GENERAL---------->>>>>>>>>>Schizoaffective disorder symptoms look like a mixture of two kinds of major mental illnesses that are usually thought to run in different families, involve different brain mechanisms, develop in different ways, and respond to different treatments: mood (affective) disorders and schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizoaffective Disorder:The two ma
Bardzo tanie apteki z dostawą w całej Polsce kupic viagra i ogromny wybór pigułek.
05_ h. p. nandurkar.pmd8(3): 997-1000, 2013 (Supplement on Toxicology) Save Nature to Survive
STUDY OF TETRACYCLINE INDUCED ALTERATION IN ASCOR-
BIC ACID CONTENTS IN FRESHWATER BIVALVES, LAMELLIDENS
CORRIANUS (LEA) AND PARREYSIA CYLINDRICA (ANNANDALE
H. P. NANDURKAR
Department of Zoology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati. (M.S.) 444 602, INDIA
e-mail: [email protected]
After exposure to lethal and sublethal concentrations of tetracycline, one of the broad spectrum antibiotics, the vitamin C level showed the depletion in various tissues except in gill and foot of experimental models, the freshwater bivalve, L. corrianus and P. cylindrica. The bivalves were exposed to acute dose of tetracycline (LC ) ) 72.83 PPM up to 21 days. The ascorbic acid contents were estimated in mantle, gill, foot, testis, ovary, whole body and digestive gland after 24 and 96h of acute and 7, 14 Received on :
and 21 days of chronic exposure. A lethal and sublethal concentration of tetracycline induced severe, progressive perturbations in tissues after 96 hrs and 21 days. The level of ascorbic acid showed almost an overall decrease indifferent tissues but mainly in gill and mantle on lethal and sublethal exposures. In L. corrianus the decrease in Accepted on :
ascorbic acid was 22.22 % and 49.99% after 96 hrs and 21 days exposures respectively and in P. cylindrica 39.99% decrease after lethal dose induction of tetracycline. The foot and gill in case of P. Cylindrical showedincreased ascorbic acid contents on lethal exposure and the rest tissues showed depleted level in the ascorbic acid *Corresponding
contents. In the foot of P. cylindrical the level inclined up to 12.3% and 27.39 % when exposed to lethal and sublethal concentration and in gill it was 16.12% after exposure of lethal dose.
this water soluble vitamin by their own, but not the humanbeing. Hence in case of human beings it is introduced through The biochemical changes occurring in the body gives first indication of stress. During any stress, to overcome the alteredsituation extra energy is needed. The biochemical composition Ascorbic acid acts as an essential factor for normal growth in varies according to seasonal changes, environmental factors rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri (Halver et al., 1969; Tucker, (temperature, salinity), starvation and contamination of 1983; Tucker and Halver, 1986). In terrestrial animals the pollutants due to different anthropogenic activities.
dietary ascorbic acid has role in the host defense systems.
Ascorbic acid influences various parameters of The bivalves resist against such unwanted conditions by its immunocompetence in the guinea pig (Thurman and own way and try to minimize the effect of the altered situation Goldstein, 1979). Though the complete prevention of viral by removing the toxicant or made it simple by infection is not possible, high doses of ascorbic acid reduces biotransformation. Effects of toxicants result from their potency of the viral diseases (Murata, 1975). The accumulation interaction with certain receptors of the organisms. Thus the of ascorbic acid at the site of wound healing was found by impact of toxicant is exerted not only on cell but also on the Gould (1963). Interferons get enhanced in circulatory system cell content. Different toxicants affect the metabolic activities after ascorbic acid ingestion through diet (Siegel, 1974).
which are expressed in terms of different changes that Lymphoidal tissue regeneration and their differentiation occurred in bivalve (Abel, 1974; Langston, 1986; Lumet et occurred under the influence of ascorbic acid (Dieler and al., 2000). Ascorbic acid, being important constituent in cellular Breitenbach, 1971). Siddique (1967) found the increase in metabolism, the interactions of the bimolecular gives proper ascorbic acid in liver, gonads and serum of Ophiocephalus idea of toxicant stress and its effect.
punctatus with increase in temperature.
