Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2013; Vol. 3: Issue 1, Pg 34-36 [AJPTech.] ISSN- 2231–5705 (Print) www.asianpharmaonline.org ISSN- 2231–5713 (Online) RESEARCH ARTICLE Dyeing of silk with discarded tetracycline hydrochloride drug Prashant Gangawane1, Dr. (Mrs.) Usha Sayed2 1Research Scholar, Department of Fibers and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical
Bardzo tanie apteki z dostawą w całej Polsce kupic levitra i ogromny wybór pigułek.
Microsoft word - b12_hotr_final.doc
CAUTION: Posting these materials on a website is a copyright violation unless
specifically authorized by MBAResearch.
This comprehensive exam was developed by the MBAResearch Center. Items have been
randomly selected from the MBAResearch Test-Item Bank and represent a variety of
instructional areas. Performance Indicators for this exam are at the prerequisite, career-
sustaining, and marketing specialist levels. A descriptive test key, including question sources
and answer rationale, has been provided the state DECA advisor.
Copyright 2012 by Marketing & Business Administration Research and Curriculum Center®,
Each individual test item contained herein is the exclusive property of MBAResearch. Items are
licensed only for use as configured within this exam, in its entirety. Use of individual items for
any purpose other than as specifically authorized in writing by MBAResearch is prohibited.
Possession of this exam, without written authorization, under any other circumstances is
a copyright violation. Posting to inter- or intranet sites is specifically forbidden unless written
permission is obtained prior to posting. Report violations to MBAResearch at 800.448.0398.
Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 10
D Fraud. A tort is a private wrongdoing against another person. Businesses can be held responsible in a variety of torts. For example, suppose a business's employee intentionally provides misleading product information to a customer in order to make a sale. Then, the customer purchases and is injured by the product based on the employee's misleading information. The customer may file a civil lawsuit against the business, and in some situations, the business's employee for fraudulent behavior. Assault and intrusion are criminal acts that are addressed in the criminal court system rather than the civil court system. Defamation is a tort that involves harm to an individual's or business's reputation. SOURCE: BL:069 SOURCE: McAdams, T., Neslund, N., & Neslund, K. (2007). Law, business, and society (8th ed.) [pp. 248-250, 252-254]. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Administrative. Administrative law deals with the rules and regulations that have been established by governmental agencies. The legislative branch of the government (i.e., U.S. Congress and Canadian Parliament at the Federal level) establishes these agencies, which have the authority to enact and enforce regulations for various administrative functions, including aviation, taxation, and commerce. For example, in the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulates air-transportation functions (i.e., airspace, aircraft safety); the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) handles issues related to personal and business taxes; and the Federal Commerce Commission (FCC) handles issues related to business and commerce. The legislative branch of government introduces and passes statutes. The judicial branch of government (court systems) interprets the law. The executive branch of the government guides government policy, and in some countries, has the power to veto legislation. SOURCE: BL:074 SOURCE: Beatty, J.F., & Samuelson, S.S. (2008). Essentials of business law (3rd ed.) [pp. 88-90]. It is legal for an airline to overbook a flight. Since there are no laws to protect the travel consumer from overbooking, bumping passengers from flights is common when traveling by air. The U.S. Department of Transportation does, however, require that airlines first ask for volunteers to give up their seats in exchange for compensation. This may be in the form of cash or a voucher. The amount a passenger is compensated for lost luggage is subject to negotiation. Most airlines have a ceiling on the amount paid ($2,500/passenger); international travelers are paid $9.07/lb. Currently, there is no international "Bill of Rights." The United States Congress has developed several options for an airline passenger "Bill of Rights," but there is nothing on the law books as of yet (August, 2009). Airlines are not required to pay any compensation for flight delays due to bad weather. SOURCE: BL:135 SOURCE: Travel Images. (n.d.). United States: The rights of air passengers. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.travel-images.com/passenger-rights-us.html#overbooking Retailers. Retailers are businesses that buy consumer goods or services and sell them to the ultimate consumer. Wal-Mart, Domino's Pizza, and Avis Rent-a-Car all sell directly to consumers. Wholesalers are businesses that buy goods from producers or agents and sell to retailers. Agents assist in the sale and/or promotion of goods and services but do not take title to them. Industrial distributors are intermediaries that buy industrial goods and services and sell them to industrial users. SOURCE: CM:003 SOURCE: CM LAP 1—Channel It (Channels of Distribution) Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 11
Hinder competition. Antitrust laws are regulations that prevent a person or company from taking any actions to restrain free trade and competition in the marketplace. Businesses should understand the types of business activities that violate antitrust laws, so they do not engage in them. If a business requires tying agreements or attempts to create a monopoly, it may be violating antitrust laws. The government fines a business when it violates antitrust laws. Actions that restrict efficiency or prohibit authority do not violate antitrust laws. SOURCE: CM:005 SOURCE: Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J., & Stanton, W.J. (2007). Marketing (14th ed.) [p. 402]. Boston: Follow the written directions in the proper sequence. The first step in applying written directions to perform tasks usually involves reading the directions. Employees need to understand the written directions before they can apply them. If employees do not read the directions and apply them in the proper sequence, they may perform the tasks incorrectly. Therefore, reading the directions for understanding and meaning is an important step. The use of shortcuts to complete a task may or may not be included in the manual's written directions. SOURCE: CO:056 SOURCE: Hyden, J.S., Jordan, A.K., Steinauer, M.H., & Jones, M.J. (2006). Communicating for success (3rd ed.) [pp. 125, 134-135]. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western. Sharing and understanding. Sharing means that there must be one who sends the message and one who reacts to it. Understanding means that both sender and receiver grasp the same message. Telling/Informing is a one-way process. All messages have words but meanings are generally not included. Personal beliefs and attitudes determine if you care about a message or not. SOURCE: CO:147 SOURCE: Cheesebro, T., O'Connor, L., & Rios, F. (2007). Communication skills: Preparing for career success (3rd ed.) [p. 2]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Agree on ground rules. Once you know your group's purpose, you can (as a group) lay some simple ground rules for appropriate behavior during the discussion. Finding out what people know about the subject and contributing in a useful way occur later in the process. Volunteering a new idea is a discussion tool for contributing in an open-minded way. SOURCE: CO:053 SOURCE: QS LAP 29—Put In Your Two Cents Speak loudly enough for the audience to hear the message. When making an oral presentation to a group, the speaker should speak loudly enough for everyone in the audience to hear what s/he is saying. If audience members cannot hear what the speaker is saying, they might misunderstand or misinterpret the message. A speaker should try not to turn away from the audience when presenting visual aids and should maintain eye contact with the audience. Because swaying back and forth can distract the audience, the speaker should avoid this type of movement. SOURCE: CO:025 SOURCE: Hyden, J.S., Jordan, A.K., Steinauer, M.H., & Jones, M.J. (2006). Communicating for success (3rd ed.) [p. 95]. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western. Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 12
