A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties
of Pleurotus spp.
Andrej Gregori1,2*, Mirjan [vagelj3 and Jure Pohleven4,5 1SRC Bistra Ptuj, Slovenski trg 6, SI-2250 Ptuj, Slovenia 2Institute for Natural Sciences, Ulica bratov U~akar 108, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 3Department of Chemical, Biochemical and Ecology Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, 5Department of Biotechnology, Jo`ef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom) comprises some the most popular edible mush- rooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth andundemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety ofagroforestry (by-)products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymesand medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many differenttechniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation andbiomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However,in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used inlarge scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shownto possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, anti-genotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antipla-telet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These thera-peutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fer-mentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to bepotent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficialactivities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remainlargely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotusspp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium andbioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal pro-perties of this mushroom are also outlined.
Key words: Pleurotus, mushroom cultivation, biomass production, solid-state fermentation,submerged liquid fermentation, medicinal properties Introduction
last few decades (1,2); in 1997 it accounted for 14.2 % ofthe total world edible mushroom production (). Its pop- Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus spp., ularity has been increasing due to its ease of cultivation, has increased greatly throughout the world during the high yield potential and high nutritional value (3). Al- *Corresponding author; Phone: ++386 40 756 146; E-mail: andrej.gregori@gmail.com A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) though commonly grown on pasteurized wheat or rice in soil resulted in a BE of up to 123 % and proved to be straw, it can be cultivated on a wide variety of lignocel- the optimal method for P. nebrodensis cultivation (11).
lulosic substrates, enabling it to play an important role Pleurotus spp. can also colonize and produce mush- in managing organic wastes whose disposal is problem- rooms on pretreated conifer (Pinus spp.) wood chips but they do not always readily colonize non-pretreated coni- New technologies and production techniques are fer wood, due to the presence of inhibitory components being constantly developed as the number of required (12). Some strains can, however, be adapted for cultiva- controllable environment parameters increases (4). Cur- tion on conifer-sawdust-based substrates (13). Pleurotus rently, solid-state fermentations, other than fruiting body spp. can also be cultivated on wood waste or unused production with Pleurotus spp., are used either in the wood residues associated with harvesting or thinning transformation of wastes into animal feed or for enzyme operations, which can enhance economic returns needed production. Submerged liquid fermentation can, on the to support ecosystem management (14).
other hand, provide more uniform and reproducible bio- Some pretreatment or supplementation with nutri- mass and can prove interesting for valuable medicinal ents may be necessary. P. ostreatus BE is much lower when products or for enzyme production because of uncom- it is cultivated on fresh sawdust than on composted saw- plicated downstream processing (5). Current research on dust/bran mixture (15). Rodriguez Estrada and Royse Pleurotus spp. related to solid-state and submerged li- (16) reported that P. eryngii fruiting body yields were quid fermentation is mainly concerned with substrate significantly higher in substrates containing Mn (50 mg/g) composition and optimization of culture parameters.
and soybean than in the basal cottonseed hull/sawdust Pleurotus species have been used by human cultures all over the world for their nutritional value, medicinal Different types of straw are commonly used for Ple- properties and other beneficial effects. Oyster mushrooms urotus spp. cultivation. Straw can be composted or pas- are a good source of dietary fibre and other valuable nu- teurized and extra additives can be used to increase the trients. They also contain a number of biologically active BE. When using rice and wheat straw for P. sajor-caju compounds with therapeutic activities. Oyster mushrooms cultivation, higher yields were obtained on ground than modulate the immune system, inhibit tumour growth and on chopped straw, and yields were 10 % higher on rice inflammation, have hypoglycaemic and antithrombotic than on wheat straw. Higher spawn levels enhanced mush- activities, lower blood lipid concentrations, prevent high room yields (17). Rice straw appeared to be the best sub- blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and have antimicro- strate for P. ostreatus mushroom cultivation when com- bial and other activities (6). Recent studies of the medic- pared to banana leaves, maize stover, corn husks, rice inal properties of oyster mushrooms have focused on husks and elephant grass (15). When cultivating P. flo- isolated bioactive compounds; however synergistic ef- rida, the incorporation of cotton seed powder into rice fects of the constituents of mushroom extracts may be straw substrate enhanced mushroom yield, increased net and total protein, free amino acids and total lipids con-tent, while there was a significant decrease in total di- Pleurotus spp. Fruiting Body Production
etary fibre, free sugars and polymeric carbohydrates (18).
