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Guide to contraindications to vaccination

INTRODUCTION
Guide to Contraindications to Vaccination
This guide is designed to help immunization providers determine what common symptoms and conditions should contraindicate vaccination and which ones should not. It supersedes the 2000Guide to Contraindications to Childhood Vaccination and, unlike that and previous Guides, contains information on all licensed U.S. vaccines, not just pediatric vaccines: Using this Guide
The Guide is arranged alphabetically according to symptoms and conditons that may, correctly or
not, be perceived as contraindications to vaccination. The first column states the symptom or
condition. The second column lists individual vaccines, when recommendations differ by
vaccine. The third column states whether or not a person with that symptom or condition
should be vaccinated. Notes describe exceptions and special situations, or provide additional
information.
When assessing a patient with multiple symptoms, if any one of them is a contraindication, donot vaccinate.
When using a combination vaccine, if there is a contraindication to any of the components, donot vaccinate.
*Vaccinia Vaccination During a Smallpox Emergency: No absolute contraindications exist regarding vaccination of a person with a
high-risk exposure to smallpox.
Persons at greatest risk for experiencing serious vaccination complications are also at greatest risk for death
from smallpox. If a relative contraindication to vaccination exists, the risk for experiencing serious vaccination complications must be weighed
against the risk for experiencing a potentially fatal smallpox infection. When the level of exposure risk is undetermined, the decision to vaccinate
should be made after prudent assessment by the clinician and the patient of the potential risks versus the benefits of smallpox vaccination.
The Guide to Contraindications to Vaccinations was developed by the National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, using information derived from the Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices, recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and those of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (Red Book Committee) of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Some of these recommendations may differ from those stated in manufacturers’ package inserts. For more details, consult the published recommendations of the ACIP, the AAP, and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and manufacturers’ package inserts.
September 2003
CHECKLIST (Selected Conditions)
CHECK FOR
SEE PAGE(S)
Precaution for DTaP and influenza vaccines Contraindication or precaution for several Precaution for MMR and varicella vaccines Deferral of vaccination until recovery may -Contraindicates vaccinia and live flu vaccines -Contraindication or precaution for several -Contraindication or precaution for several May be contraindication or precaution for Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Allergies (anaphylactic)
to any vaccine component (See Appendix A) Note 1: Protocols have been published for safely administering influenza vaccine to persons with egg allergies.
See “Prevention and Control of Influenza,” MMWR 2003;52 (No. RR-8) p. 13.
Note 2: If vaccinating persons with a history of an anaphylactic reaction to gelatin or gelatin-containing productswith MMR or its component vaccines, or with varicella vaccine, extreme caution should be exercised. Beforeadministering these vaccines to such persons, skin testing for sensitivity to gelatin can be considered. However,no specific protocols for this purpose have been published.
Note 3: If a person reports a severe (anaphylactic) allergy to latex, vaccines supplied in vials or syringes that con-tain natural rubber should not be administered, unless the benefit of vaccination outweighs the risk of an allergicreaction to the vaccine. For latex allergies other than anaphylactic allergies (e.g., a history of contact allergy tolatex gloves), vaccines supplied in vials or syringes that contain dry natural rubber or rubber latex can beadministered.
Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Allergies, continued
Anaphylactic (life-threatening) reaction to Note 4: Contraindicates vaccination only with vaccine to which reaction occurred. (Also, see “Allergies,” pp 1 - 2).
Note 5: It is not known whether administering influenza antiviral medications affects the safety or efficacy of live,attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV); LAIV should not be administered until 48 hours following cessation of influenza antiviral therapy, and influenza antiviral medications should not be administered for two weeks followingreceipt of LAIV.
Note 6: Antiviral drugs active against herpesviruses (e.g., acyclovir or valacyclovir) might reduce the efficacy of liveattenuated varicella vaccine. These drugs should be discontinued >24 hours before the administration of varicellavaccine, if possible.
Note 7: The vaccine manufacturer advises that Ty21a should not be administered to persons receiving sulfon-amides or other antimicrobial agents. Ty21a should be administered >24 hours after an antimicrobial dose.
Mefloquine can inhibit the growth of the live Ty21a strain in vitro; if this antimalarial is administered, vaccinationwith Ty21a should be delayed for 24 hours.
Aspirin or salicylate therapy (children or Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 8: Persons with hemoglobinopathies should not get LAIV.
