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Microsoft word - scientific_fraud.doc

Scientific Fraud - Why Animal Experiments are Useless
Guinea Pigs
SCIENTIFIC FRAUD - The Animal Victims
The types of experiment that animals are used for are: Toxicology · Medical · Psychology/behavioural · Warfare
Toxicity tests are experiments that are carried out to test new products that are going to be released onto the market. Products such household cleaners, new & improved washing powders, paints, weed killers, insecticides and shampoos are just a few examples. There are three main methods of toxicity testing: Lethal Dose 50% (LD5O): The animals are forced to ingest chemical until 50% of the group
die. The others are then killed and all are dissected. The animals suffer extremely painful and
distressing effects including:
unusual vocalisation (screaming and shrieking) Skin Toxicity/ Irritant Tests: Chemicals are either applied to the bare skin of animals or
injected just under the skin, day after day, often for weeks, causing:
Inhalation Studies: Animals are placed in sealed chambers and forced to inhale sprays,
gases and vapours, causing:
bleeding from nose, mouth and internally Government figures show that every year over 600,000 animals suffer and die in toxicity experiments. Animals are purposely given painful illnesses and medical conditions in order to then try and cure them, despite the fact that: Animals have completely different anatomies to us and to each other. The methods that are used to give the animals the conditions are totally different to the way the conditions naturally occur, therefore making the cure of the illness or condition totally different. Examples of experiments that are carried out in the name of medicine: Dogs have their heads bashed in with hammers to cause blood clots, so that a drug to break down blood clots caused by old age can be tested. Guinea pigs are forced to inhale toxic chemicals that bring on the effects of asthma, so that new drugs can be tested to see if they reduce the symptoms. This isn't medicine - it is pain and suffering!
SCIENTIFIC FRAUD - The Human Victims
Animal experiments not only fail to contribute to the safety of medications, they also fail to predict the effects of drugs on people, with ' tragic consequences. Here are a few examples of drugs which have caused horrific damage to humans, despite being `safety tested' on animals. · Thalidomide: Sedative. Given to pregnant women suffering from morning sickness. Caused
around 10,000 birth defects worldwide.
· Opren: Anti-arthritic drug. Withdrawn after more than 70 deaths and 3,500 other serious
side effects, including damage to the skin, stomach, liver, kidneys, eyes and circulation.
· Chloramphenicol: Antibiotic. Caused fatal blood disorders in humans, but not in laboratory
· Teroptren: Anti-cancer drug. After a project using 18,000 mice this drug was used to treat
acute childhood leukemia, but the children died more quickly than if they had not been
· Clioquinol: Anti-diarrhoeal drug. Caused 30,000 cases of blindness in Japan alone and
thousands of deaths worldwide. This drug caused a new disease SMON.
· Osmosin: Anti-inflammatory drug. Withdrawn after 650 reported serious side effects and 20
· Dosulepin: (Prothiaden) Boots anti-depressant drug. Side effects include; jaundice, anemia,
short term memory loss, convulsions, slurred speech and postural hypotension.
· Manoplax: Boots heart drug. Withdrawn in 1994 less than a year after its launch following
clinical trials, which suggested a link to increased rates of death and hospital admissions.
Extensive animal studies including tests on cats and dogs failed to predict this problem in
human patients.
· Eraldin: Heart drug. Given to patients for 4 years before the horrific side effects were
identified, including blindness, stomach troubles, joint pains and growths.
· Ibuprofen: Boots anti-inflammatory drug & painkiller. Caused gastro intestinal disturbances,
peptic ulceration, intestinal bleeding, liver abnormality, aseptic meningitis, depression,
drowsiness, impaired renal function, insomnia and blurred vision.
Does animal testing help human medicine? 33 facts to consider:
1) Less than 2% of human illnesses (1.16%) are ever seen in animals. Over 98% never affect animals. 2) According to the former scientific executive of Huntingdon Life Sciences, animal tests and human results agree "5%-25% of the time." 3) 95% of drugs passed by animal tests are immediately discarded as useless or dangerous to humans. 4) At least 50 drugs on the market cause cancer in lab animals. They are allowed because it is admitted the animal tests are not relevant. 5) Vivisectors Procter & Gamble used an artificial musk despite it failing the animal tests, causing tumours in mice. They said results were "of little relevance for humans." 6) When asked if they agreed that animal experiments can be misleading "because of anatomical and physiological differences between animals and humans', 88% of doctors agreed. 7) Rats are 37% effective in identifying what causes cancer to humans. Flipping a coin would be 50% effective, and therefore more accurate. 