Substrates for oyster mushroom cultivation Supplementation of rice straw with a residual slurry ob-tained after production of biogas from manure improved Pleurotus spp. cultivation is a very simple procedure the yield potential and increased protein and mineral in the case of log cultivation because it does not involve contents of P. sajor-caju mushrooms (3). Wheat straw sup- sophisticated equipment. However, despite its simplic- plemented with Lolium perenne grass chaff stimulated ity, large-scale cultivation on natural logs is not often fructification and mushroom yield of P. pulmonarius (19).
used due to long incubation periods, low yields and en- P. tuber-regium strains from Australasian-Pacific regions vironment-dependent production if conducted outdoors.
showed faster mycelium growth rates when cultivated Yields of P. ostreatus fruiting bodies vary with the spe- on wheat straw, while wild Nigerian strains performed cies of trees used and range from 21 % biological effi- better in sclerotia yield when cultivated on this substrate ciency (BE) for beech wood to 3 % BE for alder wood Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on substrates contain- Broadleaf hardwood sawdust and straw-based sub- ing added olive mill waste and wastewaters (OMWW) strates with added supplements are more often used in can be a viable alternative for converting these environ- commercial production. In this case, these artificial sub- mentally problematic materials into valuable, highly nu- strates must be pretreated, mainly for elimination of con- tritious food. It has been shown that wetting a wheat taminants, and handled in a clean environment. There straw and bran substrate with OMWW diluted in tap are different methods of cultivation like shelf, bag, bot- water (25 %) had no significant negative effect on the tle, tray, jar, grid-frame, wall-frame and others (8). In time required for mycelial colonization, primordium ini- practice, the most used are bag, bottle and shelf cultiva- tiation or mushroom yield of P. sajor-caju and P. citrino- tion (9). Evaluation of P. columbinus cultivation in differ- pileatus. Application of 50 % OMWW led to a delay in ent bagging systems, in which partially pasteurized of- colonization and reduction in yield, and deleterious ef- fice papers were used as a growing substrate, revealed fects were noted when using 75 % OMWW (21). Sub- that polyethylene bags resulted in 109 % BE, followed strates with the addition of OMWW up to 30 % did not by pottery (86 %), plastic trays (72 %) and polyester net interfere with mycelial growth of P. pulmonarius but they (56 %) (10). Removal of the bottom half of the plastic did inhibit fruiting body formation. OMWW up to 10 %, cultivation bag and embedding artificial logs vertically however, did not inhibit pinhead appearance (22). Expe- A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) riments with wild and commercial strains of P. ostreatus, straw. Sorghum resulted in the lowest mushroom mass P. eryngii and P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly and pileus/stipe ratio, whereas the lowest protein and higher colonization rates on wheat straw and cotton waste nitrogen content, and dry material mass were obtained than on peanut shells. Faster colonization was achieved with wheat straw (32). Among different agrowastes tested on non-composted than on composted wheat straw and (cotton stalk, coir fibre, sorghum stover and mixtures of cotton waste substrates. Cellulose/lignin ratios in sub- these wastes), the maximum yields of P. sajor-caju and strates were positively correlated to mycelial growth rates P. citrinopileatus were obtained on cotton stalks, while and mushroom yields of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius.
P. platypus yields peaked on sorghum stover (33).
In addition, there was a positive correlation between theC/N ratio and P. eryngii mushroom yield (23). A sub- Weed plants (Leonotis sp., Sida acuta, Parthenium ar- strate composed of coffee pulp and Digitaria decumbens gentatum, Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia sophera, Tephrosia was also used for P. ostreatus cultivation and additional purpurea and Lantana camara) without heat pretreatment composting of this mixture improved the BE (24). When were tested for P. ostreatus cultivation. Leonotis sp. mixed using a mixture of coffee pulp and wheat straw for P. dja- with rice straw was the best substrate for spawn run mor, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius cultivation, the ob- and mushroom cultivation while T. purpurea was the least served decrease in caffeine content of the coffee pulp sam- appropriate. The main problem of P. ostreatus cultivation ples during the fruiting stage suggests that some caffeine on weed-composed substrates was the low yield that accumulates in the fruiting bodies (25).
was obtained in the second flush. This problem could be Much effort has been put into optimizing substrates overcome by mixing weed plants with rice straw. The based on different grass species for Pleurotus spp. culti- fruiting body protein content was higher when P. ostrea- vation. This is an effective way of converting abundant tus was cultivated on Cassia sophera, Parthenium argenta- but low value materials into highly nutritional food, es- tum and Leonotis sp. than on weeds supplemented with pecially where wood and straw are scarce (26). Lolium rice straw or on rice straw alone (34).