Note 9: When [any] intramuscular vaccine is indicated for a patient with a bleeding disorder or a person receivinganticoagulant therapy, the vaccine should be administered intramuscularly if, in the opinion of a physician familiarwith the patient's bleeding risk, the vaccine can be administered with reasonable safety by this route. If the patientreceives antihemophilia or similar therapy, intramuscular vaccinations can be scheduled shortly after such therapyis administered. A fine needle (<23 gauge) should be used for the vaccination and firm pressure applied to thesite, without rubbing, for >2 minutes. The patient or family should be instructed concerning the risk for hematomafrom the injection.
Breastfeeding (vaccinate lactating mother) Convulsions (fits, seizures), family history Note 10: Consider giving acetaminophen before DTaP and every 4 hours thereafter for 24 hours to children whohave a personal or a family history of convulsions. (If an underlying neurologic disorder is involved, also see page7.) Convulsions (fits, seizures) within 3 days of Note 11: Not a contraindication, but a precaution. Consider carefully the benefits and risks of this vaccine in thesecircumstances. If the risks are believed to outweigh the benefits, withhold the vaccination; if the benefits arebelieved to outweigh the risks (for example, during an outbreak or foreign travel), give the vaccine. (If convulsionsare accompanied by encephalopathy, also see page 8. If an underlying neurologic disorder is involved, also seepage 7.) Moderate to severe (with or without fever) Note 12: Persons with moderate or severe illnesses, with or without fever, can be vaccinated as soon as they arerecovering and no longer acutely ill.
Eczema or Atopic Dermatitis (presence or history of, or household contact with history of) Encephalopathy (See “Reaction after a previousdose of DTaP,” p. 9) Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Low-grade fever with or without mild illness Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS), history of Note 13: Whether influenza vaccination specifically might increase the risk for recurrence of GBS is not known;therefore, avoiding vaccinating persons who are not at high risk for severe influenza complications and who areknown to have developed GBS within 6 weeks after a previous influenza vaccination is prudent. Although data arelimited, for the majority of persons who have a history of GBS and who are at high risk for severe complicationsfrom influenza, the established benefits of influenza vaccination justify yearly vaccination.
Note 14: The decision to give additional doses of DTaP to children who developed GBS within 6 weeks of a priordose should be based on consideration of the benefits of further vaccination vs. the risk of recurrence of GBS. Forexample, completion of the primary series in children is justified.
Note 15: As a precaution, a patient who has been diagnosed by a doctor as having a heart condition with or with-out symptoms should not get the smallpox vaccine at this time while experts continue their investigations. Theseconditions include: known coronary disease including previous myocardial infarction or angina, congestive heartfailure, cardiomyopathy, stroke or transient ischemic attack, chest pain or shortness of breath with activity, or otherheart conditions under the care of a doctor.
In addition, a patient should not get smallpox vaccine who has 3 or more of the following factors:- has been diagnosed with high blood pressure- has been diagnosed with high blood cholesterol- has been diagnosed with diabetes or high blood sugar- has a first degree relative who had a heart condition before the age of 50- smokes cigarettes Note 16: Persons with chronic disorders of the cardiovascular system should not get live, attenuated influenza vaccine.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) Note 17: Other vaccines are recommended, or may be given, at varying times after transplant and under certain
circumstances. For some vaccines, no data exist. Use of live vaccines is indicated only among immuno-
competent pesons and is contraindicated for recipients after HSCT who are not presumed immunocom-
petent.
HSCT recipients are presumed immunocompetent at >24 months after HSCT if they are not on immuno-
suppressive therapy and do not have graft-versus-host disease. For more information, see “Guidelines for
Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients” (MMWR Vol 49 No
RR-10, October 20, 2000), especially Tables 4 and 6. Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 18: Varicella vaccination should be considered for asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV-infected children,specifically children in CDC class N1 or A1*, with age-specific T-cell percentages of 25% or higher.
Note 19: MMR vaccination is recommended for all asymptomatic HIV-infected persons who do not have evidenceof severe immunosuppression** for whom measles vaccination would otherwise be indicated.
Note 20: MMR vaccination should be considered for all symptomatic HIV-infected persons who do not have evidence of severe immunosuppression** or of measles immunity.
*See “Prevention of Varicella” (MMWR Vol 8 No RR-6, May 28, 1999) p. 3 footnote.
