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Microsoft word - fevers

Living Water International
Advanced
Participatory Hygiene Lesson

Malaria & Dengue Fever

Message:

• Malaria, Dengue Fevers kill many people each year. Knowing the signs and symptoms • Proper care of someone with a fever may make the difference between life and death
Background:
Insects are part of our environment, the natural world around us. They are affected by
changes in our environment. (Agriculture, deforestation, war and movement of people)
This means that we can attack insect born diseases by controlling the environment
around us.

• Example: People moving from highlands to lowlands. In the highlands, it is too cold for malaria mosquitoes to live, therefore when people move from high to low areas, they have no immunity against it, so more people will get it thus causing an epidemic. • Another example is the large number of people who visit tropical areas where Dengue Fever is prevalent. They take it back with them on the airplane, thus risking infecting others with the virus.
Materials Needed:
Drawings:
• Pictures of screens on doors and windows • Mosquito nets on beds • Standing water
Lesson:
What is a fever?

• A fever is the body’s natural response to a virus or bacteria in the body. The virus or bacteria is a considered a foreign body, and so the defenses of the body begin by turning up the temperature in order to kill it. What causes a fever?
• Bacterial infections ( Typhoid, pneumonia, ear infections, strep throat) • Mosquito spread illness ( Malaria, Dengue) We are going to focus on 2 fevers, to be able to recognize them:
Last Revision: 15-Jan-09, Living Water International Living Water International
Advanced
Participatory Hygiene Lesson
Malaria

• There are an estimated 300-500 million cases of Malaria every year. Malaria is one of the top 5 diseases that kill children 5 and under. It can be prevented by controlling the environment around us. • It is carried by anopheles mosquitoes, which bite from dusk to dawn….during the night. You can recognize an anopheles mosquito by its tail that sticks up. They will rest on walls and ceiling after feeding • Symptoms: Fever, chills, sweats, headaches, muscle pains, nausea & vomiting. Maybe
easily confused with flu or another virus. In severe Malaria (plasmodium falciparum) the
symptoms are more severe; confusion, coma, severe anemia, respiratory problems. The
fever pattern is unique to Malaria.

Diagnosis & Treatment: Diagnosis can be made by microscopic examination of the
blood for the parasites. Delay in getting treatment causes a rapid reproduction of the parasites in the body. Treatment should begin within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Children and pregnant women are especially at risk!! Delaying treatment can be fatal!! It is important to follow the doctors instructions closely while taking the treatment.
Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

• There is an estimated 50-100 million cases a year and it is on the rise. DHF is in 40 countries around the world. It is most commonly found in urban areas where sanitation is poor. • It is carried by the Aedes mosquito, and it bites during the daytime hours. Early morning and late afternoon are the worst times. They breed in dirty, standing water that is a result of poor sanitation. They can usually be found in shady places or inside. There are 4 types of Dengue Fever. Usually the first time a person gets DF it will not be the hemorrhagic type (DHF). Getting Dengue once does not make you immune to the other types. If you have had Dengue once, for some reason it makes you more susceptible to get the DHF the next time. It is possible to have 4 dengue infections in a lifetime. • Symptoms: Called “Break bone Fever”. Headaches, back ache, pain behind the eyes,
severe joint pain. May be asymptomatic. After 3-4 days rash may appear. Symptoms of DHF nosebleeds, bruising, abdominal pain, low blood pressure. • Treatment: There is no vaccine or treatment for Dengue Fever. Good care can save the
life of someone with Dengue. Acetaminophen is the ONLY pain reliever that can be given. No aspirin or Ibuprofen. Only Acetaminophen, bed rest, and lots of fluids. If one begins to show signs of bleeding they need to go immediately to the hospital for IV’s and to be monitored for bleeding.
Prevention:

• Use screens on the windows and doors. • Use insecticide impregnated mosquito nets during high risk times. Especially on the beds • Wear long sleeve shirts and pants, exposing as little skin as possible, especially during Last Revision: 15-Jan-09, Living Water International Living Water International
Advanced
Participatory Hygiene Lesson

• Clean up and eliminate standing water in pilas, coconut shells, basins, bamboo fences, tin cans, old tires, barrels, holes in the streets, even hoof prints in the dirt. • Anywhere water can stand. • Teach children to use trash receptacles, all the time!! God has entrusted the care of the Earth to us. Gen. 1:26, 2;15 We are to be good stewards of the Earth, just like everything else God has entrusted to us!!
How to Care for a Person with a Fever:
For a low fever (temperature above the normal range):

• Dress the person lightly (no blankets or heavy clothes or caps). • Keep the person in a well ventilated, airy room where they will not get too hot. • Give lots of clear liquids to drink (hot or cold). Clean water is the best!
For a high fever (104°F or 40°C):

• Strip the person naked. • Fan him or her. • Sponge with cloths soaked in cool (not cold) water. Focus on cooling the head, arm pits, neck, and wrists, but all over sponging is recommended. Change their bedclothes frequently, if needed and continue doing so until the fever has come down. • Put children in a tub of tepid water for 20 minutes. • Give plenty of cool, clean water to drink. • Give medicine for fevers, but not aspirin.
If a high fever does not go down, or if convulsions begin, continue cooling with
water and seek medical help.



Reference
: Mercy Ships, Living Water International
Last Revision: 15-Jan-09, Living Water International

Source: http://www.water.cc/sites/all/themes/lwi/media/pdf/hh-adv/lwi_hh_lessons_adv_01fever.pdf

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