From the time ancient demand for the protein rich food, being Thus ascorbic acid has a central position in curing the impaired fulfilled by fishes, shellfishes, bivalves and oyster like sources, condition occurred by the pathogenic attack and resists as it provides many of the nutrient elements. The study of against the diseases in organisms. The impact of tetracycline these nutrients is possible by the biochemical analysis of the on ascorbic acid content was studied in bivalves, L. corrianus different bimolecular in general and with the altering induced and P. cylindrica in the present study because in artificial conditions in exposed animals in particular.
pearl culture during postoperative care bivalves are exposed For different physiological acts vitamins are essential, although to certain antibiotic treatment as there are more chances of required in trace amount. Most of the animals can synthesize bivalve mortality. Use of antibiotics reduces the rate of mortality.
Similarly in culture, to reduce the mortality rate of larvae of The rest of the tissues depressed the contents at different bivalves and oysters, antibiotics are used. So far, the side effects proportions as compared to the control. The overall effect as and toxic effects of antibiotics on the bivalves, oysters and increase or decrease in ascorbic acid contents was significant other invertebrates are not yet studied.
at P < 0.001, P< 0.01 or P < 0.05 level for acute and chronicexposure while was non-significant in some cases (Table 2 ).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The antioxidant role of ascorbic acid is a well-knownphenomenon, which protects the tissues from the superoxide The freshwater bivalves, L. corrianus and P. cylindrica were radical generated due to different toxicological effects. Changes collected from Girna dam, Dist: Nasik, M.S. The animals were in the environment cause alteration in the ascorbic acid acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 4 days prior to experimentation. During experimentation only those animalsshowing movements and in apparent good health, were used The varied functions of the ascorbic acid make it dynamic.
for investigation. The animals were divided into five groups, Any alteration in the surrounding water due to the two for acute and two for chronic exposures of tetracycline contamination of water also alters ascorbic acid contents.
and one group was maintained as control in each case.
Different pollutant stress has its impact on the concentration a) Acute exposure to Tetracycline
of ascorbic acid (Ali et al., 1983; Bhusari, 1987). Ascorbic The healthy bivalves, Lamellidens corrianus were exposed to acid contents increase during stress (Rao and Chinoy, 1986) and after metal intoxication indicating its role in detoxification Parreysia cylindrica were exposed to tetracycline 166.54PPM The curing response against methyl mercury damage was seen b) Chronic exposure to Tetracycline
in the reproductive organs of guinea pig after ascorbate The acclimatized L. corrianus were exposed to (LC administration (Rao et al., 1994). Seymour (1981, b) reported concentration of tetracycline 73.82 PPM while P. cylindrica that the levels of ascorbic acid in the ovaries of maturing crucian were exposed to chronic concentration of tetracycline 33.30 carp, Carassius carassius decreased after injection of pituitary extract. Wedemeyer (1969) observed that the stress-induced During exposure period, no special food was provided and release of cortisol occurred concomitant with a decrease in the water with required concentration of tetracycline was the ascorbic acid in the kidney of salmonids.
changed daily in the experimental set. Control set was provided In higher animals (vertebrates) the reduced exogenous with dechlorinated water only without addition of tetracycline.
requirement of ascorbic acid may be a result of its lower need After 24 and 96h of acute exposure and after every 7, 14 and for biochemical functions with age or an increased storage 21 days of chronic exposure, the mantle, gill, foot, testis, ovary, capacity combined with more efficient endogenous reuse.
digestive gland and the whole flesh were isolated, blotted to Jadhav et al. (1996) showed a decreased level of ascorbic remove excess water and dried in oven at 80ºC till constant acid content after pesticidal stress in Corbicula striatella.
weight was obtained. All tissues were ground separately into Waykar (2000) reported a decrease in the ascorbic acid level fine powder from which ascorbic acid contents were estimated.
in various tissues of Parreysia cylindrica on exposure to Ascorbic acid content was estimated by using Hydrazine reagent by the method as given by Roe (1967). The calibrationcurves were drawn by plotting concentrations of standard Ascorbate protected the binding sites of the receptors and against optical density to determine the corresponding value making the metal forms insoluble (Scheuhanner and Cherian, of ascorbic acid content from tissues after acute and chronic 1985). The rate of growth retardation caused by toxic metals exposure to tetracycline. The results were expressed in mg was minimized by the ascorbate administration (Hill, 1979).
per 100mg of dry tissue. The % variations were also calculated Clarkson et al. (1988) and Rao et al. (1994) reported that the to find out the antibiotic induced stress to the biochemical oxygen radical formed due to methyl mercury forms reactive substances undertaken for study and the test of significance oxygen intermediates with ascorbic acid. Daine et al. (1994) showed the recovery from chromium intoxication by ascorbicacid treatment. Sometimes vitamin C and vitamin E acts in RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
combination for detoxification (Chan, 1993; Meister, 1994).