perenne grass chaff stimulated fructification and mush-room yield of P. pulmonarius (19). Wooden crates were When hazelnut, Tilia spp., European aspen leaves, used, in a very simple substrate preparation for P. ostrea- wheat straw, sawdust and waste paper were used as tus, for composting a mixture of grass (Digitaria decum- substrates, the best major component and substrate com- bens) and coffee pulp; 60 and 93 % BE were obtained in bination for mushroom productivity were wheat straw two harvests. Further composting for two to three days and wheat straw in combination with waste paper. Mix- in each case improved the BE (24). When using chop- tures involving waste paper generally produced higher ped, pasteurized switch grass (Panicum virgatum) and yields than other combinations. The lowest yield and pasteurized cottonseed hulls with wheat straw for P. cor- the smallest fruiting body diameters were obtained from nucopiae cultivation, higher yields were obtained on cot- Tilia spp. and European aspen leaves in combination tonseed hulls/wheat straw substrate. Increasing spawn with sawdust. The greatest number of fruiting bodies and supplement levels in switch grass/wheat straw sub- was obtained on a mixture of wheat straw, hazelnut strate stimulated yield in a linear fashion. However, ma- leaves and waste paper (35). Mandeel et al. (10) culti- ximum yields were less than 50 % of those obtained with vated Pleurotus spp. on various lignocellulosic wastes cottonseed hulls/wheat straw substrate (27). When sup- supplemented with fresh chicken manure. The highest plementing spent rice straw substrate with oil seed cakes, BE was noted on cardboard with both P. columbinus (134 cottonseed powder proved best in enhancing P. sajor- %) and P. ostreatus (117 %). Experiments conducted by -caju mushroom yields. Mushrooms grown on substrate Baysal et al. (36), which involved cultivation of P. ostrea- supplemented with cottonseed powder had increased tus on waste paper with addition of chicken manure, protein and fat content, decreased carbohydrate content peat and rice husks, showed that increasing the amount and contained no residues of gossypol. In addition, there of rice husks added to the substrate accelerated spawn was a significant reduction in the spawn run period when running, pinhead formation and fruiting body forma- compared to the use of unsupplemented rice straw (28).
tion. Larger proportions of peat and chicken manure had P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju exhibited higher ash con- a negative effect on growth. A study on growth and pro- tent when cultivated on rice straw than when cultivated ductivity of different P. ostreatus strains on sunflower on banana straw, and P. sajor-caju also showed higher moisture and fibre content when cultivated on rice straw that the addition of growth-limiting mineral nutrients (29). When cultivating P. ostreatus on corn and pumpkin increased the mycelial growth rate. BE increased over straw, the substrate had no effect on the nitrogen con- control values and reached 60–112 %, depending on the tent and amino acid profile of the fruiting bodies; how- strain and the concentration of Mn and N–NH + ever, the nitrogen content increased from the first har-vest to the third harvest (30). Using water hyacinth biomass Non-pretreated spent brewery grains were success- as substrate, BE was found to be higher with P. florida fully used as a basic substrate material for P. ostreatus (86 %) than with P. citrinopileatus (79 %) (31). When P. cultivation in polypropylene bottles. Few fruiting bodies ostreatus var. salignus was cultivated on peanut, soybean, were formed on spent grain alone; however 19 % BE sorghum or wheat straw, the highest and lowest yields was obtained with the addition of 45 % wheat bran. The were obtained on peanut and sorghum straw, respec- chemical analysis of fruiting bodies indicated that P. os- tively. The highest protein content, pileus/stipe ratio, treatus cultivated on spent grain substrate had a higher sporophore mass, percentage of dry material, and nitro- nutritional value than those grown on other types of sub- gen and carbon contents were obtained with peanut A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) Other factors influencing oyster mushroom for vigorous P. nebrodensis growth were glucose, peptone There have been various reports on other factors that Mycelium production on lignocellulosic substrates influence the development of oyster mushrooms. None has also been investigated. Amongst seven mushroom of these factors has been studied in depth; the various cultivation substrates, the mycelial extension rates were observations that have been made are outlined in the pa- highest on cotton gin-trash, peanut shells and poplar sawdust. Supplemented oak sawdust and olive millwaste were poor substrates for most species examined, Cho et al. (39) discovered that inoculation of pure while almost all strains performed adequately on corn P. ostreatus mycelium cultures with strains of fluorescent cobs (44,45). Different substrate combinations were eval- Pseudomonas spp., isolated from the mycelial plane of uated for P. ostreatus mycelial growth and favourable commercially produced mushrooms, promoted the for- combinations were Tilia spp. leaves with wheat bran mation of primordia and enhanced the development of and Populus spp. leaves with wheat straw. The authors the basidiomata. These results strongly suggest that in- also reported that mycelial growth and mushroom yield oculation of the mycelium with specific bacteria may have different requirements (46), whereas others re- have beneficial applications for mushroom production.
ported that mushroom yield was directly related to the It was reported that the bacterial blotch disease in spread of the mycelium within the substrate (15).
mushrooms caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii was more se-vere when substrates were amended with Cu in P. eryngii SSF waste utilization and enzyme production by cultivation (16). Two compounds from olive mill waste,4-methylcatechol and catechol, were found to be effective against P. tolaasii and supplementation with up to 10 % Much work has been done recently on waste utiliza- OMWW reduced bacterium-related symptoms (22).
tion by Pleurotus spp., mostly concerned with the poten- Qu et al. (40) demonstrated the influence of heavy tial of locally available waste and agricultural by-prod- metals in substrates on P. eryngii primordial formation, ucts for either transformation into animal feed or as fruiting body development and BE. Heavy metal (As, primary substrates for enzyme production.
