Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-Thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach within the Framework of Educational Informatics Wolfgang Harst1, Jochen Kuhn2* & Hermann Stever1 1 Institute of Educational Informatics, University of Koblenz-Landau/Campus Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau, 2 Institute of Science and Science Education (
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Poultry: solutions used for poultryhttp://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html Solutions used for poultry
The following solutions have been used as supportive treatments by poultry and game bird producers. They are intended as aids in treating the describedconditions, not as a replacement for any management, drug, or antibiotic ASPIRIN SOLUTION
Used as a general treatment for reducing distress conditions of birds (fever orlistlessness) that accompanies many diseases.
Dissolve five (5 grain) aspirin tablets in one gallon of water. Offer this solution free-choice to the birds for the duration of an illness. Thesolution aspirin equivalent to 25 grains/gallon or 324 mg/gallon of drinking water.
The dosage rate is about 25 mg/lb body weight per day.
This solution can be used to treat young birds that show non-typical diseasesymptoms of poor growth. The solution can also be given to birds suffering fromrespiratory diseases that produce a large amount of mucus exudate. Thissolution will help "cut through" the mucus and allow it to be expelled easier.
Two quarts of apple cider vinegar diluted into 100 gallons of water The tannin in the apple cider vinegar aide in removing any mucus or coatingfrom the mouth, throat, or intestinal tract. Nutrients and drugs are more readilyabsorbed. Offer this solution as the only drinking water source for two to threeday intervals.
COPPER SULFATE SOLUTION
Use this solution as a treatment for mycosis (mold infection) in the crop. Analternate name for the condition is "Thrush". Use the solution as a "follow-up"treatment after flushing with epsom salt solution--refer to the section forLAXATIVE SOLUTIONS.
Dissolve .5 lb copper sulfate and .5 cup vinegar into 1 gallon of water Dispense stock solution at the rate of 1 oz per gallon An alternate method of preparing the solution is: dissolve 1 oz copper sulfate and 1 tablespoon of vinegar into 15 gallons water. http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html Use either solution as the sole water source during the course of the diseaseoutbreak. Copper sulfate is often referred to as "bluestone".
EGG DIPPING SOLUTION
This procedure has been used to destroy pathogenic organisms such asMycoplasma spp. that can be carried on the hatching eggs. The procedure mustbe conducted exactly as described, and is not intended as a routine hatchingegg treatment. The procedure is only used in unusual situations.
The antibiotic solution contains 500 ppm gentamycin sulfate (1 gram per 2 liters of water) or 1 gram tylosin per liter of water. The hatching eggs must be carefully washed, rinsed, and sanitized prior totreatment. The eggs are then prewarmed to 100 degrees F. for 3-6 hours andimmediately submerged into the antibiotic solution that has been previouslycooled to 60 degrees F. The eggs are left in the antibiotic solution for 15 minutesbefore being placed into the incubator.
After each day's use, the solution must be sterilized by heating to 160 degreesand maintained for 10 minutes. Any water lost during sterilization must bereplaced. Refrigerate the solution in a clean covered container between uses toprevent bacterial contamination. Do not use or store solutions for more thanthree days after dilution.
FUMIGATION OF HATCHING EGGS AND EQUIPMENT
Preincubation of hatching eggs and equipment
Mix .6 gram potassium permanganate (KMnO4) with 1.2 ml formalin 2 oz KMnO4 and 4 fl oz formalin per 100 ft3 space. Mix both ingredients in an earthenware or heat resistant container having atleast ten times the capacity of the ingredients being added. Circulate the gas for20 minutes at 70 degrees F. or higher. Equipment without eggs can be allowedto fumigate overnight before exhausting the formaldehyde gas.