Preparing outlines. Businesspeople often are expected to write business letters on a regular basis. One technique that helps them to write effective business letters is to first prepare an outline. An outline is a general plan giving only the main points to be covered. Preparing an outline helps businesspeople to decide exactly what they want to say in the letter and to organize their thoughts. Businesspeople then can use the outlines to write effective letters. Businesspeople usually do not ask questions, consult references, or develop charts in order to write effective business letters. SOURCE: CO:133 SOURCE: Bovée, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (2008). Business communication today (9th ed.) [pp. 108-111]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Respond positively. Persuasive messages often ask people to do something, such as buy a product, make a donation, give a speech, etc. To be effective, the message should be written in a way that makes it easy for the person to respond positively and agree to do what is asked. The messages might contain toll-free telephone numbers, an offer to deliver a product for free, or to pick up a donation. People are more likely to respond positively if it is easy to do so. Persuasive messages do not need to be read slowly. The writer of the message organizes it logically. People might politely answer persuasive messages, but the intent is to have them respond positively. SOURCE: CO:031 SOURCE: Hyden, J.S., Jordan, A.K., Steinauer, M.H., & Jones, M.J. (2006). Communicating for success (3rd ed.) [pp. 333-335]. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western. Hiring process. Customer relations skills such as courtesy and friendliness should be emphasized during a business's hiring process. Employees are the most important factor in a business's customer relations. Businesses must hire people who will present a positive “face” for the company to the public. Courtesy and friendliness are not skills that relate to market research, facilities design, or technology planning. SOURCE: CR:003 SOURCE: CR LAP 1—Accentuate the Positive (Nature of Customer Relations) Business process management. A customer-centric business is constantly striving to align its objectives and activities with customer needs. Doing so is known as business process management (BPM). BPM focuses on this alignment by stressing innovation, flexibility, and most importantly, technology. Employee training involves educating workers on how to best perform their job duties. Organizational structuring refers to the way business functions relate within a company. Continuous improvement refers to continuously evaluating business processes to make them more efficient and effective. SOURCE: CR:016 SOURCE: CR LAP 2—Know When to Hold 'Em (Nature of Customer Relationship Management) Define service differently. Customer service involves performing activities and providing benefits which lead to customer satisfaction with the product and/or the business. Channel members, which are all of the individuals and businesses that assist in moving products from the producer to the end user, depend on each other to perform activities leading to customer satisfaction. While it is important to have products when and where they are needed, it is also important to remember that customers often have different ideas about service. For example, one customer may not accept a substitution for a certain item or brand because they are concerned about quality, while another customer may want the item quickly and will accept the substitution. Each customer has different expectations, so each customer defines service differently. Expecting low service levels, wanting immediate delivery, and refusing late shipments are different factors that influence how customers define service. SOURCE: DS:029 SOURCE: Coyle, J.J., Bardi, E.J., & Langley, C.J. (2003). The management of business logistics: A supply chain perspective (7th ed.) [p. 101]. Mason, OH: South-Western. Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 13
Economic goods and services. People purchase both tangible objects (goods) and productive activities (services) in order to satisfy their economic wants. When consumers purchase one good rather than another, they are casting their dollar, or economic, votes for the item they purchased and against the items not purchased. Noneconomic wants are satisfied by free goods—items which can be obtained without spending money. SOURCE: EC:002 SOURCE: EC LAP 10—Get the Goods on Goods and Services (Goods and Services) Free-trade agreements. Free-trade agreements lessen the trade restrictions (e.g., tariffs, quotas, licenses) among countries. For example, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a trade agreement among the United States, Canada, and Mexico that has eliminated trade barriers. When fewer trade barriers exist, there are more opportunities for businesses to buy and sell products in other countries. Protectionism is a government's policy to protect domestic industries and businesses against foreign competition. Protectionism, language barriers, and strict safety standards often hinder a business's ability to enter international markets. SOURCE: EC:104 SOURCE: EC LAP 22—Stretch Your Boundaries (Global Environment's Impact on Business) Analyze organizational resources. Organizational resources are everything the business uses to operate. These resources include tangible items such as equipment and capital, as well as intangibles such as patents and brand names. It is important to analyze the resources that are available in order for businesses to adapt to today's markets. They need to determine if they have the capacity to adapt using current resources. For example, a business might find that it needs new equipment in order to increase productivity and remain competitive in today's market. Businesses do not necessarily need to hire new management staff, participate in international trade, or remodel corporate facilities to be able to adapt to today's markets. SOURCE: EC:107 SOURCE: Longenecker, J.G., Moore, C.W., & Petty, J.W. (2003). Small business management: An entrepreneurial emphasis (12th ed.) [p. 41]. Cincinnati: Thomson/South-Western. Private. A market economy is an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are owned and controlled by individuals and businesses. This ownership is not limited except by the abilities of the individuals or businesses. Government ownership is a characteristic of a command economy. Monopolies in which markets are controlled by single suppliers do exist in market economies, but under controlled conditions. SOURCE: EC:007 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 55). Woodland Participative decision-making. When businesses encourage employees to give input, share suggestions, and take part in decision-making, participative decision-making occurs. Motivation involves giving employees rewards and incentives for being productive. Specialization is the process of making the best use of resources in the production of outputs. Quality of work life is the general conditions in which employees work. SOURCE: EC:013 SOURCE: EC LAP 18—Make the Most of It (Productivity) Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 14
Consumers and producers are borrowing more money. During the growth, or expansion, phase of business cycles, interest rates on loans are low, thereby encouraging consumers and producers to borrow more money in order to make even more purchases. During the peak phase, demand for all resources exceeds their availability. During the peak and the contraction phases, people become less hopeful about the future of business and begin to save more money. Also during the contraction phase, producers reduce their purchase of new goods; instead, they try to sell the goods which are currently in inventory. SOURCE: EC:018 SOURCE: EC LAP 9—Boom or Bust (Impact of Business Cycles) Good for. Not doing things you don't want to do is one way of being responsible to yourself. It is as good for your self-esteem as doing the things that make you feel good about yourself. SOURCE: EI:016 SOURCE: Wallace, H.R., & Masters, L.A. (2006). Personal development for life & work (9th ed.) [pp. 1- 3]. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Prejudice. Prejudice is opinion or judgment that is based on feeling or hearsay, rather than fact. Prejudice often is a cause of discrimination, which is the unfair treatment of a person or a group based on the person's or group's characteristics, such as race, religion, or gender. For example, if an employer assumes that a person in not capable of doing a job simply because that person is a member of a certain race, the employer is guilty of discrimination based on prejudice toward race. Diversity is all the ways in which people differ, including background, age, gender, and race. Stress is a mental or emotional feeling of pressure or tension. Harassment is any kind of behavior toward another person that is carried out for the purpose of annoying or threatening the individual. SOURCE: EI:017 SOURCE: Kimbrell, G., & Vineyard, B.S. (2006). Succeeding in the world of work (pp. 269-270). New Trustworthy. Being trustworthy means that people can rely on you to do what you say you will do. Trustworthy people will not tell anything they have been asked not to tell or pass along rumors that might not be true. An efficient person is one who performs in an effective, organized manner. A straightforward person is direct, open, and honest. A tactful person has the ability to do or say the right thing in any circumstances. SOURCE: EI:022 SOURCE: Clark, B., Sobel, J., & Basteri C.G. (2006). Marketing dynamics (p. 9). Tinley Park, IL: Empathy. Empathy is the ability to put yourself in another person's place. Concern or identification with others can be demonstrated by using appropriate words or facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact. Self-understanding is understanding oneself. Interdependency is the dependence of people on each other. Verbal communication uses words rather than facial expressions, gestures, or eye contact. SOURCE: EI:030 SOURCE: EI LAP 12—Have a Heart (Showing Empathy for Others) Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 15