Hg, and Cd) supplementation decreased average growth Villas-Bôas et al. (47) investigated the conversion of yields and BE of P. eryngii, whereas Pb supplementation apple pomace by Candida utilis and P. ostreatus, sepa- rately and in coculture, in SSF. C. utilis was a better can- Irradiation by red and green light stimulated vege- didate for biological treatment of apple pomace as the tative growth of P. ostreatus mycelium and shortened the yeast lowered the residual free sugar concentration more substrate colonization and fructification time. The in- than P. ostreatus did. When both organisms were used, creased fruiting body yield in irradiated cultures reached apple pomace digestibility decreased while the protein content increased, with the final product being suitablefor use as a protein supplement for cattle feed. Fermen- The cytolytic protein ostreolysin, isolated from P. os- tation with P. ostreatus alone was, however, discarded as treatus fruiting bodies, was specifically expressed during a viable treatment of apple pomace. Furthermore, recy- fruiting initiation, suggesting its involvement in fruiting cling of viticulture waste in SSF with P. ostreatus and body formation. When purified ostreolysin was used as P. pulmonarius also yielded a high-fibre feed for limited a supplement on nutrient media plates inoculated with use in ruminants (48). Tests on water hyacinth biomass P. ostreatus mycelium, the protein stimulated primordia delignification showed that organic matter loss was and fruiting body formation (42).
higher in samples inoculated with P. citrinopileatus thanP. florida. Improvement of delignification and dry matter Solid-State Fermentation with Pleurotus spp.
digestibility was, however, higher with P. florida, whichalso proved to be more effective than P. citrinopileatus for Most solid-state fermentations (SSF) with Pleurotus the production of highly digestible mycoprotein-rich ru- spp. have been small scale, that is, they have involved minant feed (31). Intensive P. ostreatus mycelial growth solid substrate in Erlenmeyer flasks or in agar plates.
was observed in substrates containing leftover hemp Recent studies have been focused on the utilization of seeds, whole ground corn plant or sesame oil press cake.
lignocellulosic organic waste materials for either lignin Intermediate growth was observed in substrates con- degradation, use as animal feed or enzyme production.
taining olive mill waste, rape oil press cake or sunfloweroil press cake while slowest growth rates were observedin the substrate containing soy oil press cake (44,45).
SSF for Pleurotus spp. mycelial biomass and Ghibom et al. (49) introduced a novel approach for uti- lizing whey permeate with P. ostreatus in an SSF system.
When agar-based media are used, medium compo- They concluded that whey permeate could provide a vi- sition plays an important role as it determines the my- able substrate for production of P. ostreatus mycelium.
celial growth rate, and correct medium ingredient ratios The optimal growth conditions were 44 g/L lactose, are crucial for fast colonization. Nasim et al. (43) found that malt extract agar (MEA) provided faster P. ostreatus White-rot basidiomycetes are efficient decomposers mycelial growth rates than did Murashige and Skoog’s of lignocellulose, due to their capability to synthesize (MS) medium and potato dextrose agar (PDA). The slow- relevant hydrolytic and oxidative extracellular enzymes.
est growth was observed on PDA medium. The most ef- Lignocellulolytic enzymes have significant potential ap- fective carbon, nitrogen and inorganic salt supplements plications not only in the chemical, fuel, food, textile, A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) laundry and pulp and paper industries but also in agri- as liquid spawn for fruiting body production on solid culture and for animal feed production (50).
substrates; biomass production for food, dietary supple- Hölker and Lenz (4) introduced a trickle-film fer- ment and pharmaceutical applications; and conversion mentation process on sugarcane bagasse with P. ostreatus of waste biomass and enzyme production. SLF offers the for laccase production, which turned out to be highly possibility of high biomass production in a compact suitable for extracellular enzyme production. High en- space, shorter time and with fewer chances of contami- zyme levels were produced when the growth medium nation (57,58). While SSF will remain the chosen method was repeatedly changed. When compared to submerged for mushroom production, there will be a continued in- liquid fermentation, the productivity was better and two crease in the development of SLF technology to produce more uniform and reproducible biomass of medicinal Banana leaf waste was a better substrate than ba- fungi. Western biotechnology companies have yet to rec- nana pseudostem waste in the production of extracellu- ognize the potential in this area of medical bioscience lar enzymes by P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju in SSF and is a potential alternative to other agrowaste substrates. Theyields were, however, too low and commercially not vi- SLF for Pleurotus spp. biomass and polysaccharide able. It was suggested that a larger surface area of ba- nana leaf waste could be a determining factor for betterenzyme production (51). This is in agreement with Zhang The most detailed study of P. ostreatus growth in SLF et al. (17) who reported that P. sajor-caju grew faster and was conducted by Márquez-Rocha et al. (59). They stud- provided better yields on ground straw than on chopped ied P. ostreatus cultivation in a stirred tank bioreactor straw. There is, however, a substrate particle size limit, and revealed that by varying impeller geometry and as more finely ground straw inhibited growth. Optimal speed, and aeration intensity, the growth rate and pellet particle sizes should therefore be determined for all ap- size changed. A clear tendency was observed for smaller pellet sizes to result in higher specific growth rates. For Staji} et al. (52) performed SSF with Pleurotus spp.
