Area Business & News Media Differ in Use of Social Media Leonard & Finco shares results of Third Annual Social Media Survey For Immediate Release July 20, 2011 (Green Bay, WI) – While the percentage of business and community leaders using social media at work is approaching usage levels seen among local news media members, there remain significant differences in how e
- A |
J |K |
U |V |
Corrected jvpt-10 (04.03.2010)Table 1
Pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep given ceftizoxime alone (Group I) and meloxicam co-treatment (Group II).
* P<0.05; **P<0.01Group I, Only Ceftizoxime; Group II: Ceftizoxime + MeloxicamA, zero time drug concentration at distribution phase; B, zero time drug concentration at elimination phase; α, regression coefficient fordistribution phase; β, regression coefficient for elimination phase; Cp 0, theoretical zero time plasma drug concentration; t α, half life of distribution phase; t β, half life of elimination phase; AUC, area under the plasma concentration curve; MRT, mean residual time ; Cl total , volume of distribution in total area under curve; K rate of drug diffusion from peripheral to central compartment; K , rate of drug diffusion from the central to peripheral compartment; K / K , elimination rate constant from central compartment; P/C, drug concentration ratio in peripheral/central compartment.
Distribution of drug begins, as soon as it enters suggested that higher CZX concentration was present in to blood circulation and it is completed when the drug has peripheral compartment of animals given CZX alone. This reached all possible sites. Obviously, volume of distribution may be due to reduced tissue distribution of CZX in meloxicam co-treated animals. However, the mean values properties of the drug. In the present study, Vd of P/C ratio of CZX observed in the present investigation II was lower than group I. It may be possible that were much lower than P/C ratio for ceftriaxone in buffalo administration of meloxicam along with CZX affected the distribution of drug and most of the drug (CZX) remained From the present study, it can be concluded that in systemic circulation and was not transferred in other meloxicam co-treatment enhances the plasma body fluids. Probencid co-treatment was reported to alter concentration of CZX possibly by reducing its tissue the pharmacokinetics of CZX (Le Bel et al., 1983). It distribution. However, meloxicam administration has no increased area under the serum concentration time curve effect on half life of CZX. Further studies are required to by 49%. In the present study also, AUC of CZX was about elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind present 22% higher in animals co-treated with meloxicam in comparison to animals given CZX alone.
In the present study Cl was lower in group II REFERENCES
animals. Value of Cl depends on rate of blood flow and Ahangar, A.H. and Srivastava, A.K. (2000).
concentration of drug. Therefore, it may be possible that Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in febrile administration of meloxicam along with CZX might have crossbred bovine calves. Indian J. Pharmacol. 32:
decreased hepatic blood flow. However, in a study, Lode et al. (1983) observed much higher value of Cl Baggot, J.D. (1977). Principles of drug disposition in (151.00±33.00 ml/kg/min) for CZX in man than that observed domestic animals. In: The Basis of Veterinary in the present study. This may be due to multiple doses of Clinical Pharmacology, 1st Edn. W.B. Saunders CZX given in that experiment as well as species variation Dardi, M.S., Sharma, S.K. and Srivastava, A.K. (2005).
The P/C ratio observed in the study indicated that the distribution of the drug to various tissues in both groups ceftriaxone in E coli Lipopolysaccharide induced were sufficient to combat the infection (Ahangar et al., fever in buffalo calves. J. Vet. Sci. 6: 147-150.
2000). Comparatively higher value of P/C ratio in group I Deleforge, J., Thomas, E., Davot, J.L. and Boisrame, B.
24 Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology/December 2009/Vol.8/Issue 1-2/22-25 (1994). A field evaluation of the efficacy of Raoff-Jr, W.W. and Sams, R.A. (1985). Pharmacokinetics tolfenamic acid and oxytetracycline in the and bioavailability of cephalothin in horses and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. J. Vet. mares. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46: 2085-2090.
Pharmacol. Ther. 17: 43-47.
Richards, D.M. and Heel, R.C. (1985). Ceftizoxime: A Dumka V.K., Singh, H. and Srivastava, A.K. (2008).
review of its antibacterial activity pharmacokinetic Disposition kinetics and urinary excretion of properties and therapeutic use. Drugs. 29: 281-
levofloxacin on concomitant administration with meloxicam in crossbred calves. Environ. Toxicol. Rule, R., Lacchini, R., Quiroga, G., Moreno, L-de and Phar. 26: 56-60.
Buschiazzo, P. (2000). Pharmacokinetics and Euller-Ziegler L. and Velicitat, P. (2001). Meloxicam : A penetration into tissue fluid of ceftizoxime in review of its pharmacokinetics, efficacy and normal and hyperthermic sheep. Small Ruminant tolerability following intramuscular administration. Res. 37: 43-49.
Inflamm. Res. 50: S5 –S9.
Shakthidevan, R. K., Jha, K. C., Das, S. K., Chatterjee, Facca, B., Frame, B. and Triesenberg, S. (1998).
U. S., Chakraborty, A. K. and Mandal, T. K. (2005).
Population pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime Effect of induced surgical stress and acute renal administered by continuous infusion in clinically failure on disposition kinetics of ceftizoxime in ill adult patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemoth.
goats. Indian J. Pharmacol., 37(3): 186-188.
Shukla, M., Singh, G., Sindhura, B.G., Telang, A.G., Rao, LeBel, M., Paone, R. P. and Lewis, G. P. (1983). Effect of G.S. and Malik, J.K. (2007). Comparative plasma probencid on the pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime.
pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in sheep and Antimicrob. Chemoth. 12 : 147-156.
goats following intravenous administration. Comp. Lode, H., Warns, H., Kemmerich, B., Knothe, H. and Biochem. Phy. C. 145: 528-532.
Koeppe, P. (1983). Pharmacokinetics of multiple Singh, R., Chaudhary, R.K. and Dumka V.K. (2008).
doses of ceftrizoxime and their influence on fecal Influence of paracetamol on the pharmacokinetics flora. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 116-121.
and dosage regimen of ceftizoxime in crossbred Muller, F.O., Middle, M.V., Schall, R., Terblanche, J., calves. Israel J. Vet. Med. 63: 72-76.
Hundt, H.K.L. and Groenewoud, G. (1997). An Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical evaluation of the interaction of meloxicam with Methods, 9th edn., Iowa State Univ. Press, frusemide in patients with compensated chronic cardiac failure. Brit. J. Clin. Pharmaco. 44: 393-
Ziv, G. (1992). Treatment of peracute and acute mastitis.
In: Hinchcliff, K.W., Jernigan, A.D. (Eds.), The Notari, R.E. (1980). Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Veterinary Clinics of North America- Applied Pharmacokinetics, 3rd edn, Marcel Dekkar, I.N.C., Pharmacology and Therapeutics II. W.B. Saunders Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology/December 2009/Vol.8/Issue 1-2/22-25
COAMATIC® Protein C - 82 2098 63 ENGLISH - Insert revision 12/2002 Intended use Specimen collection Calculation This kit is for the quantitative determination of Protein C activity in human citrated plasma. Nine parts of freshly drawn venous blood are collected into one part trisodium citrate. Plot the absorbance (A) for the standard samples against their protein C activity on B