**For definition of severe immunosuppression, see 2003 AAP Red Book, Table 3.25, p. 364.
IG administration, recent or simultaneous Note 21: Do not give immune globulin products and MMR simultaneously. If unavoidable, give at different sitesand revaccinate or test for seroconversion in 3 months. If MMR is given first, do not give IG for 2 weeks. If IG isgiven first, the interval between IG and measles vaccination depends on the product, the dose, and the indication.
(See Appendix B.) Because of the importance of rubella immunity among childbearing-age women, the postpartum vaccination ofrubella-susceptible women with rubella or MMR vaccine should not be delayed because of receipt of anti-Rho(D)globulin or any other blood product during the last trimester of pregnancy or at delivery. These women should bevaccinated immediately after delivery and, if possible, tested >3 months later to ensure immunity to rubella and, ifnecessary, to measles.
Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 22: Do not give varicella vaccine for at least 5 months after administration of blood (except washed redblood cells) or after plasma tranfusions, IG, or VZIG. Do not give IG or VZIG for 3 weeks after vaccination unlessthe benefits exceed those of the vaccination. In such instances, either revaccinate 5 months later or test for immu-nity 6 months later and revaccinate if seronegative.
mild acute (with or without low-grade fever) moderate or severe acute (with or without Note 23: Persons with moderate or severe illnesses, with or without fever, can be vaccinated as soon as they arerecovering and no longer acutely ill.
Note 24: Persons with asthma, reactive airways disease or other chronic disorders of the pulmonary or cardiovas-cular systems; persons with other underlying medical conditions, including metabolic diseases such as diabetes,renal dysfunction, and hemoglobinopathies should not receive LAIV.
Note 25: The great majority of persons with chronic illnesses should be appropriately vaccinated. The decisionwhether or not to vaccinate these persons, and what vaccines to give, should be made on an individual basis.
ImmunodeficiencySee also “HIV Infection” (page 5); recommendations differslightly (hematologic and solid tumors, congenital immuno- deficiency, long-term immunosuppressive therapy, Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 26: Varicella vaccine should not be administered to a person with a family history of congenital or hereditaryimmunodeficiency in parents or siblings unless that person’s immune competence has been clinically substantiatedor verified by a laboratory.
Note 27: There are no data assessing the risk of transmission of LAIV from vaccine recipients to immuno-suppressed contacts. In the absence of such data, use of inactivated flu vaccine is preferred for vaccinating household members, healthcare workers, and others who have close contact with immunosuppressed individuals.
Note 28: When cancer chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapy is being considered (e.g., for patientswith Hodgkins disease or those who undergo organ or bone marrow transplantation), the interval between vaccination and initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be at least 2 weeks. Vaccination duringchemotherapy or radiation therapy should be avoided.
Note 29: Preexposure: Patients who are immunosuppressed by disease or medications should postpone pre-
exposure vaccinations and consider avoiding activities for which rabies preexposure prophylaxis is indicated.
When this course is not possible, immunosuppressed persons who are at risk for rabies should be vaccinated by
the IM route and their antibody titers checked. Failure to seroconvert after the third dose should be managed in
consultation with appropriate public health officials. Postexposure: Immunosuppressive agents should not be
administered during postexposure therapy unless essential for treatment of other conditions. When postexposure
prophylaxis is administered to an immunosuppressed person, it is especially important that a serum sample be
tested for rabies antibody to ensure that an acceptable antibody response has developed.
Note 30: Varicella vaccine should not be administered to persons who have cellular immunodeficiencies, but persons with impaired humoral immunity may be vaccinated. A protocol exists for use of varicella vaccine inpatients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). See “Prevention of Varicella: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices” MMWR 1996;45 (No. RR-11).
Neurologic disorders, underlying (including Note 31: Whether and when to administer DTaP to children with proven or suspected underlying neurologic disorders should be decided individually. Generally, infants and children with stable neurologic conditions, including well-controlled seizures, may be vaccinated.
moderate or severe (with or without fever) Note 32: Children with moderate or severe illnesses, with or without fever, can be vaccinated as soon as they arerecovering and no longer acutely ill.
in mother or household contact of recipient Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 33: Women should avoid becoming pregnant for 4 weeks following vaccination.
Note 34: If a pregnant woman is at increased risk for infection and requires immediate protection against polio, IPVcan be administered in accordance with the recommended schedules for adults.
