Jean-Louis Nandrino a,b , Fabrice Leroy a,b and Laurent Pezard b,c,d (a) UPRES “Temps, ´emotion et cognition”, Universit´e Lille 3(c) Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie c´er´ebrale LENA-CNRS UPR 640(d) Institut de Psychologie, Universit´e Paris 5Address for correspondance: L. Pezard, LENA-CNRS UPR 640, 47 Bd del’Hˆopital, 75651 Paris cedex 13. France. The development of the ma
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Ijprsonline.comInt. J. Pharm. Res. Sci., 2014, 02(1), 42-46. www.ijprsonline.com ISSN: 2348 –0882
Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extract Of Cassia Occidentalis Linn.
Sayyad RR1*, Kare RD1, Jagtap SM1, Katkar ST1, Kadam JH1.
1Department of Pharmacology, SPM’s College of Pharmacy, Akluj, India.
* correspondence author:Mrs. Sayyad R.R.,Assistant Professor,SPM’s College ofPharmacy, Akluj,
India.,Email: [email protected]
there is an increasing demand towards natural The present study was done with the aim to evaluate anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis called as Kasmard in Cassia occidentalis Linn using adult earthworm Sanskrit, Kasondi in Hindi and Coffee Senna in Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations (25, English belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae. It is an 50, 75 mg/ml) of all extracts were tested and results ayurvedic plant with huge medicinal importance.
were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and Leaves of C. occidentalis plant have ethnomedicinal time for death of worms. Albendazole was used as a importance like paste of leaves is externally applied reference standard and gum acacia in saline as a on healing wounds, sores, itch, cutaneous diseases, control group. Dose dependent activity was bone fracture, fever, ringworm, skin diseases and observed in all extracts Cassia occidentalis Linn.
throat infection. The parts of the plant used areroots, leaves and seeds. The plant is used for fever, Keywords:
menstrual problems, tuberculosis, diuretic anemic, liver complaints, and as a tonic for generalweakness and illness. The plant is also used to INTRODUCTION:
cure sore eyes, hematuria, rheumatism, typhoid, asthma, and disorder of haemoglobin and is also widespread infections in humans, distressing a huge reported to cure leprosy. An infusion of the plant population of the world. Although the majority of bark is given by the folklore in diabetes.
infections due to helminths are generally restricted Previous pharmacological investigations showed to tropical regions and cause enormous hazard to that C. occidentalis leaf extracts have antibacterial [6, 7], antimalarial , antimutagenic [9, 10], antiplasmodial  and hepatoprotective  activity. Chemical constituents isolated from C. occidentalis including sennoside, anthraquinone endemic areas. The gastro-intestinal helminthes glycoside,  fatty oils, flavonoid glycosides, galactomannan, polysaccharides, and tannins .
anthelmintic drugs therefore there is a foremost The present study was perform to study the problem in treatment of helminthes diseases. Hence anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia Int. J. Pharm. Res. Sci., 2014, 02(1), 42-46. www.ijprsonline.com ISSN: 2348 –0882
occidentalis on Indian earth worms (Pheretima Albendazole (Glasko Smith Kline) was used as reference standard purchased from local medicalshop, Akluj. Chemicals ethanol (95% V/V) (S.D MATERIAL AND METHOD:
Procurement of plant material:
Preparation of test sample:
The fully mature, fresh leaves of Cassia occidentalis was collected from Akluj city, Solapur dissolving extract to obtain a stock solution of 100 mg/ml, from the stock solution, different workingdilutions were prepared to get concentration rangeof 25, 50 and 75 mg/ml of ethanolic extracts (ECO).
Identification and Authentication:
For present study Albendazole taken as standard drug. The concentration of standard drug was authenticated by Mr.D. N. Kutwal, Professor, Head prepared in 1% gum acacia to give 20 mg/ml of Department of Botany, S.M.M. Akluj and leaves was deposited in the Herbarium of the same Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity:
The evaluation of anthelmentic activity was Preparation of extract of leaves of Cassia
followed by earlier reported method . Three occidentalis:
different concentrations (as given earlier) were prepared and the group of six earthworms which temperature and converted into fine powder with having equal size were released into 10 ml of using blender. 500 gm of dry fine powder was sample with desired concentration in petridish.
suspended in 1.5 liters of ethanol then stirred Observations were made for the time taken to cause magnetically for 24 hours at room temperature. The paralysis and death of the individual worms. Mean extract was double filtered by using musline cloth time for the paralysis in any sort could be observed, and whatmann No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was except when the worm was shaken vigorously. The concentrated to dryness to obtain crude extract. The worms neither moved when shaken vigorously nor dried ethanolic extracts of Cassia occidentalis was when dipped in warm water (500C). Paralysis is stored in desiccators under controlled conditions till assumed to occur when they do not revive even in saline solution. Potency is inversely proportional to Experimental animals:
time taken for paralysis and / or death of parasite.