Mahajan and Zambare (2001) found that the reduction in The maximum ascorbic acid content was observed in mantle.
protein depletion due to CuSO and HgCl was recovered by There was a marked decrease in ascorbic acid contents in ascorbate treatment in Corbicula striatella.
almost all tissues of L. corrianus and P. cylindrica after acute Mouse peritoneal macrophages when elicited by the and chronic exposures. The significant effect of tetracycline antioxidant ascorbic acid have been found to be significantly observed in gills of L. corrianus was 49.99 % and the reverse stimulatory, exhibiting significant enhancement in protein trend was shown by the whole body 33.33 % increase in content, lysosomal acid hydrolase levels and capability to ascorbic acid contents after sublethal exposure of tetracycline phagocytise (Agrawal et al., 2003). The ascorbic acid supply may boost the macrophage activity, helping to remove After 96h of lethal exposure to tetracycline showed incline intracellular free irritant. These results indicate the positive pattern of ascorbic acid content in gill and foot 16.12% and role of ascorbic acid in toxicant stress.
12.30 % respectively while sublethal exposure increased the The depleted level of ascorbic acid is a vivid response against contents in foot up to 27.39 % after 21 days in P. cylindrica.
tetracycline to cope up the toxic stress caused by exposure to Table 1: Impact of Tetracycline on ascorbic acid content of Lamellidens corrianus after acute and chronic exposure
Table 1: Cont.
M = Mantle; G = Gill; F = Foot; O = Ovary; T = Testis; WB = Whole body; DG = Digestive gland; Values are expressed as mg/100mg dry weight of tissue. ± indicates standard deviationof three independent replications; + or - indicates % variation over control. Significance: * p< 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p 0.001; NS = Non-significant Table 2: Impact of Tetracycline on ascorbic acid content of Parreysia cylindrica after acute and chronic exposure
Table 2: Cont.
0.675±0.05817+15.151NS 0.3733±0.0290 0.4382±0.0101+17.391*** 0.4088±0.02936 0.2133±0.0050-33.333*** 0.3911±0.0029 0.2666±0.00-31.818*** M = Mantle; G = Gill; F = Foot; O = Ovary; T = Testis; WB = Whole body; DG = Digestive gland; Values are expressed as mg/100mg dry weight of tissue. ± indicates standard deviationof three independent replications; + or - indicates % variation over control. Significance: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p 0.001; NS=Non-significant antibiotics. The changed level of ascorbate reflects the great fresh water fish, Barbus ticto (Ham.) due to endosulfan and ekalux.
interaction among the biomolecules present in the cell cited Proc. Nat. Symp. On Environ. Poll. and Pesticide Toxicol. and 8th Annual session of Acad. Of Environ. Biol. India, Held at University ofJammu (J and K) from Dec.10-12, pp: 59-64.
Chan, A. S. 1993. Differential Effects of Topical Vitamin E and C E
Ferulic® Treatments on Ultraviolet Light B-Induced Cutaneous Tumor
Abel, P. D. 1974. Toxicity of synthetic detergents to fish and aquatic
Development in Skh-1 Mice. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 71: 725-
vertebrates. J. Fish. Biol. 6: 279-298.
Agrawal, R., Tripathi, A. K. and Chakrabarty, A. K. 2003. Effect of
Clarkson, T. W., Hursh, J. B., Sager, P. R. and Syversen, T. L. M.
ascorbic acid on stimulatory status of activated mouse peritoneal 1988. In: Biological Monitoring of Metals (eds. T.W. Clarkson, L.
phagocytes. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. (41): 290-295.
Friberg, G. F. Nordberg and P. Sager) New York, Plenum Press.
Ali, S. M. Ilyas, R. and Bhusari, N. B. 1983. Effect of lethal and sub-
Daine, M. S., Courtney, F. D., Giangrande, P. H., Phieffer, L. S. and
lethal concentration of dimecron on ascorbic acid of fish, Channa Wetterhahn, K. E. (19) Chromium (VI) reduction by ascorbate: Role
gachua (Ham). Marathwada J. Sci. 22: 69-74.
of reactive intermediates in DNA damage. In vitro, Environ. Health Bhusari, N. B. 1987. Alternations in the tissues ascorbic acid in the
Persp. 102: 21-25.