Note 35: The theoretical risk to the developing fetus is expected to be low. The risk associated with vaccinationshould be weighed against the risk for hepatitis A in women who may be at high risk for exposure to hepatitis Avirus.
Note 36: Pregnant women who must travel to an area where risk of JE is high should be vaccinated when the the-oretical risks of immunization are outweighed by the risk of infection to the mother and developing fetus.
Note 37: Pregnant women should not be routinely vaccinated on theoretical grounds, and travel to areas whereyellow fever is present should be postponed until after delivery. If international travel requirements constitute theonly reason to vaccinate a pregnant woman, rather than an increased risk of infection, efforts should be made toobtain a waiver letter from the traveler’s physician. Pregnant women who must travel to areas where the risk ofyellow fever is high should be vaccinated.
Note 38: Vaccine is not contraindicated, but no data exist on its use among pregnant women.
Note 39: If an infant weighs less than 2 kg at birth, and the mother is antigen-negative, this infant can receive thefirst dose of hepatitis B vaccine at chronological age 1 month. Premature infants discharged from the hospitalbefore chronological age 1 month can also be administered hepatitis B vaccine at discharge, if they are medicallystable and have gained weight consistently. If the mother is antigen-positive or if her antigen status is not known,use the vaccine schedule in which the first dose, plus HBIG, is given within 12 hours of birth, regardless of theinfant’s birth weight. If these infants weigh less than 2 kg at birth, this initial dose should not be counted towardcompletion of the hepatitis B vaccine series, and three additional doses should be administered beginning whenthe infant is 1 month of age.
Note 40: The appropriate age for initiating vaccinations in the prematurely born infant is the usual chronologicalage (same dosage and indications as for normal, full-term infants).
Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Reaction to a previous dose of any vaccine local (mild-to-moderate soreness, redness, Note 41: Contraindicates vaccination only with vaccine to which reaction occurred. If tetanus toxoid is contraindi-cated for someone who has not completed a primary tetanus series and that person has a wound that is neitherclean nor minor, give only passive vaccination, using tetanus immune globulin (TIG).
collapse or shock-like state within 48 hours of persistent, inconsolable crying lasting for 3 or more hours, occurring within 48 hours of dose family history of any adverse event after a fever of <40.5OC (105OF) within 48 hours fever of >40.5OC (105OF) within 48 hours Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks Note 42: Not a contraindication, but consider carefully the benefits and risks of this vaccine under these circum-stances. If the risks are believed to outweigh the benefits, withhold the vaccination; if the benefits are believed tooutweigh the risks (for example, during an outbreak or foreign travel), give the vaccine. Note 43: Consider giving acetaminophen before DTaP and every 4 hours thereafter for 24 hours.
Note 44: The decision to give additional doses of DTaP should be based on consideration of the benefits of furthervaccination vs. the risk of recurrence of GBS. For example, completion of the primary series in children is justified.
Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 45: There is a theoretical risk that the administration of multiple live virus vaccines within 4 weeks of oneanother, if not given on the same day, will result in a suboptimal immune response. Parenterally administered livevaccines, and live attenuated influenza vaccine, when not administered on the same day should be administered>4 weeks apart whenever possible. If these live vaccines are separated by <4 weeks, the vaccine administeredsecond should not be counted as a valid dose and should be repeated >4 weeks after the last, invalid, dose.
Skin condition (acute, chronic or exfoliative) in Note 46: Vaccination may be administered after condition resolves. (Recommendations differ for Eczema and Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), family Steroids (See “Immunodeficiency,” p. 6) Note 47: Consider the benefits of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella vs. the risk of recurrence or exacerba-tion of thrombocytopenia after vaccination, or risk from natural infections of measles or rubella. In most instances,the benefits of vaccination will be much greater than the potential risks and will justify giving MMR, particularly inview of the even greater risk of thrombocytopenia following measles or rubella disease. However, if a priorepisode of thrombocytopenia occurred near the time of vaccination, it might be prudent to avoid a subsequentdose.
Note 48: Measles vaccination may temporarily suppress tuberculin reactivity. MMR vaccine may be given after, oron the same day as, TB testing. If MMR has been given recently, postpone the TB test until 4-6 weeks afteradministration of MMR. If giving MMR simultaneously with tuberculin skin test, use the Mantoux test, not multiplepuncture tests, because the latter, if results are positive, require confirmation (and confirmation would then have tobe postponed 4-6 weeks).
