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Appendix a pages 335-336APPENDIX
History of pesticides
Biblical armies salt and ash the fields of the conquered; first reported use of Homer refers to sulfur used in fumigation and other forms of pest control.
The Romans apply hellebore for the control of rats, mice and insects.
Virgil reports seed treatment with “nitre and amurca.” Pliny the Elder reports pest control practices from Greek literature of the preceding three centuries; most practices based on folklore andsuperstition.
Chinese use arsenic to control garden insects.
Marco Polo writes of mineral oil being used against mange of camels.
Rotenone used to paralyze fish in South America.
Earliest mention of arsenic as insecticide in Western world, used with honey as Tobacco extracts used as contact insecticide.
Nicotine fumigation by heating tobacco and blowing smoke on infested plants.
Soap mentioned as insecticide.
Turpentine emulsion recommended to kill and repel insects.
Persian louse powder (pyrethrum) known to the Caucasus. Sprays of lime and sulfur recommended in insect control. Whale oil prescribed as scalecide.
Dip containing arsenic suggested for sheep scab control.
Sulfur reported as fungicide for mildew by John Robertson in England.
Mixture of mercuric chloride and alcohol recommended for bedbug control.
Quassia used as insecticide in fly baits.
Whale-oil soap mentioned as insecticide.
Phosphorus paste declared as official rodenticide for rats by Prussia; by 1859 Derris (rotenone) reported being used in insect control in Asia.
Boiled lime-sulfur employed at Versailles by Grison.
Carbon disulfide tested experimentally as grain fumigant.
Pyrethrum first used in the United States.
Mercuric chloride solutions applied to destroy soil-inhabiting forms such as Kerosene emulsions employed as dormant sprays for deciduous fruit trees.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) first used as fumigant, to fumigate museum cases.
London purple reported as a substitute for Paris green (both are arsenicals).
Lime-sulfur used in California against San Jose scale.
Naphthalene cakes used to protect insect collections.
Millardet discovers the value of Bordeaux mixture in France.
Hydrogen cyanide used for citrus tree fumigation in California.
Resin fish-oil soap used as scalecide in California.
Carbolineum, a coal-tar fraction, used in Germany on dormant fruit trees.
Lead arsenate first prepared and used to control gypsy moth in Massachusetts.
First use of a dinitrophenol compound, the potassium salt of 4,-6-dinitro-o- Copper sulfate used selectively to kill weeds in grain fields.
British patent refers to inorganic fluorine compounds as insecticides.
Oil of citronella used as a mosquito repellent.
The value of lime-sulfur as apple scab control discovered in New York.
Passage of Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (Pure Food Law).
Lubricating oil emulsions first applied to citrus trees.
Calcium arsenate in experimental use as an insecticide.
First tests with 40 % nicotine sulfate made in Colorado.
First publication of the use, outside the Orient, of derris as an insecticide, inBritish patents.
Zinc arsenite first recommended as insecticide.
p--Dichlorobenzene applied in the United States as a moth fumigant on clothes.
Nicotine sulfate first used in a dry carrier for dusting.
Airplane first used for spreading insecticide dust for catalpa sphinx at Troy, Ohio.
Calcium cyanide begins commercial use.
First aerial application of an insecticide to cotton, Tallulah, La.
Geraniol discovered to be attractive to the Japanese beetle.
Cubé (derris) first tested as insecticide in the United States.
First tests of cryolite against Mexican bean beetle.
Selenium compounds tested as insecticides.
Tolerance established for arsenic on apples by U.S. FDA.
Ethylene dichloride discovered to have fumigant value.
Pyrethrum culture introduced into Kenya.
Ethylene oxide patented as insect fumigant.
Alkyl phthalates patented as insect repellents.
n-Butyl carbitol thiocyanate produced commercially as a synthetic contact Cryolite introduced as an insecticide.
First fixed nicotine compound, nicotine tannate, used as a stomach poison.
Anabasine isolated from plants and synthesized in the laboratory.
Thiram, first organic sulfur fungicide, discovered.
Methyl bromide first used in France as fumigant.
Ethylene and acetylene discovered to promote flowering in pineapples; first Nicotine-bentonite combination, first dependable nicotine dust, developed.
Pentachlorophenol introduced as wood preservative against fungi and termites.
TEPP, first organophosphate insecticide, discovered by Gerhardt Schrader.
Passage of pesticide amendment to Pure Food Law (1906), preventing Bacillus thuringiensis first used as microbial insecticide.
DNOC, first dinitrophenol herbicide, introduced to United States from France.
Rutgers 612, first good insect repellent, introduced.
DDT discovered to be insecticidal by Paul Müller in Switzerland.
Sesame oil patented as synergist for pyrethrin insecticides.
Hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) discovered in France to be insecticidal.
Introduction of aerosol insecticides propelled by liquified gases.
First batch of DDT shipped to United States for experimental use.
Introduction of 2,4-D, the first of the hormone (or phenoxy) herbicides.
First dithiocarbamate fungicide, zineb, introduced commercially.
Introduction of 2,4,5-T for brush and tree control and warfarin for rodent control.
Early synthetic herbicide, ammonium sulfamate, introduced for brush control.
Chlordane, the first of the persistent, chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides The first carbamate herbicide, propham, becomes available.
Organophosphate insecticides, TEPP and parathion, developed by the Germans, made available to U.S. producers.
First resistance in houseflies to DDT observed in Sweden.
Turner Syndrome Management Guidelines Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group – November 2003 by George Werther, with advice from Margaret Zacharin Introduction Turner syndrome affects around one in 2500 female live births, the majority of which carry mosaicism in at least some tissues. Thus, the phenotypic features vary significantly among affected individuals. Consequently, w