8) Rodents are the animals almost always used in cancer research. They never get carcinomas, the human form of cancer, which affects membranes (e.g. lung cancer). Their sarcomas affect bone and connecting tissue: the two are completely different. 9) Up to 90% of animal test results are discarded as they're inapplicable to man. 10) The results from animal experiments can be altered by factors such as diet and bedding. Bedding has been identified as giving cancer rates of over 90% and almost zero in the same strain of mice at different locations. 11) Sex differences among lab animals can cause contradictory results. This does not correspond with humans. 12) 9% of anaesthetised animals intended to recover, die. 13) An estimated 83% of substances are metabolised by rats in a way different from humans. 14) Attempts to sue the manufacturers of the drug Surgam failed due the testimony of medical experts that: "data from animals could not be extrapolated safely to patients ". 15) Lemon juice is a deadly poison, but arsenic, hemlock and botulin are safe according to animal tests. 16) Genetically modified animals are not models for human illness. The mdx mouse is supposed to represent muscular dystrophy, but the muscles regenerate with no treatment. 17) According to a far-reaching study, 88% of stillbirths are caused by drugs which passed animal tests. 18) 61 % of birth defects are caused by drugs passed safe in animal tests, according to the same study. Defect rates are 200 times post war levels. 19) One in six patients in hospital are there because of treatment they have taken. 20) In America, 100000 deaths a year are attributed to medical treatment. In one year 1.5 million people were hospitalised by medical treatment. 21) A World Health Organisation study showed children were 14 times more likely to develop measles if they had been vaccinated. 22) 40% of patients suffer side effects as a result of prescription treatment. 23) Over 200,000 medicines have been released, most of which are now withdrawn. According to the World Health Organisation, 240 medicines are "essential". Thousands of drugs passed safe in animals have been withdrawn or banned due to their effect on humans. 24) A German doctors' congress concluded that 6% of fatal illnesses and 25% of organic illness are caused by medicines. All have been animal tested. 25) The most common lifesaving operation (for ectopic pregnancies) was delayed 40 years by vivisection. 26) According to the Royal Commission into vivisection (1912) "The discovery of anaesthetics owes nothing to experiments on animals." The great Dr Hadwen noted "had animal experiments been relied upon.humanity would have been robbed of this great blessing of anaesthesia." The vivisector Halsey described the discovery of the anaesthetic Fluroxene as "One of the most dramatic examples of misleading evidence from animal data". 27) Aspirin fails animal tests, as do digitalis (heart drug), cancer treatments, insulin (which causes animal birth defects), penicillin and other safe medicines. They would be banned if vivisection were heeded. 28) When the producers of Thalidomide faced court, they were acquitted after numerous experts agreed animal tests could not be relied on for human medicine. 29) Blood transfusions were delayed 200 years by animal studies, corneal transplants were delayed 90 years. 30) Despite many Nobel prizes going to vivisectors, only 45% agree that animal experiments are crucial. 31) At least 450 methods exist with which we can replace animal experiments. 32) At least thirty-three animals die in labs per second worldwide. In the UK, one dies every four seconds. 33) The Director of Research Defence Society, (which serves only to defend vivisection) was asked if medical progress could have been achieved without animal use. His written reply was "I am sure it could be." The above list produced by V.I.N – see
An especially controversial area of research is the use of animals to identify cancer-causing
chemicals. In 1983 the pharmaceutical company Pfizer carried out a special study to test the
efficacy of animal tests. The results would be vitally important because despite costing
millions of dollars, no one really knew whether they provided adequate protection against
hazardous substances. Human findings were compared with experimental data from rats and
mice for all chemicals known to cause cancer in people. The outcome was disturbing: in most
cases animal tests had given the wrong answer. The report concluded that we would have
been better off to toss a coin! - D Salsburg, Fundamental and Applied Toxicology,1983,
vol 3 p63-67


Microsoft word - nutritional guidelines for football referees.doc

NUTRITIONAL GUIDELINES FOOTBALL REFEREEES Written by DON MACLAREN INTRODUCTION The aim of this booklet is to provide football referees with key advice and helpful suggestions regarding nutritional support. As you are aware, quality training leads to improvements in your fitness. However in order to maximise training, there is a need to ensure that serious attention is giv

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