Fumigating eggs in incubator
Mix .4 gram KMnO4 and .8 ml formalin per ft3 1.5 oz KMnO4 and 3 fl oz formalin per 100 ft3 Follow the same guidelines as discussed for equipment fumigation. Do not fumigate chicken eggs between the 24th and 96th hours of incubation. Other species of birds may need the incubation intervals adjusted to compensate fortotal incubation time in relationship to the chicken's incubation period. It is bestto incubate after the incubator reaches normal operating temperature and http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html LAXATIVE SOLUTIONS
The following solutions or mixtures are recommended to flush the digestivesystem of toxic substances, most notably for treating birds exposed to botulismtoxins.
Add one pint of molasses to 5 gallons of water Offer the drinking solution free-choice to the affected birds for about four hours.
Treat severely affected birds individually if they cannot drink. Return the birds toregular water after the treatment period.
As a supportive treatment for symptoms resulting from Cryptosporidia infection,often referred to as coronaviral enteritis, use: One quart molasses in 20 gallons of water Offer this solution free-choice for a period of up to 7-10 days. It is assumed thatthe molasses replaces certain minerals lost from diarrhea during the course ofthe infection.
Epsom Salt Solution
1 lb Epsom Salt per 5 gallons water for 1 day Give the epson salt feed mixture as the sole feed source for a one day period.
This feed can be used only if the birds are eating. If the birds are not eating, usethe water solution. If the birds are unable to eat or drink by themselves, useindividual treatment with: 1 teaspoon of Epsom Salt in 1 fl oz water Place the solution in the crop of the affected bird. This same amount of solutionwill treat 5-8 quail or one chicken.
Castor Oil Therapy
Dose individual birds with .5 oz castor oil. NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS
The following solutions can be used as supplements to diets that are deficient incertain amino acids, energy, or vitamins and electrolytes. They are used only astemporary additives and not intended as part of a regular feeding program.
Amino Acid Solution
http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html 100 grams (7 fl oz) dl-methionine and 110 grams (6 fl oz) l-lysine HCl 2 grams (.8 tsp) dl-methionine and 2.2 grams (.7 tsp) l-lysine HCl Offer the solution free-choice to the birds as an aide to reducing the depressingeffects of low-protein diets. Make up a fresh solution daily and offer to birds inclean waterers. All measurements in parentheses () are volumetricmeasurements while those expressed in grams are weight measurements.
10 ounces of granulated sugar per gallon of water This solution may be given as an energy treatment for weak chicks. Offer thesolution as the only water source for the first 7-10 days. Clean the drinkers andreplace with fresh solution at least once daily. The solution shown abovecontains eight percent sugar and approximately 2000 kilocalories per gallon.
Vitamin & Electrolyte Solution
This solution can be used to reduce the effects of stresses caused by subclinicaldiseases, transporting, management errors, etc. Dilute a commercialvitamin/electrolyte packet into the prescribed amount of water. Use as the onlysource of drinking water until the stress problem has been corrected.
PARASITE (INTERNAL) SOLUTIONS
The following treatments have been shown to be effective for eliminating internalparasites from poultry and game birds. Neither of these drugs (fenbendazole orleviamisole) has been approved for use by FDA, so the producer accepts allresponsibility for their use. Both drugs have been very effective if used properlyand will eliminate most types of internal parasites that affect birds. Caution: Do not use with birds producing eggs or meat destined for human consumption. Fenbendazole Treatments
1 oz Safeguard or Panacur per 15-20 lb feed Dissolve the fenbendazole product in one cup of water. Mix this solution well intothe feed and give to the birds as their only feed source for one day. Whencompletely consumed, untreated feed can be given. Be sure that the commercialmedication contains 10% fenbendazole.
Safeguard is a product of Ralston Purina, and Panacur is a product marketed byAmerican Hoechst. One ounce of medication will treat about 1000 10-ozbobwhite quail. Adjustments of the amounts of medication and feed needed maybe necessary depending on the number and size of the birds.
http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html 1.2 oz Safeguard or Panacur in 100 lb feed 4 oz pkt of "Worm-A-Rest Litter Pack" (Ralston Purina) in 50 lb feed 5 lb bag of "Worm-A-Rest Mix Pack" in 495 lb feed Feed all the medicated feeds free-choice for three consecutive days. The feedmixtures provide 75 ppm fenbendazole. Quail will receive about 1.7 mg/birdeach day for adult birds or 2.75 mg/lb of bodyweight.
