MILPRIT : Mining Interval Logic Patterns with Regular Expression Constraints Sandra de Amo 1 , Arnaud Giacometti 2 , Magno Soares Santana 1 1Faculdade de Computac¸˜ao – Universidade Federal de Uberlˆandia (UFU)[email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Abstract. Most methods for temporal pattern mining assume that time is pon- tual, that is, represented by points in a stra
UntitledLogical framework approach
Good planning is a key element of successful MPA management. This sheet gives specific guidance on
preparing a Logical Framework Matrix, or logframe, as this planning tool is frequently required by
donors and others involved in MPA establishment and management.
With the recognition that good planning is the basis of Describing the desired situation, which requires good implementation and effective management, various identifying the solutions – often called project methodologies have been developed to assist with, and improve this process. Donors often require plans to be Choosing the strategy for meeting the objectives; developed in a particular way and presented in a set Identifying the actions to be taken and the desired format. A specific terminology has also developed which may vary (particularly from donor to donor), but in general Analysing the risks or potential hindrances to success the principles underpinning the approaches are the same.
An effective MPA manager will need to be familiar withsome of these terms and approaches, especially if s/he has The plan, for a particular project or initiative, developed using the above process is often summarised in a table thatis referred to as a logical framework matrix, or logframe.
The three main elements of the matrix are the impact of Logical Framework Approach (LFA) - originally
the project, the project itself, and the external developed in the 1970s, this planning process is required THE LOGFRAME
Objective Oriented Project Planning (OOPP; originally
The logframe summarises the project and its context in a called ZOPP - the German acronym) - very similar to
logical manner, so that the connection between the activities (sometimes known as inputs) and the expectedresults (sometimes called outputs) can be seen.
Results Based Management (RBM) or Results
Oriented Assistance (ROA) - now being used by donors
The framework has both a vertical and a horizontal logic.
such as USAID and Canadian CIDA; it places as much The vertical logic shows what the project intends to do, emphasis on management, monitoring and evaluation of a the relationships between what will done and what will be achieved (the ‘means to the ends’), and it specifies themain risks and assumptions. The horizontal logic defines The key points of these methods are that they: how progress and performance will be monitored, and the Require the participation of all key stakeholders and those who will be involved in implementing the plan; Are objective and/or results oriented, i.e. they focus on OBJECTIVE HIERARCHY - This describes the project in a
what it is to be achieved, as well as on the immediate logical sequence which is broken down into the following All the methods involve objective-oriented planning, which Goal or Long Term Objective: The expected long term
‘impact’ of the project. The Goal describes a desired situation for the environment and/or people that the THE LOGFRAME
Managing Marine Protected Areas: A TOOLKIT for the Western Indian Ocean
project will help to achieve (e.g. integrity of an ecosystem, The following two examples illustrate how logframes may or survival of a threatened species). Note that the project be used in MPA development. Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary will not itself be able to achieve this goal, it will only Marine Park, in Tanzania, has funding through a 5-year contribute towards it. The timeframe of the goal is usually UNDP/GEF project to support a broad range of activities, such as baseline assessments and preparation of amanagement plan, involved in setting up the MPA. A Purpose (or Short-term Objective): The situations,
project logframe guides implementation of these project conditions or behaviour that needs to be changed in order to activities, but the Park has separate goals and objectives.
contribute to the goal. This statement is what will be Moheli Marine Park, in the Comores, was also set up achieved by the project (e.g. the protection of an area or through a UNDP/GEF project, but in this case it was one resource). The purpose usually has a time-frame of 3-5 years.
component of a much larger biodiversity project and wasone ‘Result’ of the logframe. It is thus important not to Outputs (sometimes referred to as Results): The
confuse the logframe of a project with the managemnbt tangible products or services to be delivered, and for which those implementing the project can be held directlyaccountable for producing (e.g. legislation enacted, KEY POINTS FOR THE MPA
management plan produced). Outputs may have a timeframe of around a year.
❑ If a logframe is required by a donor or for a particular project, get advice on how to prepare it.
Activities: Specific actions that must be undertaken to
❑ If a logframe is not required, use a more simple achieve particular outputs (e.g. baseline surveys, training planning approach, but follow similar principles courses, staff recruitment, infrastructure development).
(e.g. use a participatory approach, identify clearmeasurable objectives and define carefully what is Inputs: The resources that are required to carry out
required to achieve them, and ensure that there is a activities, i.e. financial, human and physical resources.
monitoring programme to measure success).
INDICATORS - These are used to measure the extent to
which the different components of the objective hierarchy
Sources of further information
are being achieved. Indicators need careful selection (see Kareko, J. & Siegel, P. 2003. Planning for Marine Protected Areas.
Module 2. p. 39-84. In: Francis, J. et al. (eds.) Training for the Sustainable Management of Marine Protected Areas: a Training MEANS OF VERIFICATIONS - These include the
Manual for MPA Managers. CZMC/UDSM, WIOMSA, The World sources of information that will show whether the indicators have been achieved. This column, with the SEACAM, 1999. From a Good Idea to a Successful Project: a manual indicators column, provides the basis for developing the for development and management of local level projects. SEACAM, monitoring and evaluation programme for the project.
Maputo, Mozambique. www.seacam.mz
RISKS AND ASSUMPTIONS - These may affect whether
UNDP/GEF, 2002. Project Preparation Manual. Introduction to the the objectives are achieved. A risk is an external factor that may negatively influence the realisation of www.pops.int/documents/guidance/NIPsFINAL/logframe.pdf
objective(s) while an assumption is the underlying UNEP. 2000. Project Formulation, Approval, Monitoring and hypothesis on which the cause-effect relationship is Evaluation Manual. Programme Coordination and Management Unit, based. Identifying risks and assumptions helps to UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. www.unep.org/ProjectManual/
determine what is under the direct control of MPA Donor guidelines are available as follows: management, what requires collaboration with others, andwhat is beyond the influence of the MPA and its AusAID, 2000. AusGUIDELines. The Logical Framework Approach stakeholders. An example of a risk that can be managed is www.ausaid.gov.au/ausguide
‘cooperation of local communities’. Such a risk may mean CIDA, 2000. PRB-RBM Handbook on Developing Results Chains.
that additional project activities are required such as an Results Based Management Division. www.acdi-cida.gc.ca
environmental education or income generation European Community – general information on their project approach component. Examples of unmanageable risks are the http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/
effects of global warming, international commodity pricesand government policy. Finland. Dept. for International Development Cooperation. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Guidelines for Programme Design, Monitoring & Logframes are generally used for projects of limited Evaluation. www.global.finland.fi/english/publications/guidelines
duration with a set budget. An MPA is a permanent NORAD, 1999. The Logical Framework Approach. Handbook for institution and, although potentially feasible, it is not objective-oriented planning. www.norad.no
usual for an MPA management plan to be drafted in the www.teamusa.com - provides Windows-based Project Cycle
form of a logframe. The goal and purpose or objective of a Management software for assistance in developing logframes.
logframe is therefore unlikely to be identical to the goaland objectives of the MPA itself. However, the principlesused are useful to consider in any form of planning. Managing Marine Protected Areas: A TOOLKIT for the Western Indian Ocean
(Adenocard) Conversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm. Adenosine slows conduction through the AV node and can interrupt reentry pathways. INDICATIONS CONTRAINDICATIONS • Second or third-degree AV block, Sick Sinus Syndrome unless patient with a functional artificial pacemaker. • Adenosine is ineffective in converting atrial flutter, atrial fibrillati