promotion of mycelium growth the pellets need to be on grapevine sawdust, which was supplemented with broken down, but on the other hand, a balance between synthetic medium to provide nitrogen and trace miner- growth and hyphal fragmentation must also be achieved.
als. Peroxidase activity was detected in all strains evalu- The lag phase for P. tuber-regium growth and biocon- ated, the highest being with P. ostreatus and P. pulmo- version efficiency in SLF was shorter with glucose and narius. The highest laccase activity was detected at 10 fructose than with maize starch. In scaled-up fermenta- days of fermentation in P. ostreatus followed by P. pulmo- tions, addition of fructose to basal medium supported narius and P. eryngii. Organic nitrogen sources have been higher mycelial yields than the addition of glucose. Yeast shown to stimulate enzyme production more than inor- extract as the nitrogen source proved better than pep- ganic sources. Cyanobacterial biomass was used as a ni- tone when monosaccharides were used as the sole car- trogen supplement and stimulated P. ostreatus growth and laccase production in SSF. The authors concluded that Recent studies on mushroom polysaccharides have dry biomass of diazotrophic cyanobacteria not only helps demonstrated many interesting biological activities, which to maintain an optimal C/N ratio but also confers a are described later in this review. The production of Pleu- good porosity, which sustains the oxygen supply within rotus spp. mycelial biomass and valuable polysaccharides the matrix of solid particles (53). The nature of the sub- in SLF depends on the species used, growth parameters, strate as well as the cultivation method affects the ex- growth timing and their nutritional requirements (61,62).
pression of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The study con- Response surface methodology, a widely known optimi- ducted by Elisashvili et al. (54) revealed that SSF of tree sation procedure, was used to optimise the medium in leaves by Pleurotus spp. was favourable for laccase and order to maximize growth and polysaccharide produc- manganese peroxidase (MnP) production. Furthermore,coculturing can be an effective method for biopulping tion by P. citrinopileatus. The highest polysaccharide yield and improvement of lignin degradation (55,56). Chi et al. was obtained with a C/N ratio of 40, an initial pH=5.5 (56) demonstrated that coculturing P. ostreatus with Ceri- and a cultivation temperature of 25 °C (63). Another pa- poriopsis subvermispora significantly stimulated lignin de- rameter that influenced growth and polysaccharide pro- gradation when compared to monocultures. Laccase pro- duction by P. ostreatus in SLF was the initial oxygen duction and MnP activity were stimulated in cocultures transfer rate (KLa). Better polysaccharide yields were ob- of P. ostreatus with C. subvermispora or Physisporinus rivu- tained with a lower initial KLa (64).
losus and a change in the isoform composition of thoseenzymes was also observed.
Waste utilization and enzyme production by These studies show that the cultivation method can have drastic effects on the production of valuable sub- SLF is also suitable for enzyme production and waste stances by Pleurotus spp. and its economical feasibility.
bioconversion. Most recent work is focused on substrateoptimization for maximal production of hydrolytic and Submerged Liquid Fermentation with
oxidative ligninolytic extracellular enzymes.
Pleurotus spp.
Staji} et al. (52) performed SLF with P. eryngii, P. os- treatus and P. pulmonarius on different carbon and nitro- Submerged liquid fermentation (SLF) techniques gen sources. In the medium with the best carbon sources have been developed for a variety of fungi and are used (mandarin peels and grapevine sawdust), both P. eryngii in mycelium propagation for different applications, such and P. ostreatus showed the highest laccase activity with A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) (NH4)2SO4 as the nitrogen source. With P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, the best nitrogen sources for productionof peroxidases were peptone and NH Much recent research has been carried out on composition of the cultivation medium is important for Pleurotus spp. extracts and isolated compounds such as good enzyme production and various inducers have been polysaccharides, proteins and other substances that pos- tested for stimulating P. ostreatus enzyme production. Hou sess antineoplastic activities in vitro and in vivo.