Bargaining. Bargaining is a negotiating strategy that uses "give-and-take" tactics to reach an agreement. One person gives up something the other person wants and, in return, that person offers something the first person wants. A collaborative negotiating style is most likely to create an outcome that benefits both parties. When both parties benefit, the result is usually fair, rather than unfair. Peer pressure occurs when one person tries to influence another person of equal status to act in a particular way. Most often, peer pressure is used to describe negative types of behavior, such as smoking. Self-control refers to a person's ability to restrain his/her feelings, words, and actions. SOURCE: EI:062 SOURCE: EI LAP 8—Make It a Win-Win (Negotiation in Business) Keep your self-control. Keeping your self-control is sometimes very hard to do during conversations in which you tell people that you are unable to help them now. However, this is a time when it is important to remain calm and not become angry or upset with someone. You don't want to say something that you will regret later. If you feel yourself starting to lose it, take a couple of deep breaths. Count to 10 slowly. These techniques help you to relax. Taking a couple of deep breaths and counting to 10 slowly will not help you to get what you want, become more emotional, or feel superior to others. SOURCE: EI:008 SOURCE: EI LAP 18—Assert Yourself (Assertiveness) Explain how the change will benefit them. A change leader is a person who has the ability to guide others and persuade them to alter their opinions or actions. Because some individuals have a difficult time accepting and making changes, change leaders must be able to explain how a change will actually benefit them. By doing so, the change leader has a better chance of persuading others that a new idea, process, or action will improve a situation. Telling others that there is a better way of doing things (even if it is true) might put them on the defensive and make them more resistant to change. Giving others as little information as possible may make you appear like you are being dishonest, which may hinder your ability to persuade others because they won't trust you. In many situations, facts and statistics aren't necessary or relevant to the proposed change. SOURCE: EI:005 SOURCE: QS LAP 23—20/20 Foresight When Naomi purchased office supplies, she presented the cashier with a card that automatically withdrew funds from her business's checking account. A debit card is a common method of payment for goods and services. Issued by financial institutions (e.g., banks), a cardholder scans the card into a machine at the point of sale. The information is transmitted to the appropriate location, and the funds are electronically transferred from the cardholder's checking or savings account to the seller's account. Credit is the arrangement in which businesses and individuals can purchase now and pay later. Individuals and businesses can obtain the goods and services that they need right away, such as airline tickets, and then pay for the tickets when they receive their statements from their lending institutions. Some businesses offer membership or customer-loyalty cards, which provide their members or customers with product discounts. Gift cards are store-issued vouchers that a gift giver can purchase for another person to use to buy the store's products. SOURCE: FI:058 SOURCE: Kapoor, J.R., Dlabay, L.R., & Hughes, R.J. (2009). Personal finance (9th ed.) [p. 140]. New Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 16
Vacation pay. If individuals receive paid vacation, they are being reimbursed for work done. Child support income is unearned because it is court-ordered. Interest and dividends are unearned because an individual is not required to work for them. Trust disbursements also qualify as unearned income because no work is done to receive them. SOURCE: FI:061 SOURCE: TaxBraix.com. What is the difference between earned, portfolio, and passive income? Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.taxbraix.com/tax-articles/difference-between-earned-portfolio-passive-income.html Provides protection against financial losses. Insurance is designed to protect against financial losses, whether those losses are related to property, health, or even life. Insurance does not protect a person from unethical salespeople or guarantee a solid financial future. Insurance is available to property owners and non-owners alike. SOURCE: FI:064 SOURCE: Williams, F. (2003). Investing for life youth handbook. Madison Heights, MI: National Transparent. When financial information is fully disclosed and is presented in a clear, understandable way, it is transparent. Transparent information is not buried in a document or presented in a way that deliberately confuses the reader. Relevant information consists of data that are helpful to users of the information. Timely information is current or up-to-date. Flexible data are often used in or applicable to different situations. Alana's report may or may not contain flexible, relevant, or timely information. SOURCE: FI:579 SOURCE: BasicCollegeAccounting.com. (2006, November 10). Main qualitative characteristics of financial statement. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://basiccollegeaccounting.com/main-qualitative-characteristics-of-financial-statement/ Accounting information. Accounting is the process of keeping financial records. The accounting information in these records helps managers to make financial decisions that affect the business. The accounting information indicates to managers how much money they can spend for activities, such as hiring more staff. A profit-and-loss statement is an income statement which shows how much money the business has made or lost. Journals are special books or computer programs in which a business's transactions are recorded in the order in which they occur. SOURCE: FI:085 SOURCE: FI LAP 5—Show Me the Money (Nature of Accounting) Interpreted in different ways. Accounting is the process of keeping and interpreting financial records. Because many issues and situations in business are different, it is possible to interpret financial information in different ways. Some of these interpretations may be more ethical than others. In order to interpret financial records in a way that is ethical, it is necessary to consider how others are affected by the interpretation. For example, if investors are hurt by the financial interpretation, it may be unethical. Not all financial records are made available to the public or reviewed by government agencies. Financial records often are communicated in writing; however, this is not why ethics in accounting is important. SOURCE: FI:351 SOURCE: eNotes. (2011). Ethics in accounting. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.enotes.com/business-finance-encyclopedia/ethics-accounting Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 17
Make the right decisions. Finance is the process of obtaining funds and using them to achieve the goals of the business. As a result, employees involved in finance often have many decisions to make that affect the company and its customers. Making the right decisions is often difficult because employees try to do what is best for the company and for customers. Being ethical and having ethical standards to follow often helps employees make the right decisions. The role of ethics in finance is not to encourage employees to increase company profits, sell to customers, or prepare operating budgets. SOURCE: FI:355 SOURCE: Megginson, W.L. & Smart, S.B. (2006). Introduction to corporate finance (pp. 31-32). Mason, Electronically processing information. Human resources management involves gathering and maintaining an enormous amount of information related to employees and their jobs. One way that the use of computer technology benefits human resources management is by electronically processing information. Computer systems are able to store vast amounts of information in databases, allow managers to access and update information when necessary, and organize information according to specific criteria. As a result, fewer employees are needed to process the information and the amount of paperwork is reduced, which saves money for the business. The use of computer technology does not reduce the need to interview candidates or analyze valuable feedback. Departmental managers delegate work and provide their subordinates with feedback. SOURCE: HR:412 SOURCE: Peterson, J. (2010, December 19). The role technology plays in today's human resource management. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://educationforthe21stcentury.org/2011/01/the-role-technology-plays-in-today%E2%80%99s-human-resource-management/ Online industry reports. Secondary information is information collected by others. External secondary information is obtained from sources outside the hotel chain, such as competitors' web sites, government documents, or online industry reports. Guest-registration data or occupancy forecasts are internal sources of secondary information that are collected for one reason and may be used for other purposes, such as for marketing. Suggestion cards that the hotel collects from guests are an example of primary information, which is information collected for the purpose at hand-to obtain feedback about their experiences with the hotel's goods and services. SOURCE: IM:421 SOURCE: Silva, K. E. & Howard, D.M. (2006). Hospitality & tourism (p. 193). Woodland Hills, CA: Free reception for frequent travelers in which feedback is collected. Primary information is collected for the purpose at hand, while secondary information is collected for some other purpose but used to provide insight to the purpose at hand. Automated guest history records, reservation records and registration information, and financial statements provided in annual reports are all examples of secondary information. SOURCE: IM:422 SOURCE: Kotler, P., Bowen, J.T., & Makens, J.C. (2010). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (5th ed.) Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 18