Note 49: No data exist for the potential degree of PPD suppression that might be associated with other parenterallive attenuated virus vaccines. Nevertheless, in the absence of data, following guidelines for measles-containingvaccine when scheduling PPD screening and administering other parenteral live attenuated virus vaccines is prudent.
Symptom or Condition Vaccine(s) Vaccinate?
Note 50: A theoretical basis exists for concern that measles vaccine might exacerbate tuberculosis. Consequently,before administering MMR to persons with untreated active tuberculosis, initiating antituberculosis therapy is advisable.
Note 51: Although no data exist regarding whether either varicella or live varicella virus vaccine exacerbates tuber-culosis, vaccination is not recommended for persons who have untreated, active tuberculosis.
moderate or severe (with or without fever) Note 52: Persons with moderate or severe illnesses, with or without fever, can be vaccinated as soon as they arerecovering and no longer acutely ill.
Appendix A: Vaccine Contents
Appendix A
In addition to identifying specific substances that contraindicate certain vaccines (shown underthe category “Allergies” on pages 1 and 2 of this Guide), the ACIP also makes the more generalstatement that a “serious allergic reaction [e.g., anaphylaxis] to a vaccine component” is a con-traindication.
The following table summarizes excipients (i.e., inert substances added as a vehicle) containedin vaccines licensed in the United States While these substances, except as noted above, arenot specified by the ACIP as contraindications to vaccination, providers should be aware of sub-stances contained in vaccines should they encounter a patient with a known anaphylactic allergy.
Contains
Aluminum hydroxide, Benzethonium chloride, Formaldehyde or formalin,Sodium chloride Aluminum phosphate, Formaldehyde or formalin, Sodium chloride, 2-phenoxyethanol Formaldehyde or formalin, 2-phenoxyethanol, Phosphate buffers (e.g.,disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihydrogen phosphate),Polysorbate 80, Sodium chloride Aluminum potassium sulfate, Formaldehyde or formalin, Gelatin,Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihy-drogen phosphate), Polysorbate 80, Sodium chloride, Thimerosal* Aluminum potassium sulfate, Formaldehyde or formalin, Gelatin,Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihy-drogen phosphate), Polysorbate 80, Sodium chloride, Thimerosal*,Ammonium sulfate, Sucrose Appendix A: Vaccine Contents
Contains
2-phenoxyethanol, Sodium chloride, Aluminum, Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80, Thimerosal*, Neomycin, Polymyxin B, Yeast protein Aluminum potassium sulfate, Formaldehyde or formalin, Sodium chloride,Thimerosal Aluminum hydroxide, Formaldehyde or formalin, Sodium Glycine, Hydrochloric acid, Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodi-um, potassium, sodium dihydrogen phosphate), Sodium acetate, Sodiumhydroxide Ammonium sulfate, Formaldehyde or formalin, Phosphate buffers (e.g.,disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihydrogen phosphate),Sodium chloride, Sucrose Aluminum hydroxide, Sodium borate, Sodium chloride, Yeast protein Aluminum hydroxide, Amino acids, Bovine albumin or serum,Formaldehyde or formalin, MRC-5 cellular protein, 2-phenoxyethanol,Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihy-drogen phosphate), Polysorbate 20, Sodium chloride Aluminum hydroxide, Bovine albumin or serum, DNA, Formaldehyde orformalin, MRC-5 cellular protein, Sodium borate, Sodium chloride Aluminum hydroxide, Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium,potassium, sodium dihydrogen phosphate) , Sodium chloride, Yeast pro-tein, Thimerosal* Aluminum hydroxide, Sodium chloride, Yeast protein Appendix A: Vaccine Contents
Contains
Phosphate-buffer sodium chloride, Alunimum phosphate, Aluminum hydroxide, 2-phenoxyethanol, Amino acids, Polysorbate 20, Formalin,Thimerosal*, Yeast protein, Neomycin sulfate Beta-propiolactone, Egg protein, Neomycin, Polymyxin B,Polyoxyethylene 9-10 nonyl phenol (Triton N-101, octoxynol 9), Sodiumchloride, Thimerosal Egg protein, Formaldehyde or formalin, Gelatin, Polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100), Sodium chloride, Thimerosal Egg protein, Gentamicin, Monosodium glutamate, Sucrose, Potassiumphosphate Formaldehyde or formalin, Neomycin, 2-phenoxyethanol, Phosphatebuffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihydrogenphosphate) , Polymyxin B, Sodium chloride, Streptomycin Formaldehyde or formalin, Gelatin, Mouse serum protein Aluminum phosphate, Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium,potassium, sodium dihydrogen phosphate), Thimerosal Appendix A: Vaccine Contents
