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Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour?
Studying Possible Non-Thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach within the
Framework of Educational Informatics
Wolfgang Harst1, Jochen Kuhn2* & Hermann Stever1 1 Institute of Educational Informatics, University of Koblenz-Landau/Campus Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau, 2 Institute of Science and Science Education (ISSE), Department of Physics, University of Koblenz-Landau/Campus Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau, Germany. * Author for correspondence (e-mail: [email protected]). Abstract
In recent years the public discussion has been focused increasingly on possible unhealthy effects
of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (particularly of mobile-phones) on human beings.
Whereas thermal effects of this radiation could be explained very well, non-thermal effects could
hardly be clarified. In our last works, we pointed out that – from view of Educational Informatics
– honey bees are suitable bioindicators to serve as a model of a living being to study learning
processes especially in this aspect.
In this paper, we describe a first pilot study, which explores the non-thermal influence of high-
frequency electromagnetic fields. Therefore we observe the behaviour of honey bees (apis mel-
lifera carnica
) by exposing them to the radiation of DECT-phones. In this study four respectively
eight bee-colonies were used as experimental group and were irradiated, whereas the same num-
bers of comparable bee-colonies was field-free. The observed parameters were the building be-
haviour of the bees within the beehive, its weight and especially the bees’ returning behaviour.
Key words
Electromagnetic exposure, non-thermal, bioindicator, honey bees, learning process, changing
behaviour
Introduction
The modern media together with the increasing use of mobile computing in education produce,
among other things, an increasing public debate about possible side effects of electromagnetic
exposition on human beings. In recent years further studies were initiated to examine the effect of
high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on living organisms and cells. But up to now there ex-
ists no adequate model of effect with specific relation to learning processes to explain the differ-
ent, especially non-thermal effects. In this context we only want to mention the resonant stimulus
of living organisms, especially of their brain, by high-frequency electromagnetic fields of mobile
phones. This could be observed as alterations in the learning behaviour of the organism.
Because studies using human beings are banned in this field, adequate bioindicators should be
used to evaluate a possible model. Therefore it is necessary that the brainstructure of the bioindi-
cator is similar in important aspects to that of human beings and that it could be resonantly stimu-
lated by the frequency of mobile phones because of its size. Consequently it is necessary to find a
suitable bioindicator to verify a respective model of explanation of the effect of high-frequency
electromagnetic fields on human beings, especially on the human brainstructure.
To determine a possible bioindicator for an experimental physical interpretation of the model, we
use topical studies about the learning process of honey bees (in a first step). In our model we as-
sume that the knowledge of the honey bees’ surrounding determine their actions. Thereby we
suppose that this knowledge is caused by the information processing in the way described by the
process of superation (Stever, 2002). This interpretation is supported by results of neurobiologi-
cal research. It shows that the alterations of the honey bees’ actions are combined with modifica-
tions in certain areas of their brain, especially in such areas called mushroom bodies (Withers et
al, 1993; Faber & Menzel, 2001). Therefore we want to consider these mushroom bodies as rep-
resentations of internal models, which were the results of honey bees’ learning processes. These
internal models represent parts of the surrounding. In addition, Menzel points out, that the asso-
ciative brainstructure of bees is similar to the brainstructure of human beings: The memory of
both passes through sequences, which differ in their susceptibility of problems and in the amount
of participating brain areas (Menzel, 1993).
Summing up, these results show that honey bees are suitable for studying the neuronal basics of
learning and memory. Furthermore honey bees turn out to be permissible and suitable bioindica-
tors to develop adequate models of explanation for the effect of high-frequency electromagnetic
fields on human beings, especially on the structure of their brain. Observations of honey bees also
make it possible to develop corresponding theoretically guided models of effect, which are based
on the theory of supersigns.
Methods
Physical design.
To study non-thermal influences of high-frequency radiation on the learning behaviour of honey-
bees, these insects (resp. their brains) had to be stimulated non-thermally (Stever & Kuhn, 2004).
