EnTox 2007 Inhaltsverzeichnis Freitag, 11. Mai 2007 Alexander, M.; Behm, C.; Föllmann, W.; Kuhlmann, J. Response of primary urothelial cells from individual porcine bladders upon treatment with benzo(a)pyrene Belik, R.; Dörrenhaus, A.; Föllmann, W.; Golka, K. Quantitative study of excretion and in vitro growth of urothelial cells obtained from urine of healthy subjects Bernsha
Advantag of ingestion administration way is its easiness even when applied at home. But with their help necessary treatment concentration in blood cannot be always quickly achieve buy antibiotics online transaction is carried out on anonymity and mutual profit principles, and in addition customers will be positively surprised with quality and speed of service.
Microsoft word - ijab 181 composedInternational Journal of
Effect of Different Levels of Dietary Bole (Lake Soil) Inclusion on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and
Composition of Holstein Friesian Cows
*Shewangzaw Addisu1, Firew Tegegne2 and Zeleke Mekuriaw3
1Alage ATVET College, P.O.Box 77, Zeway; 2Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 26, Bahir Dar; 3LIVES, ILRI-Bahir Dar A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effects of inclusion dietary bole soil at different levels on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition of Holstein Friesian cows. Sixteen, two to four multi- parious mid-lactation Holstein cows with milk yield of 10.5 ± 2.14 kg d-1 and Key words:
383.5 ± 35.44 kg average body weight were blocked based on their average milk yield. Cows were assigned to one of the four dietary treatments using RCBD. The treatments were T1= 0% Bole soil in the concentrate, T2= 1.5% Bole soil in the Concentrate, T3= 3% Bole soil in the Concentrate and T4= 4.5% Bole soil in the Concentrate. Grass hay was used as a basal diet. The trial was conducted for 60 days. Data were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), general linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS (2002). Grass hay intake was significantly different (P<0.01) among treatments, the highest being T2. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) on concentrate intake among treatments. Total dry matter intakes were significantly different (P<0.05), with the highest record for T2. Crude protein and metabolizable energy intakes were not significantly different (P>0.05) among treatments where as intake of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and ash were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatments with higher value for T2. Dietary treatments did not affect average daily milk yield of cows. Similarly, milk protein, solid not fat and total solid content were not significant different (P>0.05) among treatments. However, milk fat content and feed conversion efficiency were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatments, the highest being in T3. The 4% fat corrected milk yield of cows were significantly different (P<0.01) between *Corresponding Address:
treatments for T2=T3 > T1=T4. Therefore, from the present study, it can be conclude that inclusion of 1.5% bole soil with concentrate diet is recommended on biological response of lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cite This Article as: Addisu S, F Tegegne and Z Mekuriaw, 2013. Effect of different levels of dietary bole (Lake
Soil) inclusion on feed intake, milk yield and composition of Holstein Friesian cows. Inter J Agri Biosci, 2(6): 377-
production and dairy development, therefore, is an important tool for improving household nutrition and Ethiopia has a large livestock population and diverse income of the producers. However, to improve milk agro-ecological zones. The major livestock feed resource production seasonal inadequacy of the quantity and base (green fodder or grazing lands) contributes 58.67%, quality of available feed resource as well as mineral crop residue 29.19%, improved feeds 0.25%, conserved contents are the major problem facing dairy producers in hay 7.35%, agro-industrial by-products 0.83% and others 3.71% of the total supply (CSA, 2011). Based on these In the past years, one of the strategies to supply feed resources from the total livestock producer about dietary minerals for dairy animals was to cover a high 24.59% of the population are engaged in the dairy proportion of dairy animal requirement with a mineral development package (Ibid). However, livestock mix with minimal or, in some cases, no consideration of production has mostly been subsistence oriented and mineral content in the other dietary ingredients, i.e. characterized by very low reproductive and production forages, grains and byproducts. Minerals can be performance (Adugna Tolera, 2008). Improving milk incorporated into free-access feed blocks, which also Inter J Agri Biosci, 2013, 2(6): 377-382.