Anthelmintic activity was evaluated on adult Statistical analysis:
Indian Earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) due its The results were expressed as mean ± SEM anatomical and physiological resemblance with the and statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by intestinal round worm of human beings . The Dunnett’s test, with level of significance set at (Annelida) were collected from moist soil of thefield and washed with normal water and saline 3. Results and Discussion:
solution to remove soil and fecal matter. The Earth In the present work, ethanolic extracts of worms of 4-8 cm in length and 0.2- 0.3 cm in width Cassia occidentalis leaves was used to evaluate were used for all experimental parameters.
anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworms Drugs and Chemicals used:
Pheritima posthuma, Each extract containing 25, Int. J. Pharm. Res. Sci., 2014, 02(1), 42-46. www.ijprsonline.com ISSN: 2348 –0882
isolated from C. occidentalis including sennoside, paralysis ranging from loss of motility to loss of anthraquinone glycoside,  fatty oils, flavonoid response to external stimuli, which eventually glycosides, galactomannan, polysaccharides, and progressed to death. As shown in table no.1 tannins . Polyphenolic compounds shownanthelmentic activity and some synthetic phenolic Table 1: Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic Extracts anthelmentics are shown to interfere with energy of Cassia occidentalis leaves on Indian Earthworms generation in helmintic parasites by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation . Tannins possessantiparasitic activity . Reported anthelmentic Time taken
activity of tannin that they can bind to free protein Time taken
in GIT of host animal or glycoprotein on the cuticle for death
of the parasites and may cause death . It is in minute
possible that tannin contained in the ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis leaves may produce similar effect. From the observation ethanolicextracts of leaves of Cassia occidentalis was showed anthelmintic activity. The function of the anthelmintic drugs, like albendazole, is known tocause paralysis of the worms so that they are expelled in the feaces of man and animals. The extracts not only demonstrated this property, but they also caused death of the worms. Synthetic phenolic anthelmintics, like niclosamide, interferewith the energy generation in the helminth parasites by uncoupling the oxidative phosphorylation.
Another possible mechanism of action is that they bind to free proteins in the gastrointestinal tract of the host animal or to glycoprotein on the cuticle ofthe parasite and by this cause death. Tannins have Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.
also been shown to produce anthelmintic activities . From the observation ethanolic extracts of *p<0.05, **p<0.01 when ECO 25, ECO 50, ECO 75 groups were compared with Standard(Group-II).
anthelmintic activity. After a brief stimulant effect, ECO- Ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis.
earthworm lost their motility of exposure to crude extract of leaves Cassia occidentalis. Ethanolic indicate that the ethanolic extracts of Cassia extract of leaves Cassia occidentalis exhibited occidentalis is the most potent and requires less anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner time to the paralysis and death of the worms.
giving short time of paralysis minutes, and time of death in minutes respectively with 75 mg/ml.
Therefore potency of drug was found to beinversely proportional to the time taken for Int. J. Pharm. Res. Sci., 2014, 02(1), 42-46. www.ijprsonline.com ISSN: 2348 –0882
 Krithikar KR, Basu BD. Cassia occidentalis, concentrations of ethanolic extract produced Indian Medicinal Plants, II edition, 1999,860.
paralytic effect much earlier and necrotic spots were  The Wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian Raw observed externally on the worms, with higher Material and Industrial Products. New Delhi, concentrations. The effect of each ethanolic extract Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, was compared with Albendazole as standard drug  Jain SC, Sharma RA, Jain R, Mittal C.
In conclusion, the traditional claim of leaf of Antimicrobial screening of Cassia occidentalis Cassia occidentalis as an anthelmintic have been L in vivo and in vitro, Phytotherapy Research, confirmed as the extracts displayed activity against the worms used in the study. Further studies are  Saganuwan AS, Gulumbe ML. Evaluation of in required to isolate and reveal the active compound vitro antimicrobial activities and phytochemical constituents of Cassia occidentalis. Animal occidentalis and to establish the mechanism of Research International, 3, 2006, 566-569.
Tona L, Ngimbi NP, Tsakala M, Mesia K, et al.
Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from Using the Pheretima Posthuma as the nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa animal models, we have shown that (ethanolic extract) crude leaves powder of Cassia occidentalis has potential to act against helminthiasis. Moreover, Jafri MA, Subhani MJ, Javed K, Singh S.
the extent of anthelmintic effect of the leaves Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia powder is comparable to that of standard drug, occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl Albendazole being used against helminthiasis, in alcohol intoxification in rats, Journal of general. This observation unambiguously suggests Ethnopharmacology, 661, 1999, 355-61.
that the leaves powder of Cassia occidentalis must Sharma N, Trikha P, Athar M, Raisuddin S. In contain lead compounds that may provide profound implications on designing de novo anthelmintic mutagenicity by Cassia occidentalis and Emblica officinalis. Drug and Chemical Acknowledgement:
The authors wish to express thanks to Mr. D. N.
Tona L, Cimanga RK, Mesia K, Musuamba CT, Kutwal, Professor, Head of Department of Botany, et al. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts S.M.M. Akluj for identification and authentication and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal References:
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Faculdade Frassinetti do Recife (FAFIRE) ólogo/Aluno do Curso de Especialização em Educação Ambiental RESUMO - O presente artigo trata a questão da valorização e respeito à vida, tendo como base a filosofia dos Direitos dos Animais. Busca esclarecer e orientar as atuais e futuras gerações quanto à responsabilidade social de cada um, pois ao ensinarmos uma pessoa a não maltratar um