Sequential patterns. When mining data to anticipate behavior patterns and trends, the restaurant should check for sequential patterns in the data. When stored data are used to locate data in predetermined groups, then the relationship of classes is sought. Clusters of relationships are found when items are grouped according to logical relationships or customer preferences. Data can also be mined to identify associations among data. SOURCE: IM:424 SOURCE: Frand, J. (n.d.). Data mining: What is data mining? Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/jason.frand/teacher/technologies/palace/datamining.htm 3.7. The mean is the arithmetic average of the statistical sample. To calculate the mean, first multiply the value of each response by the number of responses (6 x 8 = 48; 5 x 12 = 60; 4 x 16 = 64; 3 x 14 = 42; 2 x 9 = 18; 1 x 6 = 6). Then, add the totals (48 + 60 + 64 + 42 + 18 + 6 = 238), and tabulate the total number of responses (8 + 12 + 16 + 14 + 9 + 6 = 65). Divide the total by the number of responses to determine the mean (238 ÷ 65 = 3.66 or 3.7). SOURCE: IM:416 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 171). Woodland One variable increases as the other variable decreases. The correlation coefficient, r, ranges from -1 to +1. A correlation coefficient of -1 > r > 0 tells the reader that as variable X increases, variable Y decreases. When the two variables tend to increase or decrease together, the correlation coefficient is 0 > r > 1. When two variables do not vary together at all, the correlation coefficient is r = 0. When there is perfect correlation between two variables, r = 1. SOURCE: IM:370 SOURCE: GraphPad.com. Interpreting correlation results. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.graphpad.com/articles/interpret/corl_n_linear_reg/correlation.htm Support report findings. Presentation software is used to produce multimedia presentations that often include slides, video, graphics, sound, color, etc. Because the information contained in reports is often technical or complex, businesses often prepare multimedia presentations to explain and support the report findings. The visual presentation often makes complicated information easier to understand as well as more interesting. The purpose of using presentation software to prepare multimedia presentations is not to use the presentation to maintain customer files, develop web sites, or access online resources. SOURCE: IM:386 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2006). Marketing essentials (pp. 201-202). New Use meaningful comparisons. When the presenter of a research report compares the findings with information previously known by the audience, the presenter helps to make the findings concrete and meaningful to the audience. Providing a bibliography of resources cited may be of interest to the audience, but it does not help them better understand your findings. Calling on the audience to explain their understanding of the research and asking them questions are classroom activities—not something done in the business world. Instead, the audience will ask questions that you should be prepared to answer. SOURCE: IM:391 SOURCE: Center for Applied Linguistics. (2007). Evaluator's toolkit for dual language programs. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.cal.org/twi/EvalToolkit/8who2present.htm Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 19
Service. Service marketing involves the marketing of service-oriented businesses and activities, such as food service. The restaurant is promoting its atmosphere and qualified staff who provide the service. Product marketing is the marketing of goods, such as the food entrees that the restaurant sells. Mass marketing involves appealing to the whole market. Target marketing is selecting specific markets and advertising to them. SOURCE: MK:008 SOURCE: Fisk, R.P., Grove, S.J., & Joby, J. (2008). Interactive services marketing (3rd ed.) [pp. 2-3]. Projecting a certain image. If a company wants the public to perceive it in a certain way, it is trying to project a certain image. Increasing sales, increasing efficiency/ productivity, and achieving stability are all company goals, but they are not necessarily related to how a company wants to be perceived by the public. SOURCE: MK:015 SOURCE: MK LAP 2—Act Now! (Employee Actions and Company Goals) Advertise effectively. The guest-history file contains information such as the guest's name and address, length of stay(s), date of stay(s), method of payment, etc. Knowing the geographic location of its guests allows the hotel to target its advertising and other promotions to those areas. If walk-in guests have never stayed at the property, the hotel would not have a guest history for them. The files also would not help the hotel to stay within the budget or to hire employees. SOURCE: MP:034 SOURCE: Stutts, A.T., & Wortman, J.F. (2006). Hotel and lodging management: An introduction (2nd ed.) [p. 78]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Accessing an Internet search engine. A quick, cost-efficient way to obtain current information is by accessing an Internet search engine. A search engine is a software program that automatically crawls the Web looking for information pertaining to specified search terms and that displays results. Developing a survey does not obtain the desired information unless it is sent out, completed, tabulated, and analyzed. Archived journals can be found in libraries or by accessing online sources, but may not contain current information. Setting up interviews with experts might take time, so this option is not efficient and could be more costly for the hospitality business. SOURCE: NF:078 SOURCE: Google.com. Google search basics: More search help. Retrieved September 25, 2011, from http://www.google.com/support/websearch/bin/answer.py?answer=136861 Many people don't understand what it is. Information management can be a challenge because many people don't understand what it is or what role they should play in it. Many people may want to participate in information management but just do not know how. There is often too much information to manage, something known as information overload. There is no one "right" way to approach information management. SOURCE: NF:110 SOURCE: NF LAP 3—In the Know (Nature of Information Management) Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 20
Information security. Businesses often maintain personal information about their customers, such as credit-card numbers, bank-account numbers, and account passwords. Businesses must take reasonable care to protect and secure their customers' personal information to reduce the risk of fraudulent behavior, such as computer hacking and identity theft. Businesses should develop policies about removing digital information from their facilities. A patent provides legal protection to the owners of inventions. The customers' privacy, rather than employees' privacy, has been compromised in the presented situation. There is no indication that data entry problems exist with the information provided. SOURCE: NF:076 SOURCE: The Associated Press. (2007, July 12). Ohio: Stolen device contains 859,800 ids. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19724250/ Internet companies offering phone service. Digital convergence is the tendency of digital services that were once separate entities to combine into new forms. An example of the Internet offering phone service is Skype. Wireless, bandwidth, and WANS are not examples of digital convergence. SOURCE: NF:086 SOURCE: Bovée, C.L., Thill, J.V., & Mescon, M.H. (2007). Excellence in business (3rd ed.) [pp. 148-150]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Legal. Any lawsuit in which a company is involved requires the business to have legal records. These records can be almost any business document created. Payroll records, asset records, or promotional records may be required in certain legal situations. But in Justin's company's situation, there has been an accidental death of an employee while on the job. This means that legal records should be on hand in case the family sues. SOURCE: NF:001 SOURCE: NF LAP 1—Record It (Business Records) Protecting the environment. The growing concern over the condition of the environment is influencing the way that many companies do business. Businesses that once ignored the damage they did to the environment are now spending billions of dollars to correct the problems and to change the way they operate. Public sentiment is forcing these companies to address environmental issues, such as pollution. The businesses that fail to do their part to protect the environment often anger consumers, which may lead to a loss of sales. The government, rather than business, is concerned with the distribution of wealth. Monitoring the economy is not a new trend but an ongoing business function. Businesses do not regulate government; instead, government regulates business. SOURCE: NF:013 SOURCE: Silva, K. E. & Howard, D.M. (2006). Hospitality & tourism (pp. 30-32). Woodland Hills, CA: Internet web sites. The evolution of the Internet has made it possible for customers to book, cancel, and change their hotel reservations as well as gather information and take a virtual tour of the guest rooms of various lodging facilities. New technology has made it possible for hospitality businesses to track an Internet user's online purchasing habits. The information gathered through the tracking system can be analyzed and used to develop customer relationships via direct marketing efforts (e.g., specials, surveys). Because more people are booking lodging facilities via the Internet, the use of travel agents is decreasing. Satellite roving devices and service rating advisors are not common terms used to describe concepts related to the hospitality industry. SOURCE: NF:048 SOURCE: Thraenhart, J. (1998-2011). The power of the Internet to build customer relationships and increase service levels in the travel and hospitality industry. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.htrends.com/researcharticle13277.html?POSTNUKESID=72dc51685825c427e0e1ccaf6bc93e92 Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 21