For that, we used the basis stations of cordless DECT mobile phones (Digital European Cordless
Telecommunications). These stations send out continually electromagnetic radiation with a send-
ing frequency fS ≈ 1900 MHz. So they also irradiate when the mobile phone is out of order or is
not in use. The average transmitting power PS amounts to 10 mW, the peak power is 250 mW. The sending signal is frequency modulated and pulsed with a pulsing frequency fp of 100 Hz. The station was put at the bottom of a beehive, right under the honeycombs (Fig. 1).
The station was placed within the beehive, so the honey bees have been able to touch the sending
aerial all the time.

Subjects and location.
The experiment was carried out on the premises of the "DLR Fachzentrum für Bienen und Im-
kerei" in Mayen by students of Environmental Sciences at the University of Koblenz-
Landau/Campus Landau.
Subject was to study the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed honey bees concerning finding
back home to the beehive and building honeycombs.


Fig. 1: Position of the DECT-station within a beehive.
Procedure.
Sight registration of returning behaviour to the beehive:
To study the returning behaviour eight mini-hives – each with colonies of about 8.000 individuals
– were set up in a row. A block of four colonies were equipped with DECT-stations on the bot-
tom of their hive. At the entrance of each hive a transparent 10 cm plastic tube with a diameter of
4 cm was mounted to gather single bees and watching them later entering the hive. At the begin-
ning of each study-sequence 25 bees of one colony were gathered in their tubes, stunned in a
cooling box and got marked with a marker dot on the thorax. At a distance of about 800 m to the
hive all marked bees were set free simultaneously and got timed from that moment. The returning
bees were intercepted at the bee hive's entrance and the returning time was noted down. The ob-
servation time lasted 45 minutes, bees that came back afterwards were disregarded. Within every
study-sequence the groups of exposed and non-exposed honeybees were paired (at least one
group of exposed and non-exposed colonies) and observed simultaneously.
Building behaviour:
To study the building behaviour of the bees, two variables were examined: the change of the hon-
eycomb area, which was documented by photographs, and the development of the honeycomb
weight. Sixteen mini-hive colonies, eight neighbouring hives with DECT-stations, were set up in
a row. At the beginning of the experiment the empty frames for the honeycombs were weighed,
then the hives got filled with bees (400 g) and 250 ml food. The bees were fed two times more-
over while running the experiment. The front- and backside of the frames, six in each hive, with
the developing honeycombs were photographed every day at the same time, also the frames got
weighed.
Other data:
To register the returning behaviour of the bees automatically four standard hives, two of them
with DECT-stations, were equipped with beescan-units. Because of technical problems and in-
completeness, the data couldn't be taken into account. The collected weather data were incom-
plete, too.
Results
Because of the explorative character of this study we refrain from a differentiated statistical
analysis, but exemplary the most obvious differences between exposed and non-exposed colonies
about honeycomb weight and returning times will be represented graphically.
The development of honeycomb area and weight will be compared by averages of exposed and
non-exposed colonies and shown in two diagrams, too.
The first two diagrams (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3) show the distribution of the averaged entire weight to
single honeycombs of the respective experimental group. In the course of the experiment three
exposed colonies and one non-exposed colony broke down. To compute the average weight of
the honeycombs over all analyzed colonies their weight was used at the time of the breakdown.
While the weight of the frames for the honeycombs was similar at the beginning, the average
total weights of the honeycombs, which were built by non-exposed bees, came to 1326 g while
the average honeycomb weight of the exposed bees amount 1045 g. The difference of 281 g cor-
responds to 21.1%.