provide a source of energy and nitrogen. Data from Experimental Feed Preparation and Feeding Management
National Research Council (NRC) and mineral chemical The experiment was conducted for a period of 60 analysis (mainly macro minerals) of the different dietary days following an adaptation period of 15 days. The ingredients were also used to adjust mineral contents in experimental feed consisted of natural and native grass hay, concentrate feed and Bole (lake soil) as a mineral The two sources of minerals include natural feeds supplement. The grass hay was predominantly composed (forages and grains) and mineral supplements to balance of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), Bermuda grass the minerals present in the forages and grains. However, (Cynodon dactylon) and Hyperrhenia rufa. The the bioavailability of minerals of common feeds is not commercially concentrated diet comprised noug (Guizotia well characterized and is affected by: intake level, feed abyssinica) seed cake (33%), wheat bran (54%), crushed type, variations of the same feed and interactions between maize grain (10%), ground limestone (2%) and common mineral, soil fertilization, method of analysis, etc. (NRC, salt (1%). The dried bole soil used for the present study 2001). Plants and plant products form the main supply of was collected from Lake Shalla. The soil was mixed with nutrients to animals and the composition of plants will the formulated concentrate diet at different levels (1.5, 3 influence the animal’s mineral intake (McDonald et al., and 4.5%) based on the work of Nega et al. (2006) who used 3% bole soil. The mineral soil was mixed based on McDonald et al. (2002) also stated that though energy the recommendation of Lawrence (2012), who and protein are of primary importance to any animals, recommended that minerals are best fed mixed with other optimal animal performance is possible only if there is an adequate supply of minerals and vitamins. In the Central The experimental supplement was offered at the rate Rift valley, Ca and P concentrations of the major of 0.5 kg per 1 kg of milk with a 4% butter fat content feedstuffs except for some fodder trees and barley straw (NRC, 1989) in two equal feedings before the morning were low (Zewdi Wondatir, 2010) as compared to the and evening milking. Hay was fed ad libitum. The cows recommendations. To this end, it is important to know the were fed individually in tie stall in a well-ventilated barn possible sources of essential minerals. The existing animal with concrete floor. Water was offered free access from feed processing firms and dairy producers add limestone automatic drinker throughout the day except the time from and common salt (NaCl) in concentrate mixtures as 08:00 to 14:00 hours. The cows were fed the basal diet mineral source depending on availability (Nega et al., twice daily at the time of 08:00 and 17:30 hours during 2006). A number of mineral soils that can be obtained the morning and afternoon following milking. Cows were from different parts of Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes and hand milked twice daily between 04:00 and 06:00 hours in other areas contain adequate amount of most of the the morning and between 16:00 and 17:30 hours in the essential minerals with the exception of phosphorus (Adugna Tolera, 2008). These include Bole (Lake Abaya, Abijata, Zeway and Shala), Addo or Megadua (L. Abaya) Treatments and Experimental Animals
and Red Soil. From these, Bole is abundantly and locally A total of 16, two to four multiparious Holstein available in the Central Rift Valley than the other kinds of Friesian dairy cows at mid-lactation of 110.94 ± 18.9 days mineral soil and is used by local farmers as a mineral in milk, 10.5 ± 2.14 kg day-1 milk yield and 383.5 ± 35.44 source for their cattle. Previous work showed that bole kg average body weight were selected from the milking soil improves milk yield and feed intake of dairy cows herd of the college’s dairy farm. All the selected cows (Nega et al., 2006), however, there was no documented were weighted and medicated against internal parasite information on the level of intake and corresponding with Albendazol (2500mg 250kg-1 body weight of cows) productivity. Therefore, this study was conducted with the and external parasites weekly with Diazinol (Amitraz objective to evaluate the effect of different levels of Bole 12.5% of 1.6ml/l of water), checked with California (lake soil) on feed intake, milk yield and milk Mastitis Test (CMT) prior to the experiment. Finally, those selected and treated animals were randomly allotted to one of the four dietary treatments (Table 1) based on MATERIALS AND METHODS
their average milk yield on a randomized complete block Description of the Study Area
The study was conducted at Alage Agricultural Table 1: Experimental treatments
Technical Vocational and Education Training (ATVET) College Dairy Farm from January to March 2013. The area is located at a distance of 217 km south of Addis Ababa, at an altitude ranging from 1580 to 1600 masl, at 070 42’ N latitude and 380 28’E longitude in the agro- ecologically semi-arid Southwestern part of the Ethiopian mid Rift valley. The area receives an average annual Data Collection and Sampling Procedure
rainfall ranging from 700 to 900 mm. The area has three Feed intake measurement
distinct seasons, namely; main rainy (June to September), Feed offered and the corresponding refusals of grass short rainy (March to May) and dry (October to February) hay and concentrate mix with bole were weighed and seasons. The average maximum and minimum daily barn recorded daily to determine daily feed intake throughout temperature were 32+1.88°C and 15.5+1.96°C respectively. Inter J Agri Biosci, 2013, 2(6): 377-382.
