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Morleyevans.comIn patients with Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb hyperlipoproteinemia pooled from 24 controlled trials, the median (25thand 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline in HDL-C for atorvastatin 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg were 6.4 (-1.4, 14),8.7 (0, 17), 7.8 (0, 16), and 5.1 (-2.7, 15), respectively. Additionally, analysis of the pooled data demonstrated consistent Lipitor®
and significant decreases in total-C, LDL-C, TG, total-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C.
In three multicenter, double-blind studies in patients with hypercholesterolemia, Lipitor was compared to other HMG- CoA reductase inhibitors. After randomization, patients were treated for 16 weeks with either Lipitor 10 mg per day or afixed dose of the comparative agent (Table 2).
TABLE 2. Mean Percent Change From Baseline at End Point
(Double-Blind, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trials)
Lipitor® (atorvastatin calcium) is a synthetic lipid-lowering agent. Atorvastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis.
Atorvastatin calcium is [R-(R*, R*)]-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-b, d-dihydroxy-5-(1-methylethyl)-3-phenyl-4-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-1H-pyrrole-1-heptanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1) trihydrate. The empirical formula of atorvastatin calcium is (C H FN O ) Ca•3H O and its molecular weight is 1209.42. Its structural formula is: 1 A negative value for the 95% Cl for the difference between treatments favors atorvastatin for all except HDL-C, for which a positive value favors atorvastatin. If the range does not include 0, this indicates a statistically significant difference.
Significantly different from lovastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05 b Significantly different from pravastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05 c Significantly different from simvastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05 Atorvastatin calcium is a white to off-white crystalline powder that is insoluble in aqueous solutions of pH 4 and below. Atorvastatin calcium is very slightly soluble in distilled water, pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, and acetonitrile, slightly The impact on clinical outcomes of the differences in lipid-altering effects between treatments shown in Table 2 is not soluble in ethanol, and freely soluble in methanol.
known. Table 2 does not contain data comparing the effects of atorvastatin 10 mg and higher doses of lovastatin, Lipitor tablets for oral administration contain 10, 20, or 40 mg atorvastatin and the following inactive ingredients: cal- pravastatin, and simvastatin. The drugs compared in the studies summarized in the table are not necessarily inter- cium carbonate, USP; candelilla wax, FCC; croscarmellose sodium, NF; hydroxypropyl cellulose, NF; lactose monohy- drate, NF; magnesium stearate, NF; microcrystalline cellulose, NF; Opadry White YS-1-7040 (hydroxypropylmethyl- In a large clinical study, the number of patients meeting their National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, titanium dioxide); polysorbate 80, NF; simethicone emulsion.
Panel (NCEP-ATP) II target LDL-C levels on 10 mg of Lipitor daily was assessed. After 16 weeks, 156/167 (93%) of CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
patients with less than 2 risk factors for CHD and baseline LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL reached a target of ≤160 mg/dL; 141/218(65%) of patients with 2 or more risk factors for CHD and LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL achieved a level of ≤130 mg/dL LDL-C; and Mechanism of Action
21/113 (19%) of patients with CHD and LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL reached a target level of ≤100 mg/dL LDL-C.
Atorvastatin is a selective, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3- Hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV)
hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols, including cholesterol. Cholesterol andtriglycerides circulate in the bloodstream as part of lipoprotein complexes. With ultracentrifugation, these complexes The response to Lipitor in 64 patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia treated across several clinical trials is shown in separate into HDL (high-density lipoprotein), IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), the table below. For the atorvastatin-treated patients, median (min, max) baseline TG level was 565 (267-1502).
and VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) fractions. Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol in the liver are incorporated intoVLDL and released into the plasma for delivery to peripheral tissues. LDL is formed from VLDL and is catabolized pri- TABLE 3. Combined Patients With Isolated Elevated TG:
marily through the high-affinity LDL receptor. Clinical and pathologic studies show that elevated plasma levels of total Median (min, max) Percent Changes From Baseline
cholesterol (total-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) promote human atherosclerosis and arerisk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, while increased levels of HDL-C are associated with a decreased In animal models, Lipitor lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in the liver and by increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell-surface toenhance uptake and catabolism of LDL; Lipitor also reduces LDL production and the number of LDL particles. Lipitor reduces LDL-C in some patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a population that rarelyresponds to other lipid-lowering medication(s).