et al. (65) obtained high levels of laccase activity using Various crude extracts of Pleurotus species have been cellobiose and peptone as the carbon and nitrogen sour- shown to possess relatively strong antitumour activities.
ces. 2,2’-Azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozin-6-sulphonic Methanol extracts of P. florida and P. pulmonarius fruiting acid) (ABTS) and Cu had a positive effect on laccase pro- bodies significantly reduced solid tumours in mice (70,71).
duction and the former was shown to be the best laccase P. ostreatus mycelium extract, alone and combined with inducer in their study. Static cultures were superior to the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide, inhibited agitated cultures in terms of growth and laccase produc- in vivo tumour growth in mice. The combined adminis- tion, while nitrogen-limited culture media were only be- tration of the extract with cyclophosphamide decreased neficial for laccase production. In another study, the the degree of leukopenia compared to administration of Taguchi orthogonal array experimental design was ap- cyclophosphamide alone (72). A water extract of P. ostre- plied for the optimization of laccase production in SLF atus exhibited the most significant cytotoxicity by induc- with P. ostreatus. The most influential factor for laccase ing apoptosis of human carcinoma cells, when compared production was found to be the inducer 2,5-xylidine, fol- to many other mushroom extracts. It has been suggested lowed by glucose concentration, wheat bran content, urea that the active compounds in the extract were water-sol- concentration, inoculum size, yeast extract concentration uble proteins or polypeptides (73).
and pH (66). Mikiashvili et al. (67) reported that the high-est MnP and laccase activities were obtained in xylan- Among the components of such extracts, polysaccha- -supplemented media, but enzyme activities decreased rides are well-documented as potent antitumour and when supplemented with inorganic nitrogen sources.
immunomodulating substances (74,75). Many polysac- Peptone, followed by casein, was used as the nitrogen charides from Pleurotus spp. have been isolated and source for the best laccase accumulation; this results be- identified (76–86). For some of them, important medici- ing attributable to higher biomass production. MnP and nal properties, including antitumour activities, have been peroxidase secretion was stimulated by supplementation shown. P. tuber-regium polysaccharides, extracted from with casein hydrolysate. A liquid medium composed of mycelium and fruiting bodies, effectively inhibited solid mandarin peels and leaves inoculated with P. dryinus al- tumour proliferation in mice. Antitumour effects have also lowed the simultaneous production of hydrolases and oxi- been shown on different human tumour cell lines (87,88).
dases at high levels. Carboxymethyl cellulase and xyla- Wong et al. (89) showed that P. tuber-regium polysaccha- nase appeared to be inducible enzymes. Addition of Mn rides exerted antitumour activity, through cytotoxicity and enabled the laccase to MnP ratio to be regulated. For MnP antiproliferative activity, against human leukaemia cells production the presence of lignocellulosic substrates is a in vitro. The polysaccharides induced apoptosis and caused prerequisite and shows a positive correlation with their cell-cycle arrest. Compared to native P. tuber-regium po- addition (50). This is supported by Hou et al. (65), who lysaccharides, their corresponding carboxymethylated or did not detect any MnP activity in N limited glucose me- sulphated derivatives showed higher antitumour activ- dium with P. ostreatus. Pleurotus spp. SLF on tree leaves ity, presumably because of their higher water solubility provided better hydrolytic enzyme production than SSF and relatively extended flexible chains (90–93). A novel a-glucan from P. ostreatus mycelium induced apoptosis P. ostreatus mycelium could be cultivated employing of colon cancer cells in vitro (94) and water-soluble poly- coffee pulp wastewater extract supplemented with glu- saccharides extracted from P. citrinopileatus fermentation cose. The polluting load was reduced by more than 50 broth have been shown to reduce the number of meta- % at the end of 20 days of fermentation (68). SLF with static tumour nodules in tumour-bearing mice (63).
P. ostreatus was also used for removing phenolic com- Antitumour properties have also been demonstrated pounds from olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW). Lac- for Pleurotus spp. proteins, proteoglycans, and DNA. A case was the sole ligninolytic enzyme detected and was lectin isolated from P. ostreatus potently inhibited growth produced during primary growth. The phenolic content of sarcoma and hepatoma in mice and prolonged their and toxicity were successfully reduced, but only when lifespan (95). A P. eous lectin exerted antiproliferative ef- high OMWW dilutions were used. This could be a valu- fects on human tumour cell lines while showing no cy- able method for problematic OMWW treatment before totoxicity (96). Furthermore, two ribonucleases isolated its release into the environment (69).
from P. sajor-caju and P. ostreatus fruiting bodies exhib-ited antiproliferative effects on tumour and leukaemia Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.
