Parasitol Res (2010) 106:409–414DOI 10.1007/s00436-009-1676-6Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistantPediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae)Ariel C. Toloza & Alejandro Lucía & Eduardo Zerba &Hector Masuh & María Inés PicolloReceived: 6 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published online: 10 November 2009Abstract During the past d
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Microsoft word - des-medications-june09-cg.docMedication Diabetes medications are usually needed for people with type 2 diabetes. As time goes by healthy eating and exercise are not enough to keep blood glucose on target. Medication (tablets and / or insulin) are needed in addition to healthy eating and exercise. Together you and your doctor will choose medication most suitable for you. Your needs will change over time. The longer you have diabetes the more medication you may need. Many people with type 2 diabetes need insulin as well as tablets. To make sure diabetes medications are working effectively regular blood glucose testing is necessary. Testing can be done at home as well as at a blood test (A1c) at the doctor’s surgery. There are six types of medication: metformin, sulphonylureas, acarbose, glitinides, glitazones and GPL-1 agents. Each tablet has a chemical name (generic) and one or more trade names. Metformin and sulphonylureas are the most frequently prescribed. The medications work in different ways and vary in dosage, strength and side effects. Generic name
Glucohexal, Glucomet, Glucophage, Metformin, Metformin-BC Sulphonylureas
Metformin helps the body use the available insulin more effectively and may
help with weight loss in certain people.
Sulphonylureas work to increase the amount of insulin from the pancreas.
Acarbose slows the absorption of carbohydrate foods as they are being
digested and can help reduce blood glucose levels after meals.
Glitinides cause a short and brisk increase in insulin levels. Tablets are taken
before meals and can also help control blood glucose levels after meals.
Glitazones increase the body’s response to insulin.
GLP-1 agents mimic (exenatide, an injection) or enhance (sitagliptin, a tablet)
the action of a natural hormone (GLP-1) and help control blood glucose levels
before and after meals.
1. Know the name and dose of your medications (write it down and keep this 2. Only take the type and number of medications prescribed by your doctor. 3. Take the medications at the prescribed time. It is important not to forget to 4. Make sure you have regular meals and take your medication with your 5. If medications are causing side effects notify your doctor. Discuss with your 6. Remember that taking other medication may react with your diabetes medication. Consult the pharmacist or your doctor. 1. Diabetes medications are not a substitute for healthy eating and regular 2. If you are unwell and are unable to eat notify your doctor and ask for advice 3. If you forget to take your usual dose seek advice from your doctor. 4. Sometimes during illness or surgery it may be necessary to change these 5. If you need to go to hospital, you should tell the staff that you have 6. If you intend becoming pregnant you should discuss this with your doctor. 7. Store medications in their original tightly closed container away from heat 8. Keep medications out of reach of children. 9. If you have any problems or concerns about your medications, discuss them with your doctor, diabetes educator or pharmacist. Side effects of tablets
What you should do
Metformin can cause nausea and
settles, but if not or if it is severe notify Sulphonylureas can cause
missed or inadequate, or with increased exercise. Weight gain can also occur. discussed with your health professional. Acarbose sometimes produces
sulphonylureas or glitinides use
‘glucose only products’ to treat
Glitinides can sometimes cause
Glitazones cause increased fluid or
fat under the skin and can affect some or ankle swelling, talk to your doctor. blood tests. GPL-1 agents can cause nasal
vomiting and injection site reactions (exenatide). Diabetes Outreach
8 Woodville Rd
Woodville South SA 5011
Telephone: (08) 8222 6775
Department of Health, Government of South Australia. All rights reserved.
MANAGEMENT OF SPONTANEOUS MISCARRIAGE Adapted for Pakistan from the Green top RCOG guideline No: 20a, 2006 By the Guideline Committee of SOGP through consensus & literature review 1. Purpose and Scope Clinical guidelines have been developed to assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate management of miscarriages. Here we will mainly address the spontaneou