Milk yield and milk composition
refusal) and concentrate supplement are presented in Daily milk yield for each cow was recorded using Salter suspended balance throughout the experiment. The feed classification of Lonsdale (1989), feed stuffs Thoroughly mixed (morning and afternoon) milk samples having >20, 20 to 12 and <12% protein content and >12.0, were taken using a glass measuring cylinder (100ml 12.0 to 9.0 and < 9.0 metabolizable energy content (MJ/kg capacity) twice during the last week from each batch of DM) are high, medium and low, respectively. Based on experimental dairy cows. The collected sample milk was this classification the concentrate and grass hay which stored in the refrigerator at -20oC pending analysis.
were used to the present study, the concentrate diet was Finally, milk components of milk fat, protein, solids not categorized under medium protein content and high fat and total solids were calculated for the last week of the metabolizable energy while grass hay lower in protein and experiment and 4% fat corrected milk yield (FCM) and medium metabolizable energy category. According to Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) was calculated to Singh and Oosting (1992), grass hay with NDF value of standardize treatment comparisons following the NRC 69.90%, which was used in the present study can be categorized under poor quality feeds while the concentrate FCM (Kg/day) = 0.4 x MY (Kg/day) + 15 x FY (kg/day) mix of NDF value 33.65% categorized under high quality FCE = (Mean daily milk yield) / (Mean daily DM intake) The lower crude protein and the higher fiber content of grass hay which was used in the present study may be Chemical Analysis
Composition of feeds and soil
related to that of the grass hay was harvested after the flowering stage (late cutting) and stayed for a long period All samples of grass hay, concentrate and the mineral of time on field after cutting. According to Adugna Tolera soil were analyzed for dry mater (DM), organic matter (OM), ash and N (Kjeldahl-N) using standard procedures (2008), the grass or legumes which were harvested in the of AOAC (1990). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid vegetative (immature) stage have relatively higher protein detergent fiber (ADF) were determined using the Van and digestible carbohydrate and lower fiber contents, late Soest and Robertson (1985) method. The in vitro organic cutting of hay can also cause a loss of about 20% in matter digestibility (IVOMD) was determined using the procedures of Tilley and Terry (1963). Metabolizable energy (ME) contents of the feeds were estimated from Table 2: Chemical composition, in-vitro organic matter
the percentage of in vitro organic matter digestibility (% digestibility and estimated metabolizable energy of experimental feeds IVOMD) x 0.16 as suggested by McDonald et al. (2002). Calcium (Ca), Na, K, Mg and Mn contents of the soil were analyzed according to Perkins (1982), using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and P was determined using Milk composition was analyzed for fat, protein, solid not fat (SNF) and total solids (TS) percentage using Milko Scan (Ultra Milk analyzer, Milkana Kam 98-2A, Foss electric, Denmark) according to the manufacturer’s NDF=neutral detergent fiber; ADF=acid detergent fiber; IVOMD= in vitro organic matter digestibility; EME=estimated Statistical Analysis
metabolizable energy ME=0.16 (% IVOMD); Concentrate mixture= noug (Guizotia abyssinica) seed cake (33%), wheat Data on voluntary DM and nutrient intake, milk yield bran (54%), crushed maize grain (10%), ground limestone (2%) and milk composition were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure for RCBD using GLM procedure of SAS (2002). Differences between treatment Mineral Composition of Bole Soil from Central Rift
means were separated using Least significance different Valley Lakes
(LSD). The model used to analyze the treatment effects on The chemical composition of Bole soil on different intake, milk yield and milk composition was: yij = µ + τi + βj + εij parts of Ethiopian lakes and experimental diet are presented in Table 3. Concentration of minerals in Bole Where: yij = an observation in treatment i and block j µ soil from different Lakes reported on different years was different from the current result. The concentration of all βj = the fixed effect of block j minerals except phosphorus within bole soil used for the present study was lower than the report of Adugna Tolera (2008) on the same lake (Lake shala). This might be due RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
to additional mixed of another type of soil, variations during mineral analysis, depth of soil sample taken and/or Chemical Composition and In-Vitro Organic Matter
during sample taken from different body parts of lakes. Digestibility of Feeds
The report of mineral concentration on Lake Abiyata, The chemical compositions and in-vitro organic which was reported by Nega et al. (2006) except K, Na matter digestibility of grass hay (GH) (offered and and Mn was lower than the present study. According to Inter J Agri Biosci, 2013, 2(6): 377-382.