Document from being forwarded. Some businesses use software programs that help maintain the security of data they send over the Internet to clients. These programs prevent documents from being forwarded to others so the information does not end up in the hands of competitors. Also, these programs prevent others from copying, editing, or printing the documents which helps maintain the information in its original form. These software programs do not prevent a virus from being downloaded, an attachment from being included, or a search engine from being used. SOURCE: OP:064 SOURCE: Boyce, J. (2011). Help protect confidential information in e-mail using IRM. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/help-protect-confidential-information-in-e-mail-using-irm-HA001180136.aspx Sprain. A sprain is an injury to muscles or joints caused by twisting or tearing of the ligaments. An open wound involves a break in the skin, such as a paper cut. A strain is an injury to muscles or tendons caused by stretching or overexerting. A hernia is an injury in which part or all of a body organ breaks through surrounding tissue and protrudes. SOURCE: OP:009 SOURCE: Brittain, Y. (n.d.). Common workplace injuries and how to prevent them. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.medicalallianceassociation.com/pdf/Common%20Workplace%20Injuries_v4%20final%20B.pdf Firewalls. Malware (malicious software) is an illegal computer program that is used to disrupt computer processes, destroy computer programs, and access confidential business information. Firewalls are types of computer programs that combat these types of dishonest activities and protect a business's digital information. Spyware is a computer program that tracks and captures a computer user's Internet usage habits, e-mail messages, etc. Cookies are text files that are put on a web-site visitor's hard disk and then later retrieved during subsequent visits to the site to track Internet behavior. Shareware is a type of computer program in which computer users can sign up for the software on a trial basis. After the trial expires, the computer user can purchase and register the program, if desired. SOURCE: OP:153 SOURCE: Hanson, W., & Kalyanam K. (2007). Internet marketing & e-commerce (p. 152). Mason, OH: Prepare a budget. Most projects have costs involved. However, before asking everyone you know to make a contribution, it is important to prepare a budget. By developing a budget, project managers will have an accurate picture of what it will cost to do the project. Then, they can ask others for the financial resources to cover the costs. It is not necessary to open an account or arrange for credit before asking for contributions. Holding a fund-raiser is one way to obtain financial assistance after preparing a budget to find out the amount of money that will be needed. SOURCE: OP:003 SOURCE: QS LAP 19—Get What You Need Sponsors. You do not need sponsors to complete your project. Sponsors are not a necessary resource. You do need tools, money, and permission (if required). SOURCE: OP:001 SOURCE: QS LAP 28—From Here to Done Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 22
Inventory of supplies. When businesses use an automatic reorder system, an order for additional supplies is placed when the inventory decreases to an established level. This makes it possible for a business to effectively maintain an inventory of supplies at the right level. The business does not tie up funds by purchasing too many supplies, or risk running out of supplies. Businesses do not use an automatic reorder system to maintain an adequate work environment, budget for expenses, or maintenance system. SOURCE: OP:031 SOURCE: Clark, B., Sobel, J., & Basteri, C.G. (2006). Marketing dynamics (p. 360). Tinley Park, IL: Scheduling. Production scheduling establishes the timetable to be followed in production. Employees responsible for scheduling look at the number of steps in the production process and estimate how long each step will take. They then set times when each step should begin and end, and schedule delivery of the resources that will be needed. Routing is the production activity that determines the sequence for the steps in the production process. Dispatching is issuing orders for production to start. Planning is deciding what will be produced, how it will be produced, and how much of it will be produced. SOURCE: OP:017 SOURCE: OP LAP 4—Can You Make It? (Nature of Production) Give the robbers what they want to avoid potential injury. In order to deal with robbers, it is always best to give in to their demands without causing a disturbance. Robbers want to enter a business and leave quickly, and any startling activity could make them panic and cause employees additional harm. Although it is good advice to keep as little cash on hand as possible to limit losses, it will not impact the actual robbery situation. Keeping the safe locked will also limit losses but, again, doesn't keep the robbery from occurring. As a rule of thumb, employees should not discuss the situation with anyone except management and the police. SOURCE: OP:113 SOURCE: American Bankers Association. (2005). Today's teller: Developing basic skills (p. 150). Medical kit and cellular phone. Medical kits should contain items needed to initiate emergency care (e.g., a splint). Depending on the location of the accident and the extent of the injury, a cellular phone would be useful to call for additional help and transportation of the injured party. A toolbox, flashlight, map, and compass may be helpful but are not the primary items needed for the described situation. Most first-aid or medical kits include nonprescription pain relievers, such as Ibuprofen, rather than medication prescribed by medical doctors. SOURCE: OP:119 SOURCE: Brouhard, R. (2010, November 30). First aid kits: Building and storing your first aid kit. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://firstaid.about.com/od/emergencypreparation/qt/1staidkit.htm Reach their goals. An important step in reaching a goal is identifying the goal and figuring out what needs to be done in order to reach it. Acting independently, achieving financial success, and competing with others are examples of goals that people might set for themselves. SOURCE: PD:018 SOURCE: PD LAP 16—Go For the Goal (Goal Setting) Allows adequate time for personal and professional activities. The use of time-management techniques forces us to take care of important activities immediately, which relieves pressure and tension. It allows more time for rest and relaxation. This will ultimately reduce stress. SOURCE: PD:019 SOURCE: OP LAP 1—About Time (Time Management in Business) Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 23
Write the interviewer a follow-up letter. Expressing appreciation for the interview is just as important when you know you won't get the job as it is when you believe you might be hired. It makes a good impression on the company, puts your name into their files and, in some cases, may make them reconsider their decision. The letter should be written while the details of the interview are fresh in your mind. After that, you might want to find out about training for the skill you lack and to look for a similar job opportunity. There is no basis for filing a complaint in this case. SOURCE: PD:029 SOURCE: Bailey, L.J. (2003). Working: Career success for the 21st century (3rd ed.) [p. 71]. Mason, To be able to promote from within. Many businesses prefer to promote from within whenever possible and help current employees move up the career ladder. To do this, businesses often provide opportunities for their employees to continue their education or receive additional training. As a result, they have a pool of qualified employees to choose from when higher-level jobs become available. This benefits the employees because they can advance within the business. Businesses often provide financial assistance, such as tuition reimbursement, to help employees continue their education. However, that is not the reason for providing the additional training. Businesses do not provide educational opportunities to identify problems in the company or to support the local community college. SOURCE: PD:033 SOURCE: Bailey, L.J. (2003). Working: Career success for the 21st century (3rd ed.) [pp. 480-481]. Obtain sales leads. People who attend trade shows usually have an interest in the goods and services on exhibit. Therefore, they are good sales leads for the companies participating in the show. Companies do not participate in trade shows in order to meet with the competition, although trade shows do give businesses a chance to see what competitors are doing. Visiting new cities and hiring new employees are not main benefits of trade show participation. SOURCE: PD:036 SOURCE: Ninemeier, J.D. and Perdue, J. (2008). Discovering hospitality and tourism: The world's greatest industry (2nd ed.) [pp. 531-532]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Obtain further education and certification. Trade or professional organizations consist of individuals or groups that work within a particular industry. Benefits of belonging to a professional organization include networking opportunities, the establishment of consistent industry standards, trade shows, and venues for members to further their education (e.g., seminars, workshops, classes, certification) within the industry. Continuing education programs can help people keep up with trends associated with their industry. The availability of government funding is dependent on each government's resources and guidelines. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that all governments provide financial support to trade organizations. Joining a professional organization does not necessarily improve or increase employee productivity. Joining a trade organization might help industry members learn about the use of promotion, but it does not necessarily develop the materials or programs for them. SOURCE: PD:061 SOURCE: Tourism Industry Association of Nova Scotia. (2011). Member benefits: Professional development. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.tians.org/membership/member-benefits/professional-development Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 24
A decrease in the number of guests and an increase in the number of rooms available. A decrease in the number of guests occurs during economic slowdowns because people are reluctant to spend their discretionary income on travel. Consequently, there is an increase in the number of rooms available as more rooms become available for rent. An increase in the number of guests and an increase in the number of rooms available does not follow the law of supply and demand, which suggests that as demand for rooms go up, supply typically goes down. A decrease in the number of guests and a decrease in the number of rooms available would work the other way because as demand goes down, the supply of rooms available for rent typically goes up. An increase in the number of guests and a decrease in the number of rooms available typically occurs during good economic times when people are more willing to spend their discretionary income on travel. SOURCE: PD:111 SOURCE: Vallen, G.K., & Vallen, J.J. (2005). Check-in: Check-out (7th ed.) [p. 7]. Upper Saddle River, Price. Price is the marketing element requiring marketers to determine the amount of money they will ask in exchange for their products. In the travel and tourism industry, price is closely associated with customers' perceptions of value and worth. If customers think the travel product has value and worth, they are often willing to pay for it. Also, value and worth differ from customer to customer, so what is value to one customer might not be value to another. For example, some people prefer economy hotels because saving money is a value to them. To other people, receiving many services is a value that they are willing to pay for. Profit is the monetary reward a business owner receives for taking the risk involved in investing in a business. Place is the marketing element focusing on considerations in getting a selected product in the right place at the right time. Promotion is a marketing function needed to communicate information about goods, services, images, and/or ideas to achieve a desired outcome. SOURCE: PI:029 SOURCE: Silva, K.E. & Howard, D.M. (2006). Hospitality & tourism (p. 168). Woodland Hills, CA: Encourage employees to report new product ideas from other restaurants they visit. New product ideas come from a variety of internal and external sources. Some examples of internal sources include personal observation; formal research and development activities; recommendations from corporate, employees, family members, and people who provide professional assistance to the restaurant such as bankers, attorneys, etc. The problem with asking family members for recommendations is that managers might feel that they can't reject bad ideas. Competitors won't recommend new products because they don't want to lose business to others. Although trade associations might suggest ideas for new products, the fact that they're recommending the products to local restaurants would fail to give any one restaurant a competitive advantage. SOURCE: PM:241 SOURCE: Kotler, P., Bowen, J.T., & Makens, J.C. (2010). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (5th ed.) Determine what to buy. Buyers consider customer requests in order to determine whether a profitable market exists for new goods and services. A sales forecast is a prediction of what sales to a target market will be over a specific period of time. Marketing research is the process of collecting, recording, and analyzing data for marketing decision-making. Buyers obtain information about prices, terms, delivery, etc., from several vendors during the process of vendor selection. SOURCE: PM:260 SOURCE: Cash, R.P., Thomas, C., Wingate, J.W., & Friedlander, J.S. (2006). Management of retail buying (pp. 83-84). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 25
Businesses generally buy the item in larger quantities. A business's peak selling season occurs when customer demand for certain goods and services is very high. For example, the demand for beachwear and outdoor furniture is usually highest during the spring and summer months in the northern hemisphere. Therefore, businesses generally try to order these types of items so they have enough on hand to meet demand. Some types of businesses (e.g., resort gift shops) carry similar items need them at the same time, so vendors and manufacturers might need more lead time to fill orders. Although businesses might purchase small quantities of the item on a frequent basis, they run a risk of back-order situations from their suppliers and, therefore, cannot meet customer demand. Although businesses consider competition when marketing products, other factors are often considered when determining the quantity of items to purchase. SOURCE: PM:261 SOURCE: Stutts, A.T., & Wortman, J.F. (2006). Hotel and lodging management: An introduction (2nd ed.) [pp. 181-182]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. A fly-drive vacation package. The main product in the travel and tourism industry is the experience. This experience often includes contact with tangible objects such as airplanes, automobiles, cruise lines, etc. However, what the customer is buying is the actual experience of traveling and visiting destinations. In this example, the fly-drive vacation package is the product because it is what the customer will experience. A brochure explaining cruise options is a promotional piece. Checking on flight schedules and sending confirmation letters are services involved in selling the travel and tourism product. SOURCE: PM:081 SOURCE: Cook, R.A.; Yale, L.J.; & Marqua, J.J. (2010). Tourism: The business of travel (4th ed.) [pp. 80-81]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Educational. Product extensions. A product extension is a good or service added to an existing product line or product category. An example is a hotel chain adding a new line of hotels. Valet service and full-service dining can be found in many upscale hotels but not at an economy facility. A company that owns more than one type of hotel and offers different levels of service or amenities have extensions from the main product (hospitality services). Market potential refers to estimated revenues or income that can be generated from a specific market segment. Franchising is a method of distributing goods and services through a licensing arrangement between a parent company and another individual or company outside the parent company. Multicorporate franchising is not a term used in the hospitality and tourism industry. Property management systems are the central computer or technological systems that a hotel uses. SOURCE: PM:099 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 640). Woodland Advertising. When selecting a vendor, business owners consider the services that vendors offer. Some vendors provide assistance with advertising, either on a cooperative basis or by giving the business promotional materials. Businesses often need advertising assistance and select those vendors who provide the most help. Regulations are an established set of rules rather than a service. Forecasting is predicting the future. Budgeting is estimating what income and expenses will be for a specific period of time. SOURCE: PM:263 SOURCE: Entrepreneur.com. Small business encyclopedia: Co-op advertising. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82096.html Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 26