cell lines (97,98). Another protein, eryngeolysin, isolatedfrom P. eryngii fruiting bodies, exhibited cytotoxicity Recent studies on various Pleurotus species have against leukaemia cells (99). Water-soluble proteoglycans shown a number of therapeutic activities, such as anti- were purified from P. ostreatus mycelium and exerted anti- tumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, tumour activity in sarcoma-bearing mice. Proteoglycans anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihyperten- injected into mice reduced the number of tumour cells sive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimi- by cell cycle arrest (100). Moreover, DNA isolated from P. ostreatus fruiting bodies administered to mice with A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) solid Ehrlich carcinoma significantly increased the life- trate, presumably due to a higher amount of total phe- nols. Methanol extracts of P. florida and P. pulmonariusfruiting bodies showed similar antioxidant activities Immunomodulatory and antimitogenic activities (70,71), and an ethanol extract from P. citrinopileatus frui-ting bodies had antioxidant activities comparable to those The antitumour effects of mushrooms are mostly at- from P. eryngii, P. ferulae and P. ostreatus mushrooms tributed to stimulation of the immune response. Re- cently, several compounds from Pleurotus species withimmunostimulatory activities on humoral and cell-medi- P. citrinopileatus fruiting body extracts have shown ated immunity have been isolated. Water-soluble poly- antioxidant activities in vitro and in hyperlipidaemic saccharides extracted from Pleurotus citrinopileatus fermen- hamster rats. Extracts added to a high-fat diet increased tation broth administered to mice resulted in a signifi- the activities of antioxidant enzymes in rats (113). P. ostrea- cant increase in the number of macrophages, T, CD4+ tus mushroom extracts had antioxidant properties in and CD8+ cells (63). Glucans isolated from P. florida frui- aged and CCl4-induced liver damaged rats, as indicated ting bodies activated the phagocytic response of mouse by significant increases in concentrations of antioxidants macrophages in vitro (83) and significantly induced the and antioxidant enzymes (114,115). Pleuran, a b-glucan proliferative response as well as phagocytic activity of isolated from P. ostreatus, had a positive effect on the an- fish leukocytes in vitro (102). Moreover, proteoglycans tioxidant status of rats and decreased precancerous le- from P. ostreatus mycelia exerted immunomodulatory ef- sions induced in rat colon (116). A polysaccharide-pep- fects by elevating mouse natural killer cell cytotoxicity tide complex isolated from P. abalonus fruiting bodies and by macrophage stimulation (100). DNA isolated prolonged the lifespan of senescence-accelerated mice.
from P. ostreatus fruiting bodies stimulated mouse natu- Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was up-regu- ral killer cytotoxic activity in vitro (101).
lated and consequently their activities were increased(117).
Antimitogenic effects of Pleurotus spp.-derived com- pounds on immune cells have also been reported. A ri- bonuclease isolated from P. sajor-caju fruiting bodies ex-erted antiproliferative effect on murine splenocytes (97), Jose et al. (71,118) showed that methanol extracts of while eryngeolysin from P. eryngii inhibited the stimu- P. pulmonarius and P. florida fruiting bodies decreased in- lated mitogenic response of murine splenocytes (99). Fur- duced paw oedema in mice and ameliorated acute and thermore, P. flabellatus lectin did not exhibit any mito- chronic inflammation, respectively. Pleuran has also been genic activity towards mouse T cells (103).
shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity by exertingantioxidant and immunomodulatory effects on rats with Antioxidant and gene protective activities Hypersensitive immune responses, such as inflam- Antioxidant compounds prevent oxidative damage mation in delayed allergy, were suppressed by an etha- related to aging and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, di- nol extract of P. eryngii. It exhibited anti-allergic activity abetes, cancer and cirrhosis. Mushrooms that contain an- after oral or percutaneous administration to mice with tioxidants or increase antioxidant enzyme activity may oxazolone-induced type IV allergy (121).
be used to reduce oxidative damage in humans (104).
Of 89 mushroom species tested, an extract from Cardiovascular disease protection and P. cornucopiae possessed the most effective antigenotoxic and bio-antimutagenic activities when tested on Salmo-nella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (105). Furthermore, Oyster mushrooms possess bioactive compounds with P. cornucopiae extracts significantly reduced H hypocholesterolaemic activities, such as polysaccharides, DNA damage in Chinese hamster lung cells (106) and mevinolin and other statins (122). It has recently been P. ostreatus extract mitigated genotoxicity, as shown by reported that P. citrinopileatus fruiting body extracts ex- the fact that it suppressed DNA damage induced by va- erted antihyperlipidaemic effects. Serum triglyceride and rious mutagens in the Drosophila DNA repair test (107).
total cholesterol levels were lowered in hyperlipidaemic On the other hand, a water extract of P. sajor-caju fruit- rats supplemented with the extracts, while high-density ing bodies had no genoprotective effects since it did not lipoprotein levels were significantly increased (113). Si- milar effects were noted when powdered P. ostreatus 2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA fruiting bodies or a water-soluble polysaccharide ex- Methanol extracts of P. ostreatus and P. cystidiosus tracted from P. citrinopileatus fermentation broth were fruiting bodies possessed antioxidant, reducing power, fed to hypercholesterolaemic or diabetic rats, respec- radical scavenging and iron chelating activities that were higher than those of other commercial mushrooms (104).