A variety of clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, LDL-C, and apo B (a membrane complexfor LDL-C) promote human atherosclerosis. Similarly, decreased levels of HDL-C (and its transport complex, apo A) are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovas-cular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-C and LDL-C, and inversely with the level of HDL-C.
Lipitor reduces total-C, LDL-C, and apo B in patients with homozygous and heterozygous FH, nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. Lipitor also reduces VLDL-C and TG and produces variable increasesin HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1. Lipitor reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, TG, and non-HDL-C, and increases Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III)
HDL-C in patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia. Lipitor reduces intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol(IDL-C) in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia. The effect of Lipitor on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has The results of an open-label crossover study of 16 patients (genotypes: 14 apo E2/E2 and 2 apo E3/E2) with dysbeta- lipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) are shown in the table below.
Like LDL, cholesterol-enriched triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), TABLE 4. Open-Label Crossover Study of 16 Patients
and remnants, can also promote atherosclerosis. Elevated plasma triglycerides are frequently found in a triad with low With Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III)
HDL-C levels and small LDL particles, as well as in association with non-lipid metabolic risk factors for coronary heartdisease. As such, total plasma TG has not consistently been shown to be an independent risk factor for CHD.
Furthermore, the independent effect of raising HDL or lowering TG on the risk of coronary and cardiovascular mor-bidity and mortality has not been determined.
Atorvastatin as well as some of its metabolites are pharmacologically active in humans. The liver is the primary site ofaction and the principal site of cholesterol synthesis and LDL clearance. Drug dosage rather than systemic drug con- centration correlates better with LDL-C reduction. Individualization of drug dosage should be based on therapeutic response (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism
Absorption: Atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; maximum plasma concentrations occur within
1 to 2 hours. Extent of absorption increases in proportion to atorvastatin dose. The absolute bioavailability of atorva-
Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
statin (parent drug) is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is In a study without a concurrent control group, 29 patients ages 6 to 37 years with homozygous FH received maximum approximately 30%. The low systemic availability is attributed to presystemic clearance in gastrointestinal mucosa daily doses of 20 to 80 mg of Lipitor. The mean LDL-C reduction in this study was 18%. Twenty-five patients with a and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism. Although food decreases the rate and extent of drug absorption by approxi- reduction in LDL-C had a mean response of 20% (range of 7% to 53%, median of 24%); the remaining 4 patients had mately 25% and 9%, respectively, as assessed by Cmax and AUC, LDL-C reduction is similar whether atorvastatin is 7% to 24% increases in LDL-C. Five of the 29 patients had absent LDL-receptor function. Of these, 2 patients also had a given with or without food. Plasma atorvastatin concentrations are lower (approximately 30% for Cmax and AUC) fol- portacaval shunt and had no significant reduction in LDL-C. The remaining 3 receptor-negative patients had a mean lowing evening drug administration compared with morning. However, LDL-C reduction is the same regardless of the time of day of drug administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Distribution: Mean volume of distribution of atorvastatin is approximately 381 liters. Atorvastatin is ≥98% bound to
plasma proteins. A blood/plasma ratio of approximately 0.25 indicates poor drug penetration into red blood cells.
Based on observations in rats, atorvastatin is likely to be secreted in human milk (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, 1. as an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with Pregnancy and Lactation, and PRECAUTIONS, Nursing Mothers).
primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa Metabolism: Atorvastatin is extensively metabolized to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxi-
dation products. In vitro inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent tothat of atorvastatin. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active 2. as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV); metabolites. In vitro studies suggest the importance of atorvastatin metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, consistent 3. for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond ade- with increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin in humans following coadministration with erythromycin, a known inhibitor of this isozyme (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). In animals, the ortho-hydroxy metaboliteundergoes further glucuronidation.