Appendix A: Vaccine Contents
Contains
Beta-propiolactone, Bovine albumin or serum, Human serum albumin,MRC-5 cellular protein, Neomycin, Phenol red (phenolsulfonphthalein),Sodium chloride, Vitamins (unspecified) Amphotericin B, Beta-propiolactone, Bovine albumin or serum,Chlortetracycline, Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid sodium (EDTA),Gelatin, MRC-5 cellular protein, Neomycin, Ovalbumin, Potassium gluta-mate, Sodium chloride Aluminum potassium sulfate, Formaldehyde or formalin, Sodium chloride,Thimerosal, (may contain Glycine, Sodium acetate, Sodium hydroxide) Aluminum hydroxide, Aluminum Phosphate, Formaldehyde or formalin,Sodium chloride, Thimerosal, (may contain Glycine, Sodium acetate,Sodium hydroxide) Phenol, Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium, potassium, sodium dihydrogen phosphate), Polydimethylsilozone, Sodium chloride Amino acids, Ascorbic acid, Gelatin, Lactose, Magnesium stearate, Bovine albumin or serum, Brilliant green, Chlortetracycline, Glycerin,Neomycin, Phenol, Polymyxin B, Streptomycin Bovine albumin or serum, Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid sodium(EDTA), Gelatin, Monosodium glutamate, MRC-5 cellular protein,Neomycin, Phosphate buffers (e.g., disodium, monosodium, potassium,sodium dihydrogen phosphate), Sodium chloride, Sucrose Egg protein, Gelatin, Sodium chloride, Sorbitol *Whenever “thimerosal” is marked with an asterisk (*) it indicates that the product should be considered equivalentto thimerosal-free products. This vaccine may contain trace amounts (<3 mcg) of mercury left after post-productionthimerosal removal, but these amounts have no biological effect. JAMA 1999;282(18) and JAMA 2000;283(16).
All reasonable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy of this information, but manufacturers may changeproduct contents. If in doubt, check the appropriate package insert.
Information in this appendix was adapted primarily from:
Grabenstein JD. ImmunoFacts: Vaccines & Immunologic Drugs. St. Louis:
Facts and Comparisons, August 2002
Appendix B: IG-Live Vaccine Intervals
Appendix B
Suggested Intervals Between Administration of
Antibody-Containing Products for Different Indications and
Measles-Containing Vaccine and Varicella Vaccine*
Suggested Interval
Dose (Including mg immunoglobulin G
before Measles or
Product/Indication
(IgG)/kg body weight*
Varicella Vaccination
globulin (IG) monoclonal antibody(SynagisTM)** 10 mL/kg negligible IgG/kg intravenously (IV) *This table is not intended for determining the correct indications and dosage for using antibody-containing products.
Unvaccinated persons might not be fully protected against measles during the entire recommended interval, and additionaldoses of immune globulin or measles vaccine might be indicated after measles exposure. Concentrations of measles antibodyin an immune globulin preparation can vary by manufacturer’s lot. Rates of antibody clearance after receipt of an immune glob-ulin preparation might vary also. Recommended intervals are extrapolated from an estimated half-life of 30 days for passivelyacquired antibody and an observed interference with the immune response to measles vaccine for 5 months after a dose of 80mg IgG/kg. (Source: Mason W, Takahashi M, Schneider T. Persisting passively acquired measles antibody following gammaglobulin therapy for Kawasaki disease and response to live virus vaccination [Abstract 311]. Presented at the 32nd meeting ofthe Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Los Angeles, California, October, 1992.) **Contains antibody only to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ***Assumes a serum IgG concentration of 16 mg/mL ****Measles and varicella vaccination is recommended for children with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic human immunode-ficiency virus (HIV) infection but is contraindicated for persons with severe immunosuppression from HIV or any other immuno-suppressive disorder.
Adapted from ACIP “General Recommendations on Immunization” February 8, 2002
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