Averaged honeycomb weight
Averaged honeycom b w eight
of non-exposed colonies on 08/07/05
of exposed colonies on 08/07/05
weight in g
w eight in g
Fig. 2: Honeycomb Weight of non-exposed bees Fig. 3: Honeycomb Weight of exposed bees
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the progression of honeycomb weight and area during the experiment. Right after the moment of the breakdown the data of the collapsed colonies were taken into ac-count as constants. The area of the honeycombs couldn't be measured directly, so the photographs were analyzed with the graphic tool "ImageJ" (Rasband, 2005). With this software the area of the honeycombs could be marked by framing the section on the photos. Then the mean for front- and backside could be calculated to minimize errors determining the areas. During the process of the experiment it became clear that both weight and area were developed better by non-exposed honey bees. Although this has to be interpreted as a tendency or a trend, a Mann-Whitney U-Test, which was done for descriptive reasons, never showed a difference (5%-level) between exposed and non-exposed colonies. Fig. 6 - Fig. 9 depict the returning behaviour of a specific sequence of the experiment on 07/07/05, 12:10 to 12:55. All observed honey bees had the same weather conditions. These fig-ures show that the quantity of returning bees of the non-exposed honey bees was bigger as well as the returning time of the few returning exposed honey bees was distinctly longer. Progression of honeycomb weight
Progression of honeycomb area
non-exposed
non-exposed
Fig. 4: Honeycomb Weight
Fig. 5: Honeycomb Area
This observation was done during a sequence of the experiment with the maximum of returning bees of both exposed and non-exposed colonies. At no time of the experiment more than six ex-posed bees arrived, several times none came back to the hive within 45 minutes, whereas at every sequence of the experiment returning non-exposed honey bees could be observed. So the depict sequence shows even the best-case! Colony 1 (non-exposed)
Colony 4 (non-exposed)
Fig. 6: Returning Time, Colony 1
Fig. 7: Returning Time, Colony 4
Colony 8 (exposed)
Colony 5 (exposed)
Fig. 8: Returning Time, Colony 8
Fig. 9: Returning Time, Colony 5
Outlook
The physical design of this study could be modified in different ways concerning the used power
and frequency. Therefore mostly frequency- and power-ranges of daily life should be interesting.
So the following physical modifications are conceivable:
1. Increasing power:
In a worst-case-study the DECT-station should run in active state with maximum sending power. Besides cordless DECT phones, which are mostly used within buildings, other mobile phones could be used. For example the GSM mobile phones (Global System for Mobile Communica-tion) send their information with sending frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz as well as with a pulsing frequency of 217 Hz. So GSM mobile phones differ from DECT-phones in their physical characteristics, these phones can also be used in buildings as well as outdoors. Because GSM technology works with power adjustment depending on the distance between mobile phone and station, the phone should be used in active process for worst-case-situation. Further modifications could be done regarding to the position of the beehives and the periods of
exposition. To reduce location-effects the control- and experimental beehives should be posi-
tioned alternately. Furthermore the period of exposition and studying the honeybees’ behaviour
could be modified or extended. In order to that different stages of bee development (not only the
adult level) and the influence of exposition in each stage could be observed.
References
[1] Faber, T. & Menzel, R. (2001); Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor
in honeybees; Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 88 (pp. 472-476). [2] Menzel, R. (1993); Associative learning in honey bees; Apidologie, Vol. 24, No. 3 (pp. 157- [3] Rasband, W. (2005); ImageJ; http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/index.html [2006-04-25] [4] Stever, H. (2002); Theorie der Superzeichen im Rahmen der Bildungsinformatik. Grundla- genstudien aus Kybernetik und Geisteswissenschaft (grkg), Vol. 43 (pp.9-15) [5] Stever, H. & Kuhn, J. (2004); How Electromagnetic Exposure Can Influence Learning Proc- esses – Modelling Effects of Electromagnetic Exposure on Learning Processes; IIAS-Transactions on Systems Research and Cybernetics: International journal of the International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics, Vol. IV, No. 1 (pp. 1-10). [6] Withers, G. S., Fahrbach, S. E. & Robinson, G. E. (1993); Selective neuroanatomical plastic- ity and division of labour in the Honeybee; Nature, Vol. 364 (pp. 238-240)

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