Table 3: Mineral concentration of Bole soil and experimental diets
Table 4: Means of dry matter and nutrient intake of lactating Holstein cows fed on different levels of bole soil with hay and
Nutrient intake, kg/d Ash 1.23b 1.37a 1.23b 1.22b 0.005 * CPI
Table 5: Means of daily milk yield, milk composition, and production efficiency of dairy cows fed hay and concentrate supplemented
with deferent levels of bole soil
Milk and component yield, kg/d Milk yield Kg/day a,b means in the same row with different superscripts are (*)= significantly different at p<0.05; (**) = significant at p<0.01; SL = significance level; SEM = standard error of mean; ns = not significant T1= 0 % bole in the concentrate; T2= 1.5 % bole in the concentrate; T3= 3 % bole in the concentrate; T4= 4.5 % bole in the concentrate; 4 % FCM=fat corrected milk; SNF=solid not fat; TS = total solid; FCE (FCM/TDMI) = feed conversion efficiency (ratio of FCM to total DM intake); SNF = solid not fat; TS = total solid (Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993) soil pH classification difference intake of both NDF and ADF among treatments soils having >9.0 pH are categorized under very strongly may be due to the different intake of grass hay. alkaline. Based on this classification bole soil used to the Daily intake of metabolizable energy (MEI) were not present study was categorized under very strongly significantly different (P<0.05) between treatments. Compared to the daily requirement of metabolizable energy among treatments for lactating dairy cows Dry Matter and Nutrients Intake
calculated based on their average milk yield, fat and solid Means of dry matter and nutrient intake are presented not fat yield for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were numerically in Table 4. Daily grass hay intake of animals in T1, T3 different 24.77, 30.88, 28.47 and 24.63 MJ/d respectively. and T4 were lower than T2. Daily mean concentrate The ratio of forage to concentrate consumed of the present intake was not statistically different (P>0.05) among study were 66:34, 66:34, 63:37 and 66:34 for diets of T1, treatments. Average daily total dry matter intake (TDMI) and ash (kg/d) were significantly different (P<0.05) Total dry matter intake of the present study was in among treatments. Cow’s fed on T2 (1.5% bole) had line with the report of other authors conducted on mineral consumed higher (14.03 kg/d) dry matter than T1, T3 and intake. According to the report of NRC (2001) dry matter T4. The difference in ash intake between treatments may intake respond over a range of dietary sodium be the level of bole intake increases, which affects and concentrations (0.11 to 1.20 percent, dry basis) were reduced the total dry matter intake. Dietary treatments did curvilinear, with maximum performance at 0.70 to 0.80 not affect crude protein (CP) intake (P>0.05) among percent sodium, dry basis. Therefore, on the report of the present study cows at T2 respond a better dry matter The intake of NDF and ADF were significantly intake than the other treatments. Therefore, the difference (P<0.05) different among treatments. Intake of both NDF in total DMI among diets on the present study might be and ADF of T2 were significantly higher (P<0.05). The related with the level of mineral intake of sodium. This is Inter J Agri Biosci, 2013, 2(6): 377-382.
not only the reason for the difference on DMI, which cows at 4.5% of the soil produced lower milk than the non might be also related with body size, amount of supplemented animals. Generally, supplementing 1.5% of concentrate supplement, production level and specially bole soil with concentrate diet is one of the strategies to improve dry mater intake and milk composition of Holstein Friesian cows, and used as a mineral supplement Milk Yield and Milk Composition
for lactating dairy cows. Based on this information, it is Results of the effect of different levels of Bole soil on recommended that the government should give due daily milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows are attention for bole soil as a mineral supplement for dairy shown in Table 5. Daily milk yield were not significantly development improvement strategy and further researches (P>0.05) different among treatments. However, 4% fat on buffering capacity of bole soil on rumen environment, corrected milk (FCM) was calculated and significantly replacement ability of bole soil by commercial minerals different (P<0.01) among treatments. Animals on T2 and and intake of bole soil on milk mineral composition T3 tended to have higher FCM than the other treatments; numerically T4 recorded lowered both actual milk yield and FCM than the controlled group. Treatment effects on REFERENCES
