Medication Diabetes medications are usually needed for people with type 2 diabetes. As time goes by healthy eating and exercise are not enough to keep blood glucose on target. Medication (tablets and / or insulin) are needed in addition to healthy eating and exercise. Together you and your doctor will choose medication most suitable for you. Your needs will change over time. The longer yo
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Untitled-2J. Dairying, Foods & H.S., 27 (3/4) : 244 - 246, 2008
STUDIES OF DIETARY PATTERN AND STYLE OF LIVING
OF DIABETIC PATIENTS
Reeta Dwivedi* and Pushpa Shukla
Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India ABSTRACT
Thirty diabetic subjects were selected aged between 39-59 years (24 males and 6 females) to
study the general profile, diet pattern, history of disease, type of medicinal treatment taken, blood
glucose level and type of exercise performed by the subjects. The dietary pattern of the subjects
was assessed through twenty four hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. Of the total, 50
per cent subjects belonged to small families. 83.33 per cent were independent and doing job. The
average frequency of taking meal was 2.77 times a day. Only 26.67 per cent subjects were having
family history of disease. Most of the subjects were taking ayurvedic medicines. Out of the total,
23.33, 10.00 and 6.67 per cent subjects were tobacco chewers, smokers and both tobacco chewers
and smokers, respectively. Thus, nutrition and health status of diabetics are associated with
various such factors like family size, income, physical activity etc.
hills. A total of 30 diabetic subjects (24 males Diabetes mellitus is a complex multifactor and 6 females) aged between 39-59 years, were prevalence approaching nearly 20 per cent which elicit information on various aspects like general is the highest in the world (Park, 2000). It is profile, diet profile, medicinal treatment including projected that the disease prevalence will be 4.5 blood glucose level and type of exercise performed per cent by the year 2025, with global diabetic population reaching 300 million. Of which, nearly 77 per cent of the global burden of disease frequency questionnaire were used to assess the is projected to occur in the developing countries dietary intake of these subjects. Information was (Park and Park, 2000). According to the World collected on regular consumption of any type of Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence in dietary supplements in the period of study.
developing countries is due to the adoption of Anthropometric measurements of the subjects western life style, smoking, high fat diet and lack such as height, weight were taken as per methods given by Jelliffe (1996). Other information like use of tobacco or smoking was also collected.
out the diet pattern, history of disease, medicinal The information was obtained personally from treatment and type of exercise performed by the the diabetic subjects. Data were tabulated and diabetic subjects, which can serve as a basis for statistically analyzed for mean, range, percentage forming appropriate nutrition education strategies RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Per cent distribution of subjects according The study was conducted in the residential to family size and occupation is given in Table conlonies of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture 1. Under family size, they were classified into and Technology, Pantnagar which comes in the three groups- (i) 1-4 members as small family, Tarai belt of Shivalik range of Himalaya foot- (ii) 5-7 members as medium size family and * Department of Foods and Nurtition, College of Home Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara - 390 002, Table 1. Per cent distribution of subjects according
Table 2. Per cent distribution of subjects according
Figure 2 shows the distribution of diabetic subjects according to age. It was evident from the study that average age of diabetics was 50.77 years. According to Rao et al. (1989), a 6.1 per (iii) > 7 members as large family. Fifty per cent cent prevalence rate has been reported among of subjects had small family size. Majority of 40 years old people which rose to 13.33 per cent subjects (83.33 per cent) were independent.
in the age group of 50-59 years. In urban area prevalence rate has been reported as 2.5 per cent retired, businessmen and labour while rest 76.67 where as in rural area it was 1.5 per cent per cent were doing job. Most of the subjects were belonging to the middle income group strata. Data revealed that 17 subjects were vegetarian and rest of them was non-vegetarian.
The average frequency of taking meal was 2.77 times a day. This is due to their job pattern.
cooking medium by most of the subjects. The average precautions taken by the subjects were as according to Table 2. The specific foods which were taken to reduce the sugar level were – karela, Fig. 2. Distribution of diabetic subjects according to age
bajara, black-berry powder, methi dana. The common food preparations included in the daily diabetics was 66.86 kg and it ranges from 46- diet of subjects were tea, pulses, vegetable, 106 kg weight. The height of the subjects ranged from 4 feet 11 inches to 6 feet. Average height was 5 feet 5 inches. It was found that 26.67 per cent subjects were having family history of this particular disease while rest of them (73.33 per cent) had no history of this disease. Average duration of disease was found to be 8.1 years.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of diabetic subjects according to duration of disease. Most of the subjects were having high blood pressure and heart problems. Diabetic subjects are known to be at high risks for the development of coronary Fig. 1. Distribution of diabetic subjects according to
Most of the subjects (73.33 per cent) were walk was taken by them. It was noted that 23.33 taking ayurvedic medicines, 16.67 per cent per cent subjects were tobacco chewers, 10 per allopathic and rests of them were taking both cent were smokers and 6.67 per cent were both ayurvedic and allopathic treatment. Among smokers and tobacco chewers while rest of them ayurvedic medicines, cheraita, madhumehahari, were neither smokers nor tobacco chewers.
diavarid, panirdodi, mersinia, diabieon tablet and diabecon were commonly taken by the subjects.
can be concluded that nutrition and health status Among allopathic, olaonil, glynase, glycor-C of diabetic patients were affected by parameters pioglar, amaril, glized-M, digitraco, K-cor, glycol- like family size, per capita income, physical 080, M-sil-2-MG were taken. some patients were activity, daily intake of nutrients, regular exercise controlling their blood sugar level by diet and pattern, chewing or smoking habits and type of exercise without taking any medicinal treatment.
In all cases, blood glucose level was higher advancing age became more vulnerable to this than normal. The average frequency of urination disease which was associated with other diseases/ of the subjects was found to be 1.5 times in the problems. Thus some preventive, curative and night. Majority of the subjects (70 per cent) were rehabilitating programmes were required to taking exercise regularly. Morning and evening REFERENCES
Haffner, S.M. (1997) Diabetes Complications, March-April. 11(2):69-76.
Jelliffe, D.B. (1966) In: Assessment of Nutritional Status of Community. WHO, Geneva, pp.10-70.
Park, T.D. (2000) Learning to eat scientifically. The Hindu; 11:7-8.
Park, K. and Park, T. (2000) Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 16th edition. Pub. Banareasidas Bhanot.
Ramachandran, A. et al. (1992) Diabetes Care. 15:1348-1355.
Rao, P.V. et al. (1989) Diabetes Res. Clinical Practice. 7(1):29-31.
Combination warfarin-asa therapy: which patients should receive it, which patients should not, and why?
Contents lists available at ScienceDirectj o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / t h ro m re sCombination warfarin-ASA therapy: Which patients should receive it, which patientsDepartment of Medicine, McMaster University and St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, CanadaCombination warfarin-ASA therapy is currently used in approximately 800,000 patients in