928 380 380 or by email to Once we receive this form we wil send you a confirmation of regi