4. to reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as an adjunct to other lipid- lowering treatments (eg, LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable.
Excretion: Atorvastatin and its metabolites are eliminated primarily in bile following hepatic and/or extrahepatic
metabolism; however, the drug does not appear to undergo enterohepatic recirculation. Mean plasma elimination
Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be a component of multiple-risk-factor intervention in individuals at increased half-life of atorvastatin in humans is approximately 14 hours, but the half-life of inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Lipid-altering agents should be used in addition to reductase is 20 to 30 hours due to the contribution of active metabolites. Less than 2% of a dose of atorvastatin is a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol only when the response to diet and other nonpharmacological measures recovered in urine following oral administration.
has been inadequate (see National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Guidelines, summarized in Table 5). Special Populations
TABLE 5. NCEP Guidelines for Lipid Management
Geriatric: Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are higher (approximately 40% for Cmax and 30% for AUC) in
healthy elderly subjects (age ≥65 years) than in young adults. LDL-C reduction is comparable to that seen in younger patient populations given equal doses of Lipitor.
Pediatric: Pharmacokinetic data in the pediatric population are not available.
Gender: Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin in women differ from those in men (approximately 20% higher for
Cmax and 10% lower for AUC); however, there is no clinically significant difference in LDL-C reduction with Lipitor Renal Insufficiency: Renal disease has no influence on the plasma concentrations or LDL-C reduction of atorva-
statin; thus, dose adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRA-
Hemodialysis: While studies have not been conducted in patients with end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis is not
expected to significantly enhance clearance of atorvastatin since the drug is extensively bound to plasma proteins.
a Coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular disease (including symptomatic carotid artery disease).
b Other risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) include: age (males: ≥45 years; females: ≥55 years or premature menopause without estro- Hepatic Insufficiency: In patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are
gen replacement therapy); family history of premature CHD; current cigarette smoking; hypertension; confirmed HDL-C <35 mg/dL (<0.91 markedly increased. Cmax and AUC are each 4-fold greater in patients with Childs-Pugh A disease. Cmax and AUC mmol/L); and diabetes mellitus. Subtract 1 risk factor if HDL-C is ≥60 mg/dL (≥1.6 mmol/L).
are approximately 16-fold and 11-fold increased, respectively, in patients with Childs-Pugh B disease (see CON- In CHD patients with LDL-C levels 100 to 129 mg/dL, the physician should exercise clinical judgment in deciding whether to initiate drug treat-ment.
At the time of hospitalization for an acute coronary event, consideration can be given to initiating drug therapy at dis-charge if the LDL-C level is ≥130 mg/dL (NCEP-ATP II).
Hypercholesterolemia (Heterozygous Familial and Nonfamilial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa
Prior to initiating therapy with Lipitor, secondary causes for hypercholesterolemia (eg, poorly controlled diabetes melli-tus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, dysproteinemias, obstructive liver disease, other drug therapy, and alco- Lipitor reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, and TG, and increases HDL-C in patients with hypercholesterolemia holism) should be excluded, and a lipid profile performed to measure total-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. For patients with and mixed dyslipidemia. Therapeutic response is seen within 2 weeks, and maximum response is usually achieved TG <400 mg/dL (<4.5 mmol/L), LDL-C can be estimated using the following equation: LDL-C = total-C - (0.20 x [TG] + within 4 weeks and maintained during chronic therapy.
HDL-C). For TG levels >400 mg/dL (>4.5 mmol/L), this equation is less accurate and LDL-C concentrations should be Lipitor is effective in a wide variety of patient populations with hypercholesterolemia, with and without hypertriglyc- eridemia, in men and women, and in the elderly. Experience in pediatric patients has been limited to patients with Lipitor has not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons In two multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-response studies in patients with hypercholesterolemia, Lipitor given CONTRAINDICATIONS
as a single dose over 6 weeks significantly reduced total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG (Pooled results are provided inTable 1).