milk component showed that, milk fat content were significantly (P<0.05) different between treatments. Adugna Tolera, 2008. Feed resources and feeding However, milk protein, solid not fat and total solid content management: A manual for feedlot operators and were not significantly (P>0.05) different among development workers. SPS-LMM Program. Addis Supplemented of bole soil on feed conversion AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists). efficiency (FCE) were significantly (P<0.05) difference 1990. Official methods of analysis. 16th edition. among treatments. Lactating cows on T3 were able to produce more milk (P<0.05) from the same amount of CSA (Central Statistic Authority), 2011. Ethiopian DM consumed as compared to the other treatments. Agricultural Sample Survey: Report on Area and Results of the present study were agreed with Nega et Production of Crop, Result at country level. Central al. (2006) the milk yield of lactating dairy cows was not Statistics Authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Vol. I significantly different by supplementing the natural mineral soil (Bole). Nega et al. (2006) also evaluated that Lawrence D Muller, 2012. Dietary Minerals for Dairy animals fed a concentrate diet supplemented with cotton Cows on Pasture. Penn State University Washington, seed cake (CSC), bole or the combination of CSC and bole increased milk fat content by about 11.1%, 12.5% Lonsdale C, 1989. Raw materials for animal feed and 11.1% respectively, than the control diet. The author compounders and farmers. Chalcombe Publications suggested for the increment of milk fat content was probably bole soil might have a buffering effect on the McDonald AA, RA Edwards, JFD Greenhalgh and CA rumen environment, which resulted in the decreased Morgan, 2002. Book of Animal Nutrition. 6th ed. ruminal propionic acid production and increase the ratio Pearson education (Singapore) Pte Ltd, India. of acetic acid to propionic acid in favor of milk fat yield Nega Tolla, Pravee Vijchulata, Pornsri Chairatanayuth and Suwapong Sawsdiphanich, 2006. Milk yield and According to the report of MacDonald et al. (2002), milk compositions of lactating cows fed hay and changes in fat content are erratic but crude protein shows concentrate supplement with/without cottonseed cake little change. Inclusion of the same level of 3% bole with and/or Bole (Lake Soil). Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 40: concentrate on the effect of milk fat and total solid to the present study 15.75 and 5.29%, respectively was higher NRC (National Research Council), 1989. Nutrient 11.14 and 4% respectively than the report of Nega et al. Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 6th revised edition. (2006) as compared to the control group. The difference National Academic press, Washington, DC, USA. report might be due to the difference in metabolizable energy intake and intrinsic factors like level of production, NRC (National Research Council), 2001. Nutrient parity, stage of lactation, external factors like Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th revised edition. environmental stress, unequal intervals between milking National Academic press, Washington, DC, USA. NRC (National Research Council), 2005. Mineral Conclusion and recommendations
Tolerance of Animals: 2nd revised edition. Natl Acad The overall results of the present study revealed that cheap and locally available Bole (Lake) soil is one of the Perkin E, 1982. Analytical Methods for Atomic mineral containing soils, which predominantly contains Absorption Spectrophotometry. Perkin Elmer essential minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na and Mn. Supplementing bole soil with concentrate at 1.5% Rogers JA, CL Davis and JH Clark, 1982. Alteration of improves the cow’s total dry matter intake. The soil rumen fermentation, milk fat synthesis and nutrient supplementation affected the milk fat content of the dairy utilization with mineral salts in dairy cows. J Dairy cow without affecting milk protein, solid not fat and total solid contents. However, milk yield is negatively affected SAS (Statistical Analysis System Version 9), 2002. SAS when the soil level supplement is increased, especially Inter J Agri Biosci, 2013, 2(6): 377-382.
Singh GP and SJ Oosting, 1992. A model describing the Zegeye Yigezu, 2003. Imperative and challenges of dairy energy value of straw. Indian Dairyman XLIV: 322- production, processing and marketing in Ethiopia, pp. 61-68. In: Yilma Jobre and Getachew Gebru (eds). Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993. Soil survey manual. Challenges and Opportunities of Livestock Marketing United States Department of Agriculture Hand book in Ethiopia, Proc. 10th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held Tilley JAM and RA Terry, 1963. A two-stage technique in Addis Ababa, August 22-24, 2002. ESAP, Addis for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J Brit Zewdie Wondatir, 2010. Livestock production systems in Van Soest PJ and JB Robertson, 1985. Analyses of forage relation with feed availability in the highlands and and fibrous foods. A Laboratory Manual for Anim BSci, central rift valley of Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis Haramaya 613: 98-110, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris: recent advances Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, July, 2009 by Sanjay Bhambri, James Q. Del Rosso, Avani Bhambri Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder seen in ambulatory dermatology practice. Acne causes significant morbidity and the direct costs associated with it exceed $2.2 billion per year in the United States (U.S.). The pathogenesis is multifactorial, an