Pleurotus species also possess blood-pressure-lower- On the other hand, Elmastas et al. (109) and Dubost et al. ing activity. Recently, P. cornucopiae has exhibited antihy- (110) reported that oyster mushroom extracts possessed pertensive activity; this might be due in part to D-man- only moderate antioxidant activities compared to other nitol, which inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme edible mushrooms. The antioxidant activity was posi- tively correlated with total polyphenol content. Further- A methanol extract of P. florida fruiting bodies sig- more, Lee et al. (111) showed that P. citrinopileatus ex- nificantly inhibited platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet- tracts prepared from fruiting bodies were more effective -aggregating activity, along with the anti-inflammatory than those from mycelium and fermentation broth fil- activities discussed above, suggest its potential therape- A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) utic use against vascular disorders, but the exact mecha- food and valuable compounds. These and many other nism of these activities is unknown (118).
materials have been successfully used for biomass pro- Antihyperglycaemic activity was demonstrated with a water-soluble polysaccharide from P. citrinopileatus fer- Solid- and liquid-state fermentations can be success- mentation broth. The polysaccharide was effective in fully applied for Pleurotus spp. cultivation. Each one has lowering blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (124).
its advantages and shortcomings and the decision as towhich method should be used for a specific application must be carefully evaluated, as the outcomes are influ- Antibacterial and antifungal activities have been ob- enced by several factors. Solid-state fermentation is still served in Pleurotus spp. extracts and isolated compounds, the preferred method for waste utilization. Different ap- presumably produced as a defence mechanism against proaches can be used for enzyme production, as an ex- other organisms. Table 1 (126–129) summarizes recently ample, the trickle film process for laccase production de- reported antimicrobial activities of Pleurotus spp.
veloped by Hölker and Lenz (4). On the other hand,submerged liquid fermentations can be more uniform and reproducible, which is interesting for obtaining pro-ducts with medicinal properties, although this potential Mushrooms contain substances that exert direct or has yet to be recognized by western biotechnology com- indirect antiviral effects as a result of immunostimula- panies (5). Different substrates for solid- and liquid-state tory activity (130). Inhibitory activity against human im- fermentations with Pleurotus spp. have been evaluated munodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcriptase has and nutritional requirements and culturing parameters recently been demonstrated for P. sajor-caju and P. pul- were established. The authors point out that the correct monarius hot water extracts (131). Anti-HIV activity was selection of medium composition and environmental pa- also demonstrated for a ubiquitin-like protein isolated from rameters is crucial if optimal biomass, enzyme or metab- P. ostreatus fruiting bodies (132). Moreover, Zhang et al. (133,134) demonstrated that, in contrast to water-insolu-ble b-glucans isolated from P. tuber-regium sclerotia, their Pleurotus species possess a number of beneficial me- corresponding water-soluble sulphated derivatives exert dicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodula- antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 tory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti- and type 2. The effect is presumably elicited by the bind- -allergic, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, anti- ing of sulphated b-glucans to viral particles, thus pre- hyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities.
venting them from infecting the host cells.
These activities have been reported for various extractsand isolated compounds, such as polysaccharides, poly-saccharide-protein complexes, proteoglycans, proteins Concluding Remarks
and DNA from oyster mushroom fermentation broth,mycelia or fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides Much work has been carried out on Pleurotus spp.
appear to be potent antitumour and immunomodulating mushroom cultivation, biomass production by means of substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities.
solid- and liquid-state fermentation, and medicinal pro- However, the biochemical mechanisms of these thera- perties. Studies on mushroom cultivation have been fo- peutic activities still remain largely unknown.
cused on optimization of alternative substrates. It has beenshown that a wide variety of agricultural (by-)products,weeds and wastes can be successfully used to produce food, feed, enzyme and medicinal compounds and todegrade and detoxify wastes. Due to an increasingly We thank the Slovenian Research Agency (applica- negative human impact on the environment, these tech- tive research project L2-7598 and L4-6420) that enabled niques, together with others, constitute a very important us to write this review article. We would also like to tool for converting abundant quantities of waste materi- thank Prof. Dr. Roger Pain for taking the time to review als, which often cause environmental pollution, into Table 1. Reported antimicrobial activities of Pleurotus spp.
Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Hexane-dichloromethane extract containing Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus A. GREGORI et al.: Cultivation of Pleurotus spp., Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (3) 236–247 (2007) References
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