Active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases.
TABLE 1. Dose-Response in Patients With Primary Hypercholesterolemia
Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication.
(Adjusted Mean % Change From Baseline)a
Pregnancy and Lactation
Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have littleimpact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol and other products of choles- terol biosynthesis are essential components for fetal development (including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes).
Since HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, they may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women.
Therefore, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are contraindicated during pregnancy and in nursing mothers. ATORVAS- TATIN SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY a Results are pooled from 2 dose-response studies UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnantwhile taking this drug, therapy should be discontinued and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Treatment experience in a pediatric population is limited to doses of Lipitor up to 80 mg/day for 1 year in 8 patientswith homozygous FH. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were reported in these patients. None of these patients HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. Persistent elevations (>3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] occurring on 2 or
more occasions) in serum transaminases occurred in 0.7% of patients who received atorvastatin in clinical tri-
als. The incidence of these abnormalities was 0.2%, 0.2%, 0.6%, and 2.3% for 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg, respec-
Treatment experience in adults age ≥70 years with doses of Lipitor up to 80 mg/day has been evaluated in 221 patients. The safety and efficacy of Lipitor in this population were similar to those of patients <70 years of age.
One patient in clinical trials developed jaundice. Increases in liver function tests (LFT) in other patients were not asso- ADVERSE REACTIONS
ciated with jaundice or other clinical signs or symptoms. Upon dose reduction, drug interruption, or discontinuation,transaminase levels returned to or near pretreatment levels without sequelae. Eighteen of 30 patients with persistent Lipitor is generally well-tolerated. Adverse reactions have usually been mild and transient. In controlled clinical stud- LFT elevations continued treatment with a reduced dose of atorvastatin.
ies of 2502 patients, <2% of patients were discontinued due to adverse experiences attributable to atorvastatin. Themost frequent adverse events thought to be related to atorvastatin were constipation, flatulence, dyspepsia, and It is recommended that liver function tests be performed prior to and at 12 weeks following both the initiation of
therapy and any elevation of dose, and periodically (eg, semiannually) thereafter. Liver enzyme changes generally
occur in the first 3 months of treatment with atorvastatin. Patients who develop increased transaminase levels should
Clinical Adverse Experiences
be monitored until the abnormalities resolve. Should an increase in ALT or AST of >3 times ULN persist, reduction of Adverse experiences reported in ≥2% of patients in placebo-controlled clinical studies of atorvastatin, regardless of dose or withdrawal of atorvastatin is recommended.
causality assessment, are shown in Table 6.
Atorvastatin should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a his- TABLE 6. Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Studies
tory of liver disease. Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to (% of Patients)
the use of atorvastatin (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with ator-
vastatin and with other drugs in this class.
BODY AS A WHOLE
Uncomplicated myalgia has been reported in atorvastatin-treated patients (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Myopathy, defined as muscle aches or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values >10 times ULN, should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. Atorvastatin therapy should be discontinued if markedlyelevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected.
The risk of myopathy during treatment with drugs in this class is increased with concurrent administration of cyclosporine, fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, niacin, or azole antifungals. Physicians considering combined therapy with atorvastatin and fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, immunosuppressive drugs, azole antifungals, orlipid-lowering doses of niacin should carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks and should carefully monitorpatients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during the initial months of DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
therapy and during any periods of upward dosage titration of either drug. Periodic creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations may be considered in such situations, but there is no assurance that such monitoring will prevent the Atorvastatin therapy should be temporarily withheld or discontinued in any patient with an acute, serious condi-
tion suggestive of a myopathy or having a risk factor predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary
to rhabdomyolysis (eg, severe acute infection, hypotension, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine
and electrolyte disorders, and uncontrolled seizures).