Dieter, M. P. and Breitenbach, R. P. 1971. Vitamin C in lymphoid
Rao, M. V., Mehta, A. R. and Patil, J. S. 1994. Ascorbate effect on
organs of rats and cockerels treated with corticosterone or testosterone.
methylmercury toxicity in reproductive organs of male Guinea pigs.
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 137: 341.
Indian J. Environmental and Toxicology. 4(2): 53-58.
Gould, B. S. 1963. International Review of Cytology, Academic Press,
Roe, J. H. 1967. In: Methods of Biochemical analysis, 5: Ed. Blick,
New York, 5: 91-96.
Halver, J. E., Ashley, L. M. and Smith, R. R. 1969. Ascorbic acid
Scheuhanner, A. M. and Cherian 1985. Effects of heavy metals cations,
requirements of coho salmon and rainbow trout. Trans. Am. Fish. sulfhydryl reagents and other chemical agents in striatal D dopamine Soc. 98: 762-771.
receptors. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1985 October 1; 34(19): 3405-3413.
Hill, C. H. 1979. Studies on the ameliorating effects ascorbic acid on
Seymour, E. A. 1981b. The effect of powdered carp pituitary on
minerals toxicities in the chick: J. Nutre 1979 Jan; 84-80.
ovarian development, ovarian ascorbic acid and ovulation in Carassius Jadhav, S. M., Sontakke, Y. B. and Lomte, V. S. 1996. Effect of
carassius (L.) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70A: 451-453.
carbaryl on ascorbic acid content in the selected tissues of Carbicula Siddique, M. A. 1967. Seasonal variation in ascorbic acid content and
striatella. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 6: 109-112.
calcium content of different tissues of Ophiocephalus punctatus Langstone, W. J. 1986. Metals in sediments and organisms in the
(Bloch). Ind. J. Exptl. Biol. 5: 54-55.
Mersey estuary. Estuar. Sci. 23: 239-261.
Siegal, J. and Fogtt, S. M. 1970. Inhibition by Pb ion of Electrophorus
Lomte, V. S., Chaudhari, R. T. and Masarrat, S. 2000. Changes in
electroplax (Na and K) ATPase and K+-P-nitrophenylphosphatase. J.
protein content of fresh water bivalve, Parreysia cylindrica on exposure Biol. Chem. 118: 252-256.
to nickel chloride and lead chloride. Ind. J. Environ. Ecoplan. 3: 63-
Thurman, G. B. and Goldstein, A. L. 1979. Suppresion of
immunological responsivity in guinea pigs by ascorbic acid depletion.
Mahajan, A. Y. and Zambare, S. P. 2001. Ascorbate effect on copper
Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 1173.
sulphate and mercuric chloride induced alterations of protein levels Tucker, B. W. 1983. Studies on vitamin C metabolism in rainbow
in freshwater bivalve, Corbicula striatella. Asian J. Microbiol. Biotech.
trout. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. pp. 154.
and Env. Sci. 3(1-2): 95-100.
Tucker, B. W. and Halver, J. E. 1986. Vitamin C metabolism in fish.
Meister, A. J. 1994. Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in
Comp. Pathol. Bull. 18: 1 and 6.
animals. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 9397-9400.
Waykar, B. B. 2000. Effect of pesticides on some physiological activities
Murata, A. 1975. Virucidal activity of vitamin C: vitamin C for
of fresh water bivalve, Parreysia cylindrica. Ph. D. Thesis, Marathwada prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Proc. First Intersec.Congr.
IAMS, Sci. Cn. of Japan.
Wedemeyer, G. 1969. Stress–induced ascorbic acid depletion and
Rao, M. V. and Chinoy, N. J. 1986. Effects of Estradiol benzoate on
cortisol production in two salmonid fishes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
rat testis and adrenal. Exp. Clin. Experimentalis 23: 55-60.
Fragen und Antworten zur Empfehlung „Infektionsprävention in Heimen“ der Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention beim Robert Koch-Institut. Bundesgesundheitsbl. 2005. 48: 1061-1080. www.rki.de ( in Klammern: Hinweis auf das entsprechend Kapitel in der Empfehlung ) Ist der Einsatz von Hygienebeauftragten in NRW gesetzlich vorgeschrieben? Eine gesetzliche