Fenbendazole has been shown to be a very effective treatment for eliminatingCapillaria (capillary worms), Heterakis (cecal worms), Ascaridia (roundworms),and Syngamus spp. (gapeworms). Toxicity from overdosing with fenbendazole isvery remote. Research indicates that amounts up to 100 times therecommended dosages have been given under research conditions withoutadverse effects to the birds. Use of this product during molt, however, maycause deformity of the emerging feathers.
52 gram (1.84 oz) pkt Tramisol in 100 gallons water 13 gram (.46 oz) pkt Tramisol in 25 gallons water 52 gram (1.84 oz) pkt in 3 qt water (stock solution) Dissolve the 52 gram packet of "Tramisol Cattle and Sheep Wormer" or the 13gram packet of "Tramisol Sheep Drench Powder" into the appropriate amount ofwater. If the stock solution is used with a water proportioner, be sure that thestock solution is dispensed at the rate of 1 oz/gallon in the drinking water.
Any of the solutions are effective at treating Capillaria (capillary worms),Heterakis (cecal worms), and Ascaridia (roundworms). The solutions contain .5gram of leviamisole per gallon of water. Allow the birds to drink the solution forone day, then remove. In severe cases, the treatment can be repeated every 5-7days.
Mite and Lice Body Spray Solution
1.5 lb 25% Malathion wettable powder .75 lb 50% Carbaryl (Sevin) wettable powder http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html Spray birds thoroughly to wet the skin and feathers. Pay particular attention tothe vent area of the birds. Each gallon of spray will treat 75-100 adultleghorn-type laying hens or 250-300 adult quail. A second treatment can beapplied about four weeks after the first application if necessary. The walls,ceiling, and litter of the house can be sprayed with these solutions to killindividual insects not on the birds.
Mites, Lice, and Housefly Residual Spray
Dissolve one of the following in 10 gallons of water.
Apply the permethrin spray to all ceilings, walls, roosts, nests, cracks, andcrevices at the rate of one gallon for every 750 square feet. One application willbe effective for at least three weeks.Malathion sprays are used as residualsprays to ceilings, walls, roosts, litter, and any dark location that is difficult toreach. Malathion sprays are applied at the rate of one gallon for every 500-750square feet. Malathion is not recommended for fly control, but is usually effectivewhen used in combination with body sprays for mites and lice.
These solutions will reduce or eliminate slime and most disease organisms inwater, drinkers, and water lines.
For Constant Use
1 teaspoon chlorine bleach (sodium hypochlorite) This solution provides 11 ppm chlorine for sanitizing. The birds will drink thewater and not be harmed by drinking it. They may need a short time to becomeaccustomed to this solution. A more dilute solution with half the above level ofbleach can be offered for a few days before using the 11 ppm solution. Clean thewaterers thoroughly each day to get the best effect.
Weekly Sanitizing Rinse Solution
1 oz Chlorine Bleach in 6-8 gallons water Rinse, soak, or expose equipment to this solution. Let stand at least one hour,then rinse with fresh water. This solution contains equivalent to 45 ppm chlorine.
The procedure is most effective if conducted on a weekly basis. Remember,chlorine disinfectants are inactivated by organic matter. Clean all equipment well http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html before using chlorine rinse solutions.
VACCINE ADMINISTRATION GUIDELINES
Clean waterers prior to vaccination. Deprive the birds of drinking water beginningone hour in hot weather and two hours in moderate or cold weather. Mix 3.2 ozpowdered skimmed milk packet or equivalent into ten gallons of water. The milkneutralizes the small amount of chlorine or sanitizer present in many watersources.
Follow the vaccine manufacturer's mixing instructions for dilution level.
Administer vaccine-water solution in the waterers immediately after mixing. Allthe vaccine solution must be consumed within 15-20 minutes if goodimmunization is expected.
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