SKIN AND APPENDAGES
Before instituting therapy with atorvastatin, an attempt should be made to control hypercholesterolemia with appro- priate diet, exercise, and weight reduction in obese patients, and to treat other underlying medical problems (seeINDICATIONS AND USAGE).
Information for Patients
Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly ifaccompanied by malaise or fever.
The following adverse events were reported, regardless of causality assessment in patients treated with atorvastatin Drug Interactions
in clinical trials. The events in italics occurred in ≥2% of patients and the events in plain type occurred in <2% of The risk of myopathy during treatment with drugs of this class is increased with concurrent administration of cyclosporine, fibric acid derivatives, niacin (nicotinic acid), erythromycin, azole antifungals (see WARNINGS, Skeletal Body as a Whole: Chest pain, face edema, fever, neck rigidity, malaise, photosensitivity reaction, generalized edema.
Digestive System: Nausea, gastroenteritis, liver function tests abnormal, colitis, vomiting, gastritis, dry mouth, rectal
Antacid: When atorvastatin and Maalox® TC suspension were coadministered, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin
hemorrhage, esophagitis, eructation, glossitis, mouth ulceration, anorexia, increased appetite, stomatitis, biliary pain, decreased approximately 35%. However, LDL-C reduction was not altered.
cheilitis, duodenal ulcer, dysphagia, enteritis, melena, gum hemorrhage, stomach ulcer, tenesmus, ulcerative stom- Antipyrine: Because atorvastatin does not affect the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine, interactions with other drugs
atitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, cholestatic jaundice.
metabolized via the same cytochrome isozymes are not expected.
Respiratory System: Bronchitis, rhinitis, pneumonia, dyspnea, asthma, epistaxis.
Colestipol: Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin decreased approximately 25% when colestipol and atorvastatin
Nervous System: Insomnia, dizziness, paresthesia, somnolence, amnesia, abnormal dreams, libido decreased, emo-
were coadministered. However, LDL-C reduction was greater when atorvastatin and colestipol were coadministered tional lability, incoordination, peripheral neuropathy, torticollis, facial paralysis, hyperkinesia, depression, hypesthesia, than when either drug was given alone.
Cimetidine: Atorvastatin plasma concentrations and LDL-C reduction were not altered by coadministration of cimeti-
Musculoskeletal System: Arthritis, leg cramps, bursitis, tenosynovitis, myasthenia, tendinous contracture, myositis.
Skin and Appendages: Pruritus, contact dermatitis, alopecia, dry skin, sweating, acne, urticaria, eczema, seborrhea,
Digoxin: When multiple doses of atorvastatin and digoxin were coadministered, steady-state plasma digoxin concen-
trations increased by approximately 20%. Patients taking digoxin should be monitored appropriately.
Urogenital System: Urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, cystitis, hematuria, impotence, dysuria, kidney calcu-
Erythromycin: In healthy individuals, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin increased approximately 40% with coad-
lus, nocturia, epididymitis, fibrocystic breast, vaginal hemorrhage, albuminuria, breast enlargement, metrorrhagia, ministration of atorvastatin and erythromycin, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 (see WARNINGS, Skeletal nephritis, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary urgency, abnormal ejaculation, uterine hemorrhage.
Special Senses: Amblyopia, tinnitus, dry eyes, refraction disorder, eye hemorrhage, deafness, glaucoma, parosmia,
taste loss, taste perversion.
Oral Contraceptives: Coadministration of atorvastatin and an oral contraceptive increased AUC values for norethin-
drone and ethinyl estradiol by approximately 30% and 20%. These increases should be considered when selecting an
Cardiovascular System: Palpitation, vasodilatation, syncope, migraine, postural hypotension, phlebitis, arrhythmia,
oral contraceptive for a woman taking atorvastatin.