Podcasts. Podcasts are digital audio and/or visual programs that can be automatically or manually downloaded from the Internet to customers' mp3 players or computers. Customers can then listen to and/or watch the podcasts at their leisure. Hospitality and tourism companies may use podcasts to educate or entertain potential guests while also advertising their organizations' services. Social media are typically networking web sites that rely on users for content. Blogs are online journals containing entries written by a company, individual, or group of people. Ad serving involves advertising to an Internet user while his/her chosen web page is loading onto her/his browser. SOURCE: PR:298 SOURCE: Roberts, M. (2008). Internet marketing: Integrating online and offline strategies (2nd ed.) [pp. 147-148]. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Del.icio.us. Social bookmarking web sites such as Del.icio.us allow subscribers to post, tag, and rank links to articles, blogs, photos, and videos online. Some do so for strictly personal purposes, such as to bookmark web pages, articles, or photos that they would like to access away from home or share with their friends. Other individuals access social bookmarking web sites to search for more “trusted” web sites that focus on a particular topic. Because these individuals may bypass more traditional search engines such as Google and Bing entirely, businesses often post their own web sites and blog entries on social bookmarking sites as well. To improve their chances of being seen on these social bookmarking sites even further, businesses also encourage their web site and blog visitors to tag and/or rank their sites for many different social bookmarking sites. Facebook is a social networking web site, not a social bookmarking web site. SOURCE: PR:325 SOURCE: Roberts, M. (2008). Internet marketing: Integrating online and offline strategies (2nd ed.) Filters. Filters are computer programs that block out unwanted information such as junk e-mail. Some filters only allow e-mails from preselected addresses such as those from friends and family members to pass through. Others don't let e-mails with certain words such as "free" in the subject header enter the inbox. Filters are an obstacle to businesses because they can prevent the delivery of their e-mail messages. Servers, gophers, and queues are not computer programs. SOURCE: PR:165 SOURCE: PR LAP 13—E-Mail as a Marketing Tool Feeling of cheerfulness and warmth. Yellow suggests sunlight, which provides both warmth and cheer. Whether an ad using yellow was very legible would depend upon the color(s) used with it—black on yellow is easy to read. St. Patrick's promotions are traditionally green. A feeling of coolness and quiet is created by blue. SOURCE: PR:123 SOURCE: Squidoo. (2011). Color: Meaning, symbolism, and psychology. Retreived September 26, 2011, from http://www.squidoo.com/colorexpert Color harmonies. The various colors in an ad need to go together, or be in harmony, for the ad to be visually appealing. Color is an important element of an ad because color attracts attention and helps to create a mood. Therefore, it is important to use colors that go together well and create the desired look. Storyboard is the outline of a television commercial. Production costs do not impact the composition of a print ad because composition involves the design of the ad. Dialogue is important in television commercials and radio spots. SOURCE: PR:314 SOURCE: Lane, W.R., King, K.W., & Russell, J.T. (2005). Kleppner's advertising procedure (16th ed.) [pp. 521-524]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 27
Accurate proofs. Digital color is one aspect of digital imaging which involves the development of computer-generated ads and promotional materials and the printing of those materials. Digital color also is a method of preparing accurate proofs that portray the colors exactly as they will appear in the printed piece because the proof is prepared from the same computer file that will be used to print the piece. The concept of digital color is not used to prepare publicity plans, marketing programs, or sales procedures. SOURCE: PR:274 SOURCE: Lane, W.R., King, K.W., & Russell, J.T. (2005). Kleppner's advertising procedure (16th ed.) [pp. 542-543]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Amplified. Word-of-mouth marketing occurs when customers tell others of their satisfaction with a particular business. Amplified word-of-mouth marketing takes place when marketers purposely encourage their customers to share information about a business with others in their community. Clara's Pizza Parlor, for example, deliberately asks visitors to its web site to send information about the restaurant—in the guise of a postcard—to their families and friends. Organic word-of-mouth marketing is another word-of-mouth strategy. Organic word-of-mouth marketing occurs when satisfied customers voluntarily tell people around them about a business that they like, without the business prompting them to do so. Celebrities are sometimes used as a word-of-mouth strategy, but that is not true of this example. Inconspicuous word-of-mouth marketing is a fictitious term. SOURCE: PR:319 SOURCE: Word of Mouth Marketing Association. (2009). WOM 101: Organic vs. amplified word of mouth. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://womma.org/wom101/4/ Factual. There are several strategies that copywriters can use to develop advertising copy. One of these is the factual strategy that involves explaining what a product is, what it does, and how it benefits consumers. Copywriters are using facts to promote the product, such as explaining size or composition. For example, factual copy might state that a cell phone weighs less than one pound, is made of scratch-resistant material, and can be programmed to hold 500 numbers. The imaginative strategy would focus on explaining new and unusual ways to use a product. The emotional strategy appeals to consumers on a personal level and focuses on their feelings, such as love and loyalty. The emotional strategy also includes an irrational appeal rather than a factual appeal. SOURCE: PR:126 SOURCE: Lane, W.R., King, K.W., & Russell, J.T. (2005). Kleppner's advertising procedure (16th ed.) [pp. 493-496]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. RU hngry? thN stop by Pete's <) 4 a fre slice. 2day 1ly. CU sn. Although text messaging abbreviations are typically avoided in mobile ad copy, there are times when they are appropriate. For instance, if a restaurant's target market is teenagers, then it might send a mobile ad to teenagers in "their" language—text messaging lingo. Teenagers are more likely to respond to a message that uses the same abbreviations that they do rather than writing out every word in what becomes a very long message. While shorter messages are better, "Pete's Pizza. Free slice." is too short to give the ad recipients all of the information that they need, such as the fact that the offer is only good today. SOURCE: PR:318 SOURCE: Lingo 2 Word. (2001-2011). Translate to text message lingo. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.lingo2word.com/translatetxt.php?searcher1=word&tosearch1=Create+Cool+Text+Messages+,+Just+Type+Your+Message+in+the+left+box Correct any errors. The proof shows the advertiser exactly the way that the ad will appear in print after it is typeset. Advertisers should check the proof carefully so that errors can be corrected before the ad is printed. The ad's copy and style have been finalized before the proof is prepared. The ad's placement refers to its location in the newspaper or magazine, which is determined before the ad is developed. SOURCE: PR:130 SOURCE: Arens, W.F. (2004). Contemporary advertising (9th ed.) [p. 464]. Boston: Irwin/McGraw Hill. Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 28
Contribute to the social good. Businesses often identify community issues for company involvement. When considering possible issues, businesses often look for those that will contribute to the social good, such as helping needy families, supporting education, mentoring at-risk teenagers, etc. The intent is to become involved in activities that will improve the community and benefit the citizens. When identifying community issues for company involvement, businesses usually do not consider which ones will earn a reasonable profit or build loyalty. However, as a result of being involved in community activities, a business might receive positive publicity which will help build employee and consumer loyalty and increase profit. A business is less likely to support controversial issues that may alienate its various publics. SOURCE: PR:347 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (pp. 135-136). New Be objective in presenting facts. News releases are supposed to be objective. Don't include your opinion or let your feelings show. A news release follows the format of a news story and begins by answering the questions "Who?" "What?" "When?" "Where?" and "Why?" There is no need to close with a summary of the main points. A news release should be a maximum of two type-written pages in length. You should check your spelling and grammar because the media often use a news release just the way they receive it. SOURCE: PR:057 SOURCE: O'Guinn, T.C., Allen, C.T., & Semenik, R.J. (2009). Advertising & integrated brand promotion (5th ed.) [p. 656]. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Special events. Businesses often plan a variety of special events to attract customers and encourage them to visit the store. Special events might include special sales, grand openings, celebrity visits, product demonstrations, etc. Businesses usually try to plan special events that will appeal to the target market. Trade shows are events where businesses display and/or demonstrate their products to build sales leads and interest. Press kits are developed by businesses for the media. Market trips involve retail buyers visiting market centers to buy merchandise for their stores. SOURCE: PR:360 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (pp. 370, 554-555). Holiday open house. Preparing for a special event, but especially a holiday open house, includes providing seasonal merchandise to customers and also creating festive displays. This kind of event is fun for customers and retailers alike but also involves a lot of work. It is important to start early and thoroughly plan all the details. A liquidation sale does not involve seasonal merchandise or festive displays, nor does a staff party. A customer appreciation day might involve special merchandise and/or special displays, but these would generally not be seasonal in nature but would reflect customer-focused themes. SOURCE: PR:068 SOURCE: Clow, K.E., & Baack, D. (2010). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (4th ed.) [pp. 370-371]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Replacing missing items immediately. Display items may be removed from the display because they have become soiled, been damaged or stolen, or sold. Many businesses do not sell items directly from a display because it will disrupt the display and damage its appearance. However, even these businesses will occasionally agree to sell a displayed item when no other item is available for the customer to purchase. When this happens, an appropriate replacement item should be put in the display as quickly as possible. The alternatives are actions taken in creating a display rather than maintaining it. SOURCE: PR:052 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 393). Woodland Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 29
Databases. A database is computerized storage for information and facts. The use of databases is one way of tracking marketing-communications activities. For example, a business sends out 100,000 promotional letters to customers and receives 25,000 responses. The business maintains a database of the names and characteristics of 100,000 customers as well as information about those who responded. The business can analyze the database to track the effectiveness of the mailing in reaching the target market. Questionnaires, surveys, and interviews are ways of obtaining marketing information rather than ways of tracking marketing-communications activities. SOURCE: PR:335 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 199). Woodland Weekend discount package. Sales promotion is promotional activities other than advertising, personal selling, and publicity that stimulate customer purchases. These activities include coupons, contests, discounts, and premiums that are intended to attract customers. A hotel that offers a special weekend discount package is using sales promotion to encourage customers to visit during what might be a slow time for the hotel. A local newspaper advertisement and a cable television commercial are examples of traditional advertising rather than sales promotion. A public relations campaign is not sales promotion. SOURCE: PR:082 SOURCE: Silva, K.E. & Howard, D.M. (2006). Hospitality & tourism (p. 225). Woodland Hills, CA: Videos. Many travel agencies are developing displays that include videos to be able to graphically show people enjoying a destination or participating in a tour. The benefit of using videos is that it enables potential customers to see what they would see on a tour and to see what they might do at a destination. The videos are able to show action and excitement and create an atmosphere that attracts customers and increases sales. For example, a video of people white-water rafting or touring a castle is more interesting than a simple photograph. A display might include facts, testimonials from satisfied customers, and sample souvenirs; but these are static parts of a display and do not graphically show people participating in activities. SOURCE: PR:162 SOURCE: Barry, J. (2011). Upsell your customers with in-store video displays. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Upsell-Your-Customers-With-In-Store-Video-Displays&id=1019895 Open-ended. An open-ended question requires more than a simple "yes" or "no" response. Assumptive questions are used when you think you know how customers feel and what they will say. Interpretive questions help you to understand what the customers have said. An impersonal question would be unrelated to the customer's preferences. SOURCE: SE:111 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 287). Woodland Experience. Salespeople often try the products they sell in order to acquire product information. They are able to explain the features and benefits of substitute items based on information they have obtained from using the items themselves. Salespeople should not let their own personal preferences, opinions, and feelings influence the product information or suggestions that they give to customers. SOURCE: SE:114 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (p. 305). Woodland Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 30
"I understand how you feel." Salespeople do not always have to agree with customers, but they should show that they understand the customers' feelings and appreciate their points of view. With a statement such as, "I understand how you feel," salespeople can tell customers that they think their objections are important. As a result, salespeople will probably find that customers will be more open and honest with them. The other responses do not show empathy with customers' objections. SOURCE: SE:874 SOURCE: SE LAP 100—Objection Overruled (Converting Objections into Selling Points) Feel good about the buying decision. Customers often are not able to make a decision on what they want, and the salesperson should help them make the buying decision by answering their questions and providing them with information. Salespeople who answer questions and explain benefits will help customers to feel good about their decision to buy. Customers should not be rushed into making a quick decision as this may lead to dissatisfaction later. Salespeople should not leave customers in a state of indecision or thinking about making a decision. SOURCE: SE:895 SOURCE: Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2009). Marketing essentials (pp. 314-316). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Team selling. Team selling is a technique that involves putting together a group, or team, of specialists to sell to a business. Some products are large and complex and require the expertise of several different specialists to effectively explain their features and benefits. A selling team is able to present a large amount of information to a potential customer, answer technical questions, and project a strong sales effort. Mass marketing is designing products and directing marketing activities in order to appeal to the whole market. Sale pricing is pricing items at low levels and promoting them for a limited period of time. Retail selling is selling directly to the ultimate consumer. SOURCE: SE:046 SOURCE: Spiro, R.L., Rich, G.A., & Stanton, W.J. (2008). Management of a sales force (12th ed.) Location of the property. People travel for many reasons, including business and leisure. The purpose of the trip, as well as the site location, often influences the selection process. For example, a businessperson traveling to meet with a customer might select a property close to the customer's office. A leisure traveler might select a beachfront resort hotel over a nearby roadside motel because it might offer more amenities geared to vacationers. A trucker, on the other hand, might select the roadside motel because of its easy access to the highway. Positioning strategies are methods that members of the hospitality industry use to create a particular image or standing in the marketplace. Although hotels use positioning strategies to appeal to customers, customers do not generally consider the specific techniques that businesses use to position products. A traveler selects a lodging facility based on his/her personal preferences, not the seller's (hotel). Although some travelers might consider tax rates when selecting a lodging facility, it is usually not a primary factor in the selection process. In addition, lodging facilities in the same general area most likely have the same tax rates. SOURCE: SE:220 SOURCE: The Research Department of the Travel Industry Association of America. (2005). Leisure travel planning: How consumers make travel decisions. Retrieved on September 26, 2011, from http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/trsm/ctrd.default/activity/marketing_files/Leisure_Travel_Planning_TIA_Report_2005.pdf Test 1063 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM CLUSTER EXAM—KEY 31
To accomplish the business's goals. Management is the logical process of coordinating resources, such as money and employees, in order to accomplish an organization's goals. Some ways that management can do this are by obtaining needed resources and creating a good working atmosphere in which workers can be as productive as possible. SOURCE: SM:001 SOURCE: SM LAP 3—Manage This! (Nature of Management)
I. Conney AH, Pantuck EJ, Hsiao K-C, et al. Enhanced phenacetin metabolism in human subjects fed charcoal-broiled beef. Clin Phannacol 'fher 1976;20:633fi42 2. Crichton M. The Lost World. New York, NY: Ballantine Books; 1996: 189-190 3. Guengerich FP. Cytochrome P450 enz-yenes. American Scientist 1993;81: 44047 4. Nelson DR, Koymans L, Kamataki T, et al. P450 superfamily: update on new sequence