Warfarin: Atorvastatin had no clinically significant effect on prothrombin time when administered to patients receiv-
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Peripheral edema, hyperglycemia, creatine phosphokinase increased, gout,
Hemic and Lymphatic System: Ecchymosis, anemia, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia, petechia.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors interfere with cholesterol synthesis and theoretically might blunt adrenal and/or Postintroduction Reports
gonadal steroid production. Clinical studies have shown that atorvastatin does not reduce basal plasma cortisol con- Adverse events associated with Lipitor therapy reported since market introduction, that are not listed above, regardless centration or impair adrenal reserve. The effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on male fertility have not been of causality assessment, include the following: anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, bullous rashes (including erythema studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, on the pituitary-gonadal axis in premenopausal women multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis), and rhabdomyolysis.
are unknown. Caution should be exercised if an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor is administered concomitantly withdrugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones, such as ketoconazole, spironolac- OVERDOSAGE
There is no specific treatment for atorvastatin overdosage. In the event of an overdose, the patient should be treated CNS Toxicity
symptomatically, and supportive measures instituted as required. Due to extensive drug binding to plasma proteins,hemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance atorvastatin clearance.
Brain hemorrhage was seen in a female dog treated for 3 months at 120 mg/kg/day. Brain hemorrhage and opticnerve vacuolation were seen in another female dog that was sacrificed in moribund condition after 11 weeks of esca- DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
lating doses up to 280 mg/kg/day. The 120 mg/kg dose resulted in a systemic exposure approximately 16 times the The patient should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet before receiving Lipitor and should continue on human plasma area-under-the-curve (AUC, 0-24 hours) based on the maximum human dose of 80 mg/day. A single this diet during treatment with Lipitor.
tonic convulsion was seen in each of 2 male dogs (one treated at 10 mg/kg/day and one at 120 mg/kg/day) in a 2-year study. No CNS lesions have been observed in mice after chronic treatment for up to 2 years at doses up to Hypercholesterolemia (Heterozygous Familial and Nonfamilial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa
400 mg/kg/day or in rats at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses were 6 to 11 times (mouse) and 8 to 16 times (rat) the human AUC (0-24) based on the maximum recommended human dose of 80 mg/day.
The recommended starting dose of Lipitor is 10 mg once daily. The dosage range is 10 to 80 mg once daily. Lipitor CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhages, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration of can be administered as a single dose at any time of the day, with or without food. Therapy should be individualized perivascular spaces, have been observed in dogs treated with other members of this class. A chemically similar drug according to goal of therapy and response (see NCEP Guidelines, summarized in Table 5). After initiation and/or upon in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal titration of Lipitor, lipid levels should be analyzed within 2 to 4 weeks and dosage adjusted accordingly.
dogs in a dose-dependent fashion at a dose that produced plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean Since the goal of treatment is to lower LDL-C, the NCEP recommends that LDL-C levels be used to initiate and assess drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose.
treatment response. Only if LDL-C levels are not available, should total-C be used to monitor therapy.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in rats at dose levels of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day, 2 rare tumors were found in The dosage of Lipitor in patients with homozygous FH is 10 to 80 mg daily. Lipitor should be used as an adjunct to muscle in high-dose females: in one, there was a rhabdomyosarcoma and, in another, there was a fibrosarcoma. This other lipid-lowering treatments (eg, LDL apheresis) in these patients or if such treatments are unavailable.
dose represents a plasma AUC (0-24) value of approximately 16 times the mean human plasma drug exposure afteran 80 mg oral dose.
A 2-year carcinogenicity study in mice given 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant increase in liver ade- Atorvastatin may be used in combination with a bile acid binding resin for additive effect. The combination of HMG- nomas in high-dose males and liver carcinomas in high-dose females. These findings occurred at plasma AUC (0-24) CoA reductase inhibitors and fibrates should generally be avoided (see WARNINGS, Skeletal Muscle, and PRECAU- values of approximately 6 times the mean human plasma drug exposure after an 80 mg oral dose.
TIONS, Drug Interactions for other drug-drug interactions).
In vitro, atorvastatin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the following tests with and without metabolic activation: Dosage in Patients With Renal Insufficiency
the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the HGPRT forward mutation assay in Chinese Renal disease does not affect the plasma concentrations nor LDL-C reduction of atorvastatin; thus, dosage adjust- hamster lung cells, and the chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells. Atorvastatin was negative ment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics).
in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
Studies in rats performed at doses up to 175 mg/kg (15 times the human exposure) produced no changes in fertility.
There was aplasia and aspermia in the epididymis of 2 of 10 rats treated with 100 mg/kg/day of atorvastatin for 3 Lipitor is supplied as white, elliptical, film-coated tablets of atorvastatin calcium containing 10, 20, and 40 mg months (16 times the human AUC at the 80 mg dose); testis weights were significantly lower at 30 and 100 mg/kg and epididymal weight was lower at 100 mg/kg. Male rats given 100 mg/kg/day for 11 weeks prior to mating had 10 mg tablets: coded “PD 155” on one side and “10” on the other.
decreased sperm motility, spermatid head concentration, and increased abnormal sperm. Atorvastatin caused noadverse effects on semen parameters, or reproductive organ histopathology in dogs given doses of 10, 40, or 120 N0071-0155-34 bottles of 5000N0071-0155-40 10 x 10 unit dose blisters Pregnancy
20 mg tablets: coded “PD 156” on one side and “20” on the other.
Pregnancy Category X
N0071-0156-23 bottles of 90N0071-0156-40 10 x 10 unit dose blisters Safety in pregnant women has not been established. Atorvastatin crosses the rat placenta and reaches a level in fetalliver equivalent to that of maternal plasma. Atorvastatin was not teratogenic in rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day or 40 mg tablets: coded “PD 157” on one side and “40” on the other.
in rabbits at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses resulted in multiples of about 30 times (rat) or 20 times (rab- bit) the human exposure based on surface area (mg/m2).
In a study in rats given 20, 100, or 225 mg/kg/day, from gestation day 7 through to lactation day 21 (weaning), therewas decreased pup survival at birth, neonate, weaning, and maturity in pups of mothers dosed with 225 mg/kg/day.
Store at controlled room temperature 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F) [see USP].
Body weight was decreased on days 4 and 21 in pups of mothers dosed at 100 mg/kg/day; pup body weight was decreased at birth and at days 4, 21, and 91 at 225 mg/kg/day. Pup development was delayed (rotorod performanceat 100 mg/kg/day and acoustic startle at 225 mg/kg/day; pinnae detachment and eye opening at 225 mg/kg/day).
These doses correspond to 6 times (100 mg/kg) and 22 times (225 mg/kg) the human AUC at 80 mg/day.
Rare reports of congenital anomalies have been received following intrauterine exposure to HMG-CoA reductaseinhibitors. There has been one report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheo-esophageal fistula, and anal atresia (VATER association) in a baby born to a woman who took lovastatin with dextroamphetamine sulfate during the first trimester of pregnancy. Lipitor should be administered to women of child-bearing potential only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards. If the woman becomes pregnant while Warner-Lambert Export, Ltd. 1998-‘99
taking Lipitor, it should be discontinued and the patient advised again as to the potential hazards to the fetus.
Div of Warner-Lambert Co and PFIZER Inc.
Nursing rat pups had plasma and liver drug levels of 50% and 40%, respectively, of that in their mother’s milk.
Because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking Lipitor should not breast-feed (see Morris Plains, NJ 07950 USAMADE IN PUERTO RICO
Travelling medical kit for Sports Medicine professionals International SportMed Journal , Vol.12 No.3, International SportMed Journal FIMS Position Statement 2011 Guidelines for the composition of the travelling medical kit for Sports Medicine professionals *Professor Wayne Derman, MBChB, BSc (Med)(Hons) Sports Science, PhD UCT